T-HE MICHIGAN D AILY
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15, 1945
74r Airtytauh Year i
Background Facts on Hirohito
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board of Control
of Student Publications. The Summer Daily is pub-
lishedevery day during the week except Monday and
By DREW PEARSON
W7ASHINGTON-Whether we like it or not, the
American people are going to hear a lot more
about the Emperor of Japan. In fact, during
the next several years that we govern Japan we
ought to make it our job to know almost as much
about Tokyo's governmental system as we know
about our own-if we are to build a Japanese
democracy which we won't have to fight again.
This writer happens to oppose the views of
certain Emperor-appeasers in the U. S. State
Department. Nevertheless, it is only fair to ex-
amine the facts on their side carefully.
About 20 years ago, when Hirohito was only
Prince Regent, this cblumnist made several trips
to Japan, got acquainted with one of Hirohito's
intimate aides, and heard many complimentary
things about the young man who was to become
"the Son of Heaven."
Actually, the recent history of the Japanese
Emperor is closely interwoven with the history
of American troops in Japan. We helped give
the Emperor a new start in life when Commo-
dore Perry irst opened the .oors of Japan
in 1852, and if it had not been for the land-
ing of Perry, there might be no royal family
of any potency in Japan today.
Betty Roth .
* . . Associate Editor
* . . . Associate E~itor
Member of The Associated Press
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for re-publication of all news dispatches credited to it or
,t04rwise credited inthis newspaper. All rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
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NIGHT EDITOR: ARTHUR KRAFT
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
- - - - - - --
IICTORY IS OURS!
This is a time of thanksgiving for both
the victors and the vanquished.
The world, at war for more than 10
years, is again at peace. The horror and
the brutality that accompany war has
ceased. The anxiety for our loved ones
becomes a thing of the past. Those who
still live will return to us.
We, the children of the long years.
of war and the Great Depression,
now face the task of building peace
and prosperity for the world. We
mnust face this task in the same spirit
in which we have faced the war-
determined that we mst not and
Lincoln in 1865 called on this nation
"to do all which may achieve and cherish
a just and lasting peace among ourselves
and with all nations." We failed in 1865
to bring to being that hope. Again in
1918 we failed. Now in 1945, if we fail,
we destroy ourselves.
We have learned many lessons from
this war and not the least important is
the lesson that "War is hell." It is hell
because it entails killing and suffering,
because it forces rational man to act as
In years past men talked of the fruits
of victory.' Today we know that noth-
ing good is won in war. The fruits of
war' are the thousands of young lives
lost, the thousands of young bodies maim-
ed and the thousands of young minds
We,. the youth of the world, who
have borne the brunt of the war, now
rf'eIrt the respionsibiiity of keeping
the peace. Our elders have proved
themselves inadequate to the job-
so concerned were they with keep-
ing peace in their time that they fail-
ed to prevent war in our time.
The youth of the world will now be-
come pacifist. And rightly so. But in
our quest for peace we cannot close our
eyes, wish for it and dismiss the possi-
bility that others may endanger that
We must be militant pacifists,
alert to the dangers of aggression,
wary of those who threaten world
As United Nations, as united peoples,
bound together by our common search
for freedom and security, we will find
peace, not only in our time, but for all
-The Senior Editors
Now, 93 years
again landing in
ate through the
him a new lease
later, American troops, once
Japan, are scheduled to oper-
Emperor-perhaps also giving
It was not an atomic bomb, but an invention
almost as revolutionary, the steamship, which
opened up Japan to U. S. troops the first time.
When Commodore Perry and the U.S.S. Missis-
sippi, first steam-propelled man o' war to cir-
cumnavigate the globe, arrived off Japanese
waters, the government of Japan was split be-
tween Emperor Osahito, then the weakest of
weak figureheads, and the Shogun, or premier,
then the real ruler of Japan. Perry, knowing
who the real ruler was, signed a treaty with
the Shogun, not the Emperor, whereby the hated
foreigners were permitted to come ashore and
enjoy commercial privileges.
This started a wave of resentment against the
Shogunate. The merchant princes and feudal
leaders, already down on the Shogun because
of high taxes, rallied round the Emperor as he
led a verbal attack against Perry.
A virtual prisoner in Kyoto, the aged Emperor
broke forth in verse:
"Perish my body 'neath the cold clear wove of
some dark well,
But let no foreign foot
Pollute the water with its presence here."
And with a child's misconception of the tre-
mendous power of Perry's "big, black fire-
ships," the Emperor issued an order that no
foreigner could set foot on Japanese soil wearing
hats or any article of "barbaric" clothing.
This was the cue for the feudal lords to build
up the Emperor at the expense of the Sho-
gun, and a few years after the Shogun signed
his treaty with Commodore Perry, the war
lords assassinated him. Tokyo at that time
was so crowded with "Jo-I" or "Alien-haters"
that no insurance companies would take the
risk of underwriting policies on the lives of
Americans in Japan.
This wave of alien-hating, plus the strategy
of the feudal barons in strengthening a rival
to the unpopular Shogunate, took the Japanese
royal family out of virtual imprisonment and
started them on the road to their present power-
ful hold on the Japanese people. . Much of this
build-up was synthetic. It would have made
even Ivy Lee, publicity genius who sold the
American public on John D. Rockefeller, green
Hirohito's Grandfather .. .
IT WAS under the Emperor Heiji, grandfather
of Hirohito, that the royal family enjoyed
its most important reign, Meiji came into power
16 years after the arrival of Commodore Perry,
and put an end to alien-hating. By so doing,
he consolidated his own power to handle Japa-
nese foreign relations.
It happened that some foreigners had failed
to fall on their knees when the Daimio of Bizen
passed on the streets of Kobe, and the Daimo's
troops, armed with new American rifles, fired
on the disrespectful barbarians. The foreign
governments involved demanded an apology, not
from the Daimo of Bizen, but from the Em-
peror of Japan. He promptly gave it, and
simultaneously gave notice that control of for-
eign affairs henceforth was centralized in the
person of the Emperor, not in the Diamios.
Prior to this, the Emperor of Japan had been
kicked around more than almost any crowned
head of Europe. They were jailed and assassi-
nated at the pleasure of the Shoguns and war
lords. They had been exiled, had to flee for
their lives, and one of them lay unburied for sev-
eral weeks while his son took up a collection
to pay the funeral expenses.
But it remained for the Americans who pried
open Japan's door, plus smart public relations
on the part of a group of powerful merchant
princes and miiltary men, to make the Emperor
of Japan what he is today.
The latter worked harder on Hirohito than
on any man who ever assumed the throne.
Born just 44 years ago, of a father who was
mertally unbalanced, Hirohito practically suc-
ceeded his grandfather, Meiji, to the throne.
A GROUP of Japan's wisest elder statesmen,
including the president of the war college,
president of the imperial university and a high
admiral from the naval staff, sat as a special
"Council for the Education of the Crown Prince."
Head of the council was Admiral Togo, hero of
the Russo-Japanese war; who devoted most of
his time to training the Emperor-to-be.
Hirohito was allowed to study not only the
Japanese and Chinese clasiscs,. but history,
biology, physics, chemistry, economics, political
science and French-subjects which a few years
before were considered revolutionary. Instead
of being carried from room to room by nurses
with strips of paper over their mouths lest
their breath soil his imperial person, as was
the case with his grandfather, Hirohito was per-
mitted to mingle with other children of the
nobility at the peers' school. Later he was
trained by private tutors.
Old Admiral Togo was chiefly responsible for
Hirohito's spartan schedule. He arose at 6
a. m. to go through the rigamarole of paying
his respects to the tomb of his ancestors, first
praying to the god-ancestors before the great
shrine of Ise, then bowing in the direction
of his grandfather's tomb at Kyoto, then toward
the tomb of his father.
Such Oriental customs were mixed with such
revolutionary Western exercise as horseback rid-
ing and tennis, and finally the council of edu-
cation permitted their charge to read newspap-
ers. At first the papers were carefully scruti.r
nized and clipped, though later, when Hirohito
became Emperor, he insisted on reading un-
None of this seems very extraordinary to
Westerners. But, in contrast, Hirohito's
grandfather never rode horseback without
being assisted to his seat by four attendants.
He was supposed to make no movement on his
own. Even a cup of tea was raised to his
lips, while the court physician felt his pulse
through a piece of silk.
Hirohito, therefore, was given the most revo-
lutionary Western education of any Emperor of
Japan. Whether it made him any more lib-
eral or democratic is a question which will be
discussed in a future column.
(Copyright, 1945, by the Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
Ability vs. Wisdom
STAID HARVARD apparently is getting ready
to follow yeasty Chicago in the field of edu-
cational reform. Two years ago, President Con-
ant asked a group of his finest faculty members
to find out just what was wrong with the college
program. Their report has now been made, and
to those familiar with what Chancellor Hut-
chins has been doing at Chicago for years, it
has a very familiar ring.
Perhaps Harvard will not wade as far into
the stream of change as did Chicago, but if
the authors of the report have their way, it
will get wet well above the knees. And that,
we believe, will be all to the good-especially
because of the effect it will have on other
American colleges and also on our secondary
The first casualty apparently will be the
elective system for undergraduates which the
late Charles Eliot introduced into- Cambridge
from Germany in 1869. Under it, the old, pre
scribed course of education was largely aban-
doned and the student was given his choice of
a wide assortment of subjects. This latitude of
choice was supposed to enocurage self-reliance,
and enable a student to make greater progress by
substituting interest for compulsion.
While the system had its advantages in Eu-
rope, it worked non too well over here. Our
college students almost inevitably missed the
solid-foundations of a genuine education. They
took "practical" courses. Vocational education
in some places began to crowd out the solid,
time-tested elements of liberal learning. Courses
in dude ranching, tourist information and sub-
jects even less academic (if possible) were in-
troduced. At Harvard, things did not get that
bad, but the elective system led not only to
premature specialization but also to barren scat-
tering and smattering. Unfortunately, the sys-
tem was copied by high schools as well as col-
At Chicago something was done about a decade
ago. There was a return to the fundamentals of
education for good citizenship. Finally, students
were admitted to the college earlier so that they
might there get the training which the second-
ary schools were failing to impart. Harvard
apparently is unwilling to take the latter step,
feeling that it can raise high school standards
by rigorous entrance requirements. Otherwise,
the proposed reforms smack mightily of "the
Chicago Plan." There is even talk about the
"great texts," if not the "great books."
Dozens of other schools are moving toward
similar reforms. After all, the 'ultimate test
is very simple. The question is whether it is
more important to teach our youth how to do
things-something which can always be learned
easily enough-or whether they should be taught
to know what to do and why. The difference is
that between ability and wisdom.
-St. Louis Star Times
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
hers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Summer Session office,
Angell Hall, by 2:30 p. m. of the day
preceding publication (10:30 a. m. Sat-
CENTRAL WAR TIME USED IN
THE DAILY OFFICIAL
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 30S
A Service of Thanksgiving and
Dedication sponsored by the Congre-
gational-Disciples Guild will be held
at the First Congregational Church,
State and Williams at 8:00 p. m.
(EWT) on the day of the official
announcement of the end of war, pro-
viding the announcement comes be-
fore 6:00 p. m. If the announcement
comes after 6:00 p. in. the service will
be held at 8:00 p. in. the following
day. The program planned will in-
clude music, short readings and time
for meditation. Welcome is extended
to all persons.
French Club: The last meeting of
the Summer Session French Club will
be held Thursday, August 16 at 8
p. in. (EWT), 7 p. in. (CWT) at the
Michigan League. Professor Charles
E. Koella, o fthe Romance Language
Department, will give an informal
talk entitled "Souvenirs d'Algerie."
Group singing and social hour. Come
The University of Michigan Polo-
nia Club will hold its next meeting on
Tuesday, August 21st at the Interna-
tional Center, at 7:30 EWT. Plans
wi-HJ I.passnosp aq 111M2 luld P oJ
La Sociedad Hispanica is present-
ing a lecture on Argentinian Art by
Prof. Julio Payro, visiting prof. at the
Fine Arts Department from Argen-
tina. The lecture will be given in
Spanish Wednesday, August 15th at
8 o'clock (EWT) in Room D Fine
Arts Department. (Alumni Memorial
Hall). Everybody is invited.
Unitarian Victory Service: Confu-
sion is likely to accompany the an-
nouncement of the victory over
Japan, and it is hard to make very
We shall have at the church a Vic-
tory Service. It will be at 8:00 p. in.
on the day of announcement if the
announcement occurs before 6:00
p. in. If after 6:00 p. m. then the
service will be on the following eve-
Should it occur after 6:00 p. m. on
Saturday, then we will hold our ser-
vice at 11:00 a. in. Sunday morning,
even though regular services do not
recommence until Sept. 9th. The
First Unitarian Church, Edward H.
State of Connecticut Civil Service
announcement for Probation Officer,
$2,100 to $3,000 per annum, has been
To the Editor:
RECENT discussions of the Veter-
ans' Organization of the Univer-
sity of Michigan warrants a state-
ment of objectives and purposes as
a campus organization:
(1) To clarify, by investigation,
the meaning of the laws ap-
plying to veterans.
(2) To assist veterans in solving
financial, social and educa-
(3) To gain close cooperation
with the Veterans Admini-
stration in administering
(4) To gain close cooperation
with the University in han-
dling and preventing veter-
(5) To inform veterans of rights
(6) To provide veteran social af-
(7) To coordinate veteran activ-
ity with other campus ac-
(8) To represent the veterans of
(9) To assist veterans in hous-
ing and subsistance prob- -
(10) To further international
cooperation on the student
and intellectual level.
-Robert E. Andrews,
received in our office. For further
information call at the Bureau of Ap-
pointments, 201 Mason Hall.
Michigan State Civil Service an-.
nouncements for Library Executive
II, $230 to $270 per month, has been
received in our office. For further
information call at the Bureau of
Appointments, 201 Mason Hall.
Detroit Civil Service announce-
ments for the following examina-
tions have been received in our office:
Zoological Instructor, $2,553 to $2,691
per year, Social Case Worker, $2,100
to $2,460 per year, Student Social
Worker, $1,734 to $1,920 per year, As-
sistant Dietitian, $1,998 to $2,130,
Dietitian, $2,262 to $2,670, and Public
Housing Aid, $2,150 to $2,553. For
further information regarding these
openings, call at the Bureau of Ap-
pointments, 201 Mason Hall.
Russian tea at the International
Center on Thursday, 4:00 to 5:30
p. m. (EWT).
Lecture. "Knowledge and Skill in
the Field of English That May Be
Expected of the Student Entering
College." Clarence D. Thorpe, Pro-
fessor of English and of the Teaching
of English. Thursday, 2:05 p. m.'
CWT or 3:05 p. m. EWT. University
High School Auditorium.
Professor Julio Payro, visiting pro-f
fessor from Argentina will speak on
Argentinia Art, with slides, 8:00 pm.
EWT, August 15, Alumni Memorial
Lecture. "Recent Developments in
Music Education." David Mattern,
Professor of Music Education Wed-
nesday 2:05 p. m. CWT or 3:05 p. m.
EWT University High-School Audit-c
Linguistic Institute Lecture-dem-
onstration. "The Music of Speech."
Dr. Kenneth L. Pike, lecturer in pho-
netics in the Institute and professor
of phonetics at the Summer Insti-
tute of Linguistics at the University
of Oklahoma. Wednesday, August
15, 6:30 p. m. CWT (7:30 p.m. EWT),
Rackham Amphitheatre. Students of
speech, drama, music, and the lang-
uages are invited to attend.
Attention August and October
Graduates: College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts, School of Educa-
tion, School of Music, School of Pub-
lic Health: Students are advised not
to request grades of I or X in Aug-
ust, or October. When such grades
are absolutely imperative, the work
must be made up in time to allow
your instructor to report the make-
up grade not later than noon, Aug-
ust 31, for the Summer Session, and
noon, October 26, for the Summer
Term. Grades received after that
time may defer the student's gradua-
tion until a later date.
Colleges of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, and Architecture and De-
sign; Schools of Education, Forestry,
Music, and Public Health: Each stu-
dent who has changed his address
since June registration should file a
change of address in Room 4, U. H.,
so that the report of this summer
work will not be misdirected.
Seniors: College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts, Schools of Educa-
tion, Music, and Public Health: Tent-
ative lists of seniors for September
and October graduation have been
posted on the bulletin board in Room
4, University Hall. If your name does
not appear, or, if included there, it
is not correctly spelled, please notify
the counter clerk.
Recommendations for Department-
al Honors: Teaching departments+
wishing to recommend tentative Aug-
ust graduates from the Colelge of
Literature, Science, and the Arts, and
the School of Education for de-
partmental honors should send such
names to the Registrar's office, Room
4, University Hall, by noon August
31. Recommendations for tentative
October candidates should be in the
Registrar's Office by noon October
The final clinic of the season at
the University of Michigan Fresh Air
Camp will be held Friday, August 17,
8:00 (EWT) at the Main Lodge.
Selma Horowitz, of Detroit, will be
the consultant. The clinic will be
devoted to a study of cabin adjust-
ment and the implications for group
therapy in a camp situation. The
camp is on Patterson Lake, near
Pickney. Students interested in
Mental Hygiene and the problems of
adjustment are welcome to attend.
The Mathematics Club will meet
Friday, August 17, at 4:15 p. m.
(EWT) in the East Conference Room
of the Rackham Building. Mr. D. K.
Kazarinoff will speak on "Sphero-
Linguistic Institute luncheon con-3
a panel of the faculty of the Insti-
tute at the meeting Thursday, August
16, 6 p. in. CWT (7 p. in. EWT), in
the Rackham Amphitheatre. Ques-
tions may be left in Prof. C. C. Pries's
box in the English department office,
3221 Angell Hall.
All Manuscripts to be submitted In
the Summer Hopwood contest should
be in the Hopwood Room by 4:30
p. in. EWT; 3:30 CWT this Friday
afternoon, August 17.
Chamber Music Concert: The last
in a series of Chamber Music Con-
certs will be presented Thursday eve-
ning, August 16, at 7:30 p. in. (CWT),
in Pattengill Auditorium of the Ann
Arbor High School. In keeping with
previous concerts of the season, the
program will include compositions by
Mozart and Brahms played by Gil-
bert Ross and Marian Struble Free-
man, violinists, Louise Rood and Eli-
zabeth Green, violinists, Robert Swen-
son and Hanns Pick, cellists and Jo-
seph Brinkman, pianist.
The public is cordially invited.
Choral Union Concerts: Concerts
will be given in the Sixty-seventh an-
nual Choral Union Series next season
PAUL ROBESON, Baritone. Sat-
urday, Nov. 3.
CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA, Erich
Leinsdorf, Conductor. Sunday, Nov.
ALEXANDER UNINSKY, Pianist.
Monday, Nov. 19.
JENNIE TOUREL, Contralto. Tues-
day, Nov. 27.
DON COSSACK CHORUS, Serge
Jaroff, Conductor. Monday, Dec. 3.
BOSTON SYSPHONY ORCHES-
TRA, Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor.
Monday, Dec. 10.
JASCHA HEIFETZ, Violinist. Fri-
day, Jan. 18.
CHICAGO SYMPHOUY ORCHES-
TRA, Desire Defauw, Conductor.
Thursday, Jan. 31.
ARTUR SCHNABEL, Pianist, Wed-
nesday, Feb. 13.
DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHES-
TRA, Karl Krueger, Conductor. Mon-
day, March 11.
Orders for season tickets, accom-
panied by remittance to cover, will
be accepted, and filed in sequences;
and selections made accordingly.
Ticket prices are as follows:
$15.60 (Block A, Patron Tickets).
Three center sections on main floor
and in first balcony.
$13.20 (Block B). Side sections on
both main floor and in first balcony.
$10.80 (Block C). First sixteen
rows in the top balcony
$8.40 (Block C). Last six rows in
the top balcony.
Remittances should be made pay-
able to University Musical Society,
and mailed to Charles A. Sink, Presi-
dent, Burton Memorial Tower, Ann
Clements Library. Japan in Maps
from Columbus to Jerry .(1492-1854).
Architecture Building. Student
Architecture Building. Student
Michigan Historical Collections,
160 Rackham Building. The Uni-
versity of Michigan in the war.
Museums Building, rotunda. Some
foods of the American Indian.
General Library, main corridor
cases: History of the efforts toward
The regular classical record concert
of the All Nations Clu will be held
Wednesday, August 15, at 8 p. m.
The program will consist of Brahms
Symphony No. 2 and Mendelssohn's
Concerto for Violin. Anyone inter-
ested is cordially invited to attend.
La Sociedad Hispanica is having a
coke-bar for practicing Spanish Wedgy
nesday at 4 o'clock at the Interna-
tional Center. Everybody interested
Operetta. "Naughty Marietta," by
Victor Herbert and Rita Johnson
Young. School of Music and Michigan
Repertory Players, Department of
Speech. August 15-18 and August 20.
Students in Speech: The final
speech assembly will be held at 4
p. m. (EWT) Wednesday in the
Rackham Amphitheatre. The pro-
gram will be a demonstration debate.
Attendance is required of all Speech
concentrates, teaching majors and
minors in Speech, and all graduate
students working toward advanced
degrees in Speech.
French Tea today at 4 p. m. EWT,
(3 p. m. CWT) in the Grill Room of
the Michigan League.
The regular Thursday tea will be
held at the International Center on
August 16 from 4 to 5:30. Honored
guests will be Professor George C.
Wheeler, of the University of North
Dakota; Mr. F. L. D. Goodrich, Col-
Let's not fly in the face of science, Barnaby.
It won't rain. The paper says "Fair." Besides, ,
your Fairy Godfather can doubly insure clement
Get the table inside,-
John! It's pouring- I'l help.
By Crockett Johnson
There. That should clear
it up nicely. Tell all the.