THE MICHIGAN S DAILY
FR MAY, JULY 21. 1944L
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SJ4g Mirjtgan taIly
Edited and managed by students of the University
of Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications,
Betty Ann Koffmnan
. . . Editorial Director
* . . City Editor
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f( POL 014 V
By BERNARD ROSENBERG
HENRY David Thoreau was, ethic-
ally, the personification of all
that may be called most exalted and
noble in American thought. He
ranks with those independent spirits
who, like Tom Paine and Walt Whit-
man, transcend their times.
But to say that is not to -say all.
For, the truths the Sage of Concord
first enunciated, if too often disre-
garded by his countrymen, continue
even now to repercuss all, the way
from the literary salons of New Eng-
land to Moscow and New Delhi. His
influence has been tremendous.,
Thoreau's stubborn refusal to
kow tow before authority, his
maintenance of a well-nigh abso-
lute moral integrity were embodied
in the man and in his writings,
particularly "Civil Disobedience."
The implementation of that essay
which Mahatma Gandhi read and
formulated into "passive resist-
ance" symbolizes the weapon In-
dian Nationalism has brandished
ever since its birth.
tional motif of four hundred million
exploited souls, and its incandescent
glow is unmistakably Thoreauesque.
Little wonder James Mackaye's
excellent compilation of Thoreau's
works is sub-titled "Philosopher of
Freedom" (New York, The Vanguard
Press, 1930). Here is to be found
the preachment of an ethic at once
intensely individualistic, consonant
with the irreproachable character of
chief advocate, and yet one not
DA I LYOU"*FF I CI
wholly alien to such leviathan-like
movements of collectivism as the
When the final evaluation is made
Thoreau will occupy no insignificant
place as the representative of a de-
termining force, a major intellectual
antecedent of the ferment which ul-
timately produced upheaval in Rus-
CONCIDER the nature of the So-
viet Union. It is not almost as
much Tolstoyan as it is Marxian?
And one need but glance at "Resur-
rection" to see how greatly and with
what impact Thoreau influenced Tol-
stoy's ever more ethereal notions of
equaitarianism. The Walden "her-
mit" had said that in a land where
any man (such as John Brown in
his day) was unjustly imprisoned, all
honest men belonged in jail of their
own volition. The showdown between
Thoreau and a government he con-
sidered tyrannous so long as it con-
doned slavery came over the poll tax.
This Thoreau would not pay. Oh, for
a few million Thoreaus today.
At any rate the man who had
written "That government is best
which governs least" found him-
self a guest of the state in the
local jail. "What are you doing in
there, Henry?" queried Ralph
Waldo Emerson espying his friend.
"What are you doing out there?"
replied the willful inmate.
Thoreau was imprisoned for pur-
posively refusing to pay taxes he con-
sidered evil. Tolstoy, far from spirit-
n Thought at Its Best
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Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1943-44
NIGHT EDITOR: DOROTHY POTTS
Editorials published in The Michigan Dily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
C***isi in ducation
HIRTY-SEVEN THOUSAND emergency cer-
tificates have been issued to teachers un-
able to meet the present teaching requirements,
low as they are in most states.
Handling children at their most sensitive and
impressionable ages are teachers who cannot
meet these standards.
Why is this great teacher shortage? Why
did the total enrollment in teachers colleges
in this country drop almost 50% in the last
two years? Why have 50,000 teachers with-
drawn from the profession annually since
1940, and why did 130,000 leave last year?
The armed forces only account for 15,000 of
the 117,000 who left teaching positions be-
tween June and October of last year.
Meagerness in teacher salaries is a good part
of the reason why so many are leaving the field.
Much as many of them are devoted to their
profession, they were forced out by the dispro-
portionately (compared with their salaries) in-
creased cost of living and higher taxes.
The average yearly teacher's salary was $1,100
to $1,200 before the war; the great mass of these
salaries now revolve around $1,500.
The University Board of Appointments gives
out the information that, "Many of our young
people have felt inclined to go into work other
than teaching and there has been some justi-
fication for it, due to their training, background,
interest and aptitude."
THIS IS A BLOT on the teaching profession.
If teachers are justified in leaving their
field because they have good trainings and apti-
tudes, who will be left to train the citizens of
It is essential that citizens in a republic
such as ours be taught to think, and think ,
constructively. Who is to do this instructing
when the most competent have abandoned
teaching because of higher salaries and bet-
ter conditions in other professions?
"If teaching-in competition. with law, medi-
cine, engineering--is to attract and hold the
ablest of our population, salaries must be high
enough to justify the long preparation.
"Our country, which must go forward if it
is to hold its place of leadership among nations,
cannot afford to employ any teacher who is not
worth at least $2,000 a year," declared Miss Joy
Elmer Morgan in February's "Educational Di-
The average teacher salary in 1941 was
$1,500 while forty out of every hundred teach-
ers received less than $1,200 and over 70,000
were paid less than $600 a year.
A8 IMPORTANT in a democracy as higher
salaries for its teachers is that teachers
should be allowed to teach their courses unre-
stricted by superintendents, or principals of
schools or by statute. Many teachers are caught
between their consciences and instructions from
school principals as to how to present their
facts and what to omit from the classroom.
Only through strong, responsible unioniza-
tion will teachers throughout the nations gain.
the salaries necessary to attract more compe-
tent people into the field and true freedom of
thought and expression in the classroom.
GOV. THOMAS E. DEWEY, as part of his
presidential campaign, has had to undertake
an especially difficult task-that of alibiing for
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
Democratic Gonvention Stew
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
CHICAGO, ILL., July 20-There has been
almost no debate among the Democratic
delegates on the question of foreign policy;
none of the head-holding, aspirin-taking and
agonizing which went on among the Republi-
cans. The Democratic party is not neurotic on
this issue. I never found anybody during my
week here who even mentioned foreign policy.
That was in great contrast with the Republican
meeting, at which a thousand delegates stood
patiently outside the resolutions committee
room, leaning over at a 45-degree angle and
listening intently to find out what they believed.
A Complete Sampling
The Democratic party is plenty jumpy on
other questions, and if you mention poll taxes,
for example, the Democratic delegates will show
you an arm-twitch as good as any. But on the
matter of world collaboration, the party is
This is important, because the Democratic
party is a rather more complete cross-section
of American life than the Republican; it has
its own high, crusty conservative level at the
top, lie the G. O. P. but it goes down further,
at the bottom, into the labor movement and
the poorer farms. Yet this complete cross
section presents, broadside-on, a greater unity'
toward the outside world than does the some-
what narrower Republican party.
I think that is an important fact. It seems
by liberal Democrats vs. the Republicans in al-
liance with reactionary poll-tax Democrats, was
one topic on which everyone agreed. Everyone
felt that the men fighting fascism deserved a
voice in their country's government. During
the fight for a Federal ballot for all servicemen
many New Yorkers urged Governor Dewey to
support it. He refused. When the compromise
measure was passed, providing a Federal ballot
for servicemen overseas who don't receive state
ballots and whose states recognize Federal bale-
lots, Governor Dewey was urged to validate
the Federal ballot. Again he refused. Tues-
day, several days after the deadline for such
action, he issued his alibi:
According to PM, Gov. Dewey admitted that
the soldiers in New York aren't going to vote
in any numbers, but said that it wasn't his
fault. He charged that a "group with un-
limited financial resources has been playing
partisan politics with the right of New York
State's fighting men to vote." He demanded
that "this campaign of deceit be labelled and '
exposed." PM then offered to print the name
of the organization if Dewey would identify it,
but the offer was refused.
In refusing the blame for the failure of the
New York state soldier vote bill, called a
"model law," to provide opportunity for more
than 200,000 of his state's 11110,000 servicemen
to vote, Governor Dewey is trying to perpetu-
ate a fraud on the people of his state.
Governor Dewey, as a candidate for the
presidency, cannot be permitted to talk himself
out of responsibility for the situation.
to show that if you take a complete sampling of
American opinion, from top to bottom, like an
earth-core out of an oil well, there is a satis-
fying show of harmony on world collaboration.
The debate flares hot only when you take a
The Republican convention did wear the air
of being such a limited sampling, with over-
representation for the political leaders of the
middle class of the middle-sized towns of mid-
We Can Agree
In a more varied group, with massive repre-
sentation for all interests, from labor up,
things fall into place better, the objectors to
our foreign policy dwindle to their right size;
and it is a satisfying thing to know that the
more complex a mixture of interests and people
you have (andano mixture could be dizzier than
the stew of right and left, top and bottom, in
Chicago this week) the more, not the less, unity
is shown on matters of foreign policy.
This mad Democratic assembly, where the
old plantation owner crowds into the elevator
with the C: I. O., . seems to tell us that big,
complex, varied America can agree on a for-
The more people who are admitted into the
debate, the less quarrel there is, which goes
to show that our national heterogeneity need
not hold us back in the field of foreign
s policy. It was the tight, unified, all-of-a-
piece Republican meeting which broke into
anger on this question.
And what a stew of different kinds and sorts
of people this meeting has been! It may be a
small point, but the press was enchanted by
the fact that the resolutions committee held
open, and not private meetings, as did the G. O.4
P. Everybody in the world showed up in the
North Ballroom of the Stevens to push favorite
planks for the platform. One gentleman came
from New York to argue against the use of the
flag in commercial advertisements, and some-
body else wanted a national lottery. This sort
of testimony was sandwiched in between ap-
peals by the National Association of Manufac-
turers and the American Farm Bureau Federa-
Something Like a Bus Station
Anybody who could walk to the stand under
his own power got his two or five minutes,
while the bigwigs of the party and the urchins
of Chicago milled about. One row of solemn.
small girls, aged five, sat there on gilt chairs
most of one day, drinking it in, and Ed. O'Neal
attacked food subsidies while babies were being
nursed in the same room on what was un-
doubtedly subsidized milk.
It looked as unplanned: and impromptu a4 a
gathering on the loading platform of a bus
station; wonderfully mixed up, and real as
apples. The Republicans did it behind closed
doors, and it.sometimes seemed to reporters on
the death watch in the corridor that the G.
O. P. had perhaps too much faith in the theory
that, by turning a key, you could keep the world
outside, and in its place.
(Copyright. 1944, New York Post Syndicate)
FRIDAY, JULY 21, 1944
VOL. LIV No. 13-S
All notices for The Daily Official Bul-
letin are to be sent to the Office of the
Summer Session, in typewritten form
b 3:30 p. in. of the day preceding Its
publication, except on Saturday when
the notices should be submitted by
:30 a. m.
Students, College of Literature,
Science and the Arts: Election cards
filed after the end of the first week
of the semester may be accepted
by the Registrar's Office only if they
are approved by Assistant Dean E. A.
Walter. Students who fail to file
their election blanks by the close of
the third week, even though they
have registered and haveattended
classes unofficially, will forfeit their
privilege of continuing in the Colloge.
Candidates for the Teacher's Cer-
tificate for August and October:
Please call at the office of the School
of Education, 1437 University Ele-
mentary School, on Wednesdayor
Thursday, July 26 and 27, between
1:30 andy4:30 to take the Teacher's
Oath. This is a requirement for the
To all male students in the College
of Literature, Science, and the Arts:
By action of the Board of Regents,
all male students in residence in this
College must elect Physical Educa-
tion for Men. This action has been
effective since June, 1943, and will
continue for the duration of the war.
Students may be excused from
taking the course by (1) The Uni-
versity Health Service, (2) The Dean
of the College or by his representa-
tive,: (3) The Director of Physical
Education and Athletics.
Petitions for exemption by stu-
dents in this College should be ad-
dressed by freshmen to Professor
Arthur Van Duren, Chairman of the
Academic Counsellors (108 Mason
Hall); by all other students to Assis-
tant Dean E. A. Walter (1220 Angell
Except under very extraordinary
circumstances no petitions will be
considered after the enoI of the third
week of the Fall Term.
The Administrative Board of the
College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts
School of Education Students:
Courses dropped after Saturday, July
22, will be recorded with the grade of
E except under extraordinary circum-
stances. No course is considered of-
ficially dropped unless it has been
reported in the Office of the Regis-
trar, Rm. 4, University Hall.
Mr. Brady from the Eastman Ko-
dak Company, Rochester, N.Y., will
be in the office Tuesday, July 25, to
interview women with one or more
years of Chemistry or Physics; Me-
chanical Engineers, Chemical Engi-
neers. Make appointments at the
Bureau, 201 Mason Hall, or call
University Bureau of Appointments
and Occupational Information
School of Education: Changes of
Elections in the Summer Term: No
course may be elected for credit after
Saturday, July 22. Students must
report all changes of elections at the
Registrar's Office, Rm. 4, University
Hall. Membership in a class does not
cease nor begin until all changes have
been thus officially registered. Ar-
rangements made with the instruc-
tors are not official changes.
The Alabama State Personnel De-
partment announces an unassembled
competitive examination for Health
Education Supervisor, in the State
Department of Education. Salary
$275-$325 Monthly. For further de-
tails stop in at 201 Mason Hall.
Bureau of Appointments.
Announcements from The Moose-
heart Laboratory for Child Research,
Mooseheart, Ill. for Vocational Guid-
ance Counsellor, $2,400 per year, As-
sistant Clinical Psychologist, $1,800,
Research Assistant in Child Develop-
ment, $1,800, and Summer Assistant
in Psychology, Education or Child
Development, have been received in
our office. For complete details stop
in at 201 Mason Hall. Bureau of
Mail is being held at the business
office of the University for the fol-
lowing people: Marge Aaronson, Amy
Allen, Barbara Berry, Dr. O. W.
Brandhorst, Gene Clark, Alfred Da-
lynko, G. Raymond Dougherty, Nor-
man K. Flint, Mrs. Emily Gelperin,
Theodore E. Heger, Lyla M. Hunter,
Innes Johnson, Mrs. Georgia Kipg
R. G. Kimmel, Mrs. C. A. Macomic,
Mary Jane McLean, Mrs. H. Earl
Riggs, Rosemary Smith, Marie Wane-
Medical Students: The University
Automobile Regulation will be lifted
for Medical students at 12 Noon,
Saturday, July 22; and will become
effective again at 8 a.m. on July 31.
Registration: Students who took
registration blanks are reminded that
these blanks are due back in our
office one week after the date they
were taken. They should be returned
to the office of the University Bureau
of Appointments and Occupational
Information, 201 Mason Hall.
University Bureau of Appointments
and Occupational Information
For Students in Business Education:
Clyde Blanchard, editor of The Bus-
iness Education World, will discuss
trends and developments in business
education in Rm. 2015 UHS, at 1
o'clock on Friday, July 21. All per-
sons interested in business education
are invited to attend the meeting..
J. M. Trytten
Tuesday, July 25: Professor Preston
W. Slosson, Department of History,
will present his weekly lecture "In-
terpreting the News" at 4:10 p.m.,-
Rackham Amphitheatre. The public
is cordially invited.
Wednesday, July 26: Dr. Jose Per-
domo of Colombia will lecture in
Spanish on "Colombia-Donde Em-
pieza Sur America" at 8 p.m., Kellog
Auditorium. Open to the general
public without charge.
ualising the idea of communion with
the oppressed, although mysticism
was his wont in this phase, applied
it in a practical way. Conceiving
serfdom, then prevalent in Czarist
Russia, to be wrong, he renounced
the ownership of his vast estate, and
after distributing what he could of
it-acre by acre and over the pro-
tests of his wife, he joined the peas-
ants in the field.
All of that followed naturally, even
inexorably from an honesty to
oneself which meant everything to
men for whym "life without princi-
ple" was not life at all.
Nor did the matter end with mere
lip service to "principle", abstract,
illusory, indefinable. Said Thoreau,
"Action from principle, the percep-
tion and performance of right,
changes things and relations; it is
essentially revolutionary, and does
not consist wholly with anything
which was. It not only divides states
and churches, it divides families; ay,
it divides the individual, separating
the diabolical in him from the di-
Leonard Ehrlich used the above
quotation as basic to his novel
about John Brown, "God's Angry
Man." It is the summation of
nonconformist philosophy. To seek
out truth, and to live accordingly
indicates the most sublime height
attainable in the realm of ethics.
It seems to me that Thoreau stands
almost alone among his contempor-
aries and his successors in America
as far as adherence to such a credo
is concerned. It is a tribute to Am-
erica that it produced such a man;
it is a mockery of America that it
Russian Statistics ...
IN Professor Andre Lobanov's re-
cent lecture on "Russia and the
War" he read statistics to prove the
drastic losses in territory, popula-
tion, and productive capacity suffer-
ed by Russia after the Versailles set-
tlernient and -presumably-after the
Polish-Russian War of 1919-21. Ac-
cording to his figures Russia lost
some 26 per cent of her total popula-
tion, a somewhat higher percentage
of her manufacturing industries, 73
per cent of her iron, and 75 per cent
of her coal fields. I might add that
The Encyclopedia Britannica (1911)
states that the basin of the Donets
produced 61.5 per cent of all Rus-
sia's pig-iron and something over 70
per cent of all Russia's coal.
Actually, Professor Lobanov's
figures appear to be based on the
ruthless German-dictated Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk in March, 1918,
which ceded the Ukraine and the
Donets basin. In Vernadsky's "A
History of Russia" (revised edition,
1930) a part of the terms of the
Brest-Litovsk treaty are given as
follows: "Russia lost 26 per cent
of her total population . .. 26 per
cent of her arable land; 33 per cent
of her manufacturing industries;
73 per cent of her iron industries;
75 per cent of her coal fields."
Similar figures appear in "The En-
cyclopedia Americana," vol. 28. The
most serious of these losseswere of
course voided when the Western
Allies defeated Germany late in
1918 and when the Brest-Litovsk
treaty was annulled in the Armis-
I would add that Professor Loban-
ov's superficially impressive case for
Russia's present claims against Pol-
and ought to be tested by such an
article as W. H. Chamberlin's "Does
Stalin Want an Eastern Munich?"
(American Mercury, March, 1944).
Russia, Chamberlin points out, may
well impose her terms on prostrate
Poland. But he goes on to say that
that is no reason why Americans
should cheerfully and ignorantly ap-
prove Russia's seizure of 40 per cent
of pre-1939 Poland.
-Carlton F. Wells
Russian Literature" at 4:10 p.m.,
Visual Education Class and All
Students Enrolled in the School of
Education: Film topics for today and
tomorrow are as follows:
Friday, July 21, 2-3: American
Spoken Here, Lady or the Tiger, Man
Who Changed the World. 3-4: Tell
Tale Heart (2 reel), A Way in the
Make-up examinations in History
will be given on Friday, July 28, from
3-5 in Rm. C, Haven Hall. All stu-
dents wishing to take such an exami-
nation should consult with their ex-
aminers by Monday, July 24.
Carillon Recital: Percival Price,
By Crockett Johnson
Mustering a crew for our
Yes. I persuaded Gus to try,
Merely a second-degree burn.
How will you get the boat? ...