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July 28, 1939 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1939-07-28

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Minute OrganismsChange Biology Study
Bacteriologists Probe Existence Of Living Organisms Smaller Than Molecule,
Prof. Andre Gratia Describes In Lecture Here


The Editor




Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Summer Session until 3:30 p.m.; 11:00 a.m. Saturday

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3 -1

d and managed by students of the University of
an under the authority of the Board In Control of
t Publications.
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ity year and Sunnu a Session.
Member of the Associated Press
Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
republication of all news dispatches credited to
not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
of repubication of all other matters herein also
ed at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, a
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criptions during regular scbool year by carrier,
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College Publishers Redresentative

Recent discoveries in the line of ultra-micro-
scopic organisms may bring about a complete
revolution in present concepts of biology, Prof.
Andre Gratia of the University of Liege, Belgium,
predicted yesterday in a lecture in the Lecture
Hall of the Rackham Building.
Bacteriologists have now discovered evidences
that living organisms exist whose size is even
smaller than that of some of our larger known
molecules, Professor Gratia indicated, but as
always has been the case in the past, this con-
cept is strongly challenged by other groups of
Perhaps the most famous of these contro-
versies between bacteriologists is that which
centered about Pasteur's theory of the existence
of bacteria. At that time was generally believed
that the fermentation of grapes was due to a
chemical substance present in the grape itself.
This was the endoginous theory.
Pasteur, however, contended that the phenom-
ena of fermentation could be directly traced to
the action of micro-organisms, o' bacteria. To
prove his theory, Pasteur isolated a bunch of
grapes from all outside contacts and from the
surrounding air. These grapes, Pasteur showed,
failed to ferment, thus disproving the endoginous
Bacteriologists today no longer question the
existence of these bacteria, Professor Gratia in-
dicated, but the frontier of dispute between exo-
ginous and endoginous theories has shifted to
the field of sub-microscopic oraginsms, or ultra-
Certain diseases such as hoof-and-mouth dis-
ease in cattle and tobacco mosaic on plants have
been found. to be caused by a minute fitler-pass-
ing agent. The endoginous school of thought here
contends that this agent cannot be of the same
nature as bacteria, but must rather be conceived
as being of the nature of an enzyme produced
by the host.
Several phenomena at first seemed to point

toward this conclusion, Professor Gratia re-
marked, but in each case they can be equally well
explained in terms of the exoginous theory. It is
true, he admitted that their minute size, some-
times as low as one three-hundredth of the size
of a red blood corpuscle, is difficult to conceive,
but the same was true of Pasteur's bacteria.
Again, it was found that in the case of bacterio-
phage, a minute virus affecting bacteria could
not be cultured without the presence of bacteria,
and that they multiplied always at the same
rate as\ the host. The endogenous explanation
appeared obvious, but equally plausible is the
other theory, which contends that the agent is
an ultra-microscopic parasite.
Further experiments conducted by Professor
Gratia on the effects produced by plant viruses
known as tobacco mosaic showed that the eff/Ft
was due not to an endoginous enzyme, but rather
to an ultra-virus parasite. Further experiments
showed that several very distinct virus strains
exist and that some bacteria are virus carriers,
just as humans may be disease carriers without
being affected by the disease.
In conclusion, Professor ,Gratia stated, we may
soon see the day that these micro-organisms are
synthetically produced by chemists.
Visual Aids In Teaching
The great increase in interest in photography
and the increased use of visual aids in the schools
were discussed by F. Dean McClusky, Director of
the Scarborough School, Scarborough-On-Hud-
son, N.Y., in his lecture yesterday in University
High School Auidtorium. His topic was "Trends
in the Use of Audio-Visual Techniques in Teach-
With the development of the candid camera
and the great improvement in the materials of
photography and better films has come a great
increase in all types of photography, he said.

Associated Collegiate
Editorial Staff
>rberg . . . . .
navan . . . . ..
elsey . . . . .
Long . . . .
inneborn . . . .

Press, 1938-39
Managing Editor
City Editor
Women's Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor

Business Staff
Philip W. Buchen . . . . . Business Manager
P° I Park . . . . . . . Advertising Manager
+ro X
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
taf and represent the views of the
writers only.
A Diplomatic
Jig-Saw Puzzle . ..
NTO AN extremely confused world
scene have been thrown within the.
ppst weeks several of the most puzzling events
Qbserved in recent years. Speculation is rife
among both experts and novices but plausible
explanations have yet to be found.
Folkwing immediately upon the heels of the
failures in negotiations for a Russo-British
pact and for a three-way agreement including
France, Russia and England, we find Germany
and Russia beginning trade negotiations "for
bartering Russian raw materials for German
industrial products."
This paradoxical move by the Nazis and their
political opposites, the Communists, is interesting
In the light of two interpretations. By some it is
said that Russia is taking the initiative in order
to force Britain and France into greater conces-
ionss to the Russian government. Others declare
that It is an attempt by Germany to "iron ring"
Germany's announcement that she wanted no
war in her next move of aggression (toward Dan-
zig) still further confounds the prognosticators.
Whether Germany is again lulling the democ-
racies into a lethargy or. whether Germany is
3eally backing down can only be seen in the
future, when\the moment for action arises.
leanwhile Poland has made no concessions
,erself. She "stands pat" and declares that
any move toward her territory or across it to free
Danzig means a war. Undoubtedly she means
this unqualifiedly.
The two latest moves are only indirectly related
to the European scene but are no less puzzling
and no less inexplicable.
The British have yielded to the Japanese and
announce that the government will instruct
British authorities and citizens in China to ab-
stain "from such acts and measures" as "will
obstruct" the Japanese or "benefit their enemy."
Shamberlain seems to be granting belligerent
.ights to this nation, an act which the United
States has carefully avoided. Chamberlain's
mind, as always, is either terribly confused or
far too deep for any scrutiny. In face of the
#nti-British demonstrations at Tokyo and the
blockade at Tientsin, it appears like another
#ppeasement. TOr it may be anotherkattempt to
bring the Japanese back to the former Allies
group. Again, he may have in mind coercing
,ussia who seems to be the reluctant member
of the Russo-British negotiations.
And now the United States decides to abrogate
a treaty of 1911 made with Japan providing that
no import or export prohibition would be en.
forced by either of the two signatories which did
not apply to all other nations at the same time.
This treaty abrogation is in line with a reso-
ution introduced by Senator Vandenberg sev-
eral days ago. The State Department considered
that this treaty was in the way of a resolution
Df Senator Key Pittman calling for an embargo
of Japan.
The deck is now cleared for action. The
u'nited States is in a position to act with a free
Land in the Far East.
But whether the sudden move for abrogation
W in order to permit an embargo of Japan or is
a.clever move of the Democrats to "steal the
tlunder" of the Republicans' most likely candi-
date for 1940 is still material for speculation.
Key nations in the situation seem to be Japan,
Russia and England. Underlying factors are
British fear of Russia and her system, the

ROOSEVETL SAYSsshouts through contorted lips, "No, Oh, God,
-New York Herald-Tribune Complete frustration: Jim Allen reports that
Phil Newman of the. Zeta Psi summer clan
The Trib figures on makihg a deal. Roosevelt stumbled on a slot machine which had been
turns conservative and they'll spell his name abandoned and was backless. Like any normal
right.aadndadwsbckes ieaynra
ri*ht.*human being, he decided here was his chance
* * * * he'd l it until he won even If he would only
"Referring to my Michigan lectures at win his own nickles. Smiling with anticipatory
Ann Arbor, she (Amy Lowell) hoped I had glee he inserted nickles. They disappeared into
been pleasantly entertained by the 'Ann the mechanism and when he went to retrieve
Arborigines'"-Louis Untermyer in current thin they'd disappeared into the inner recesses
"Harpers." of the mechanism. At last reports he was, in
* * * a frustrated, cynical way, still pulling parts from
the machine and looking for the nickels.
In the same article: * *
That most incredible she, D T NIA P IE
And all the little magazines, CTSIONS: .
Tndhall thiettlmagazersre"Gov. John W. Bricker is not a candidate for
That died to make verse free! President."-Washington column.
Glad THAT'S settled.-
Want a remedy for the heat? Don Anderson * * *
of the University News Service has a swell one. ANN ARBOR SCENE: The room is a
You venture down into the network of heating crowded restaurant. A lovely girl walks in
tunnels which connect the University buildings accompanied by a male companion. They sit
and stay there a while accustoming yourself to down, he motions for a waiter. Aloofly he
the 120 degree temperature. orders two meals with a side-remark about
"When you get up into a cool 90 or 95 outside the hardship of having to endure student
again you feel as if you were at the North Pole," waiters. The boy in the white coat flushes
Don reports. and the girl bites her lip. The superior chap
* * * doesn't know that the waiter is her fiancee.
At a local coke parlor, believe it or not: * * *
She: There's something in my hair. Note to Bruno Roebbel: Thanks for the clip-
He: Yes. It's your hand. ping of "The Square Peg" from the June 24
* * * Colliers. It's a swell story which faculty-men
The Phi Kappa Tau house phones in a request would get a kick out of but copyright regulations
we ask the burglar who broke in the other night forbid reprinting.
to return. "You missed $27. We'll have it in the * * * *
same suit at the same time," they asked us to tell Franklin Pierce Adams-a Michigan
him. Tip to the burglar: Hold out for compound graduate incidetly-point out in the New
interest at six per cent for the three days you York Post that there must be something to
should have had the money. seeing into the future after all. When Mrs.
Rose Hartwiek Thrope died in Washington
last week at the age of 89, people took an
STREET SCENE: Four policemen, billies interest in her "Curfew Must Not Ring To-
ready, leap out of a squad car and run up- night Again." And to and behold she'd
stairs into an office buildings on North Uni- known all about Neville Chamberlain when
versity. A minute later they return, one she wrote it, for the poem starts "Slowly
holding firmly to a youthful prisoner who England's sun was setting.. ."
Today's Events
9:00 a.m. Physics Symposium, Prof. Gerhard Herzberg of the University of
Saskatchewan (Room 2038 East Physics Building).
11:00 a.m. Physics Symposium, Prof. Enrico Fermi of Columbia University
Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
"How Shall We Educate Adults In Religion?" (Alumni Memorial
2:00 p.m. Open House, (University Observatory on East Ann St.)
"Jesus' Social Ideal," by Prof. Henry M. Battenhouse of Albion Col-
leg4 (Alumni Memorial Hall).
Linguistics Society Session (Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
3:15 p.m. English Discussion Tea (Lecture Hall, Rackham Building).
4:00 p.m. "Religion and Mental Hygiene," Religion Institute seminar (Alumni
Memorial Hall).
Chinese Language Tea (International Center).
4:15 p.m. "Ultracentrifugation," by Prof. Andre Gratia of the University of
Liege, Belgium (Room 1528 East Medical Building).
5:00 p.m. "Next Step in Pan-Americanism" by Prof. Jesse S. Reeves of the
Department of Political Science (Lecture Hall, Rackham Building).
6:00 p.m. Linguistics Society dinner (Union).

Chinese Stand Clarified
To the Editor:
The letter of Mr. William T. Scott
published in The Michigan Daily of
July 26, 1939 has been read by the
Chinese students with close atten-
tion. Mr. Scott is one of those friends
who contributed to see the benefit
show. We are therefore grateful for
his continued interest and thought-
ful attitude.
Fearing that his views might alien-
ate American friends of Chinese de-
fenders, I wish to present the follow-
ing facts:
1. The policy pursued by the Chi-
nese Government up to August, 1939
was in the spirit of conciliation ex-
tolled in Mr. Scott's letter. Even to
the very last moment the Chinese
Government offered to negotiate a
settlement that would satisfy all legi-
timate peace-time needs of Japan, to
be ascertained by a board of inquiry,
composed of neutral experts, if Japan
stopped the invasion and withdrew
all her troops.
2. On the subject of non-violent
resistance, a distinction should be
made between the British Govern-
ment of today which restored inde-
pendence to Egypt and self-govern-
ment to India, the British Govern-
ment of the 18th century when the
conquest of India was consummated,
and the Japanese militarists of today
who began the series of attacks that
destroyed the system of collective
security upon which the peace of the
world depended before 1931. To the
first, the method of non-violent re-
sistance is applicable; to the last two,
it is not. In our case we are dealing
not with a responsible though obsti-
nate and ambitious government, but
with a group of irresponsible and un-
scrupulous Japanese warlords. Per-
haps the best place where the method
of non-violent resistance should be
tried against Japan is Korea. In fact
numerous attempts have been made.
Yet today we see no evidence of the
existnce of such a movement.
3. The atrocities committed by
Japanese militarists in the sack of
Nanking and Hangchow is a familiar
story which we try in vain to forget.
In the occupation of Manchuria, the
"three northeastern provinces" of Chi-
na, by Japan, there was practically
no violent resistance. A process dis-
possessing and poisoning with nar-
cotics the Chinese farmers there is
now in progress.
I must not conclude this letter with-
out mentioning an all-important sub-
ject. We are all very grateful for
the help which the United States has
extended to us, in the forms of relief
funds from private contributors and
credits granted by the government.
It is gratifying to recall that even
Senator Vandenberg has conceded
the necessity of taking some action
now. But the undeclared war has now
entered a more critical stage and help
to the Chinese Government is ur-
gently needed. Therefore we implore
our sister republic across the Pacific
to extend promptly additional credits,
in order that China may defend her-
self successfully against the aggres-
sor. China has never, on her part,
failed to honor her share of obliga-
tions. As participants in the affairs
of state in the near future we feel
safe in assuring our American friends
that the generous help extended to
us in our struggle for national ex-
istence will be remembered forever
and repaid with gratitude.
Sincerely yours,
A Chinese Student.
Critics Criticized
To the Editor:
"They found no weighty social
problems solved in grease paint, no
'biting indictments' of imperialism or

of anything else," the reviewers of
"Androcles and the Lion" state in
their attempt to picture for The Daily
the thoughts of passers-by who wan-
dered into the Mendelssohn Theatre.
Well, let's grant that the cracks at
imperialism were probably stronger
during England's Kipling-reading
days than in the Munich world, but
how about the satire on martyrs?
The ancient world's martyrs were
probably not too different from the
modern world's, and newspaper men
know that martyrs go to their mar-
tyrdoms for as many reasons as
people do anything else. Some die for
vanity, some for friendship, some to
attract attention, some to discomfit
enemies (like Thomas a Becket), and
some because of honest convictions. I
submit that Shaw's play beautifully
portrayed these mixed motives, and
that therefore it is more than a
"harmless little fable extolling kind-
ness to dumb animals."
As for the settings, there's no dis-
puting opinions, though I thought
that all of them were good, and the
one for the first act especially so. I
suppose judgments of acting are also
subjective, but it seemed to me this
was the best acted play of the season,

FRIDAY, JULY 28, 1939 E
Final Doctoral Examination of Mr.1
Leonard Fellows Dean will be held at
9:00 a.m. today in Room 32171
Angell Hall. Mr. Dean's field of
specialization is English Language
and Literature. The title of his thesis1
is "The Theory and Background of1
Tudor History-Writing."
Professor W. G. Rice, as chair-
man of the committe, will conductl
the examination. By direction of<
the Executive Board, the chairmanf
has the privilege of inviting members
of the faculty and advanced doctoral
candidates to attend the examination
and to grant permission to others who
might wish to be present.
Education and Conservation Pro-
Progressive Education
From Cover to Cover
Wild Fowl Conservation
War On Insects
Alaska Salmon Fisheries
Fire Safety
Fire Prevention
Lest We Forget
Speaking of Safety
These films will be shown free to
all who wish to attend, in the Archi-
tecture Auditorium from 2 to 4 p.m.
At Home: University. Observatory
(East Ann Street) from 2 to 5 this
Women's Golf Competition: There
will be golf competition on Palmer
Field today at 3:00 for any women
students interested. A small prize
will be awarded.
Engineering Mechanic Colloquium
Mr. D. E. Marlowe will speak on "In-
teraction of Trusses and Columns"
today at 3 p.m. in Room 211 West
Engineering Building. All interested
are cordially invited to attend.
English Department Tea. The sec-
ond discussion meeting and tea for
students in the English Department
will be held in the Assembly Hall,
Hall, Rackham Building, today
at 3:15 p.m. The discussion of
the first meeting will be -continued,
with special reference to the follow-
ing questions: (1) What goals do we
wish to achieve through the teach-
ing of literature in the secondary
school? (2) What literary material is
both worthwhile as literary art and
teachable on the secondary school
International Center Language
Tea: Chinese language tea at 4:00
this afternoon.
Candidates for the Master's De-
gree in History. The language exam-
nation will be held at 4 p.m., Fri-
day, Aug. 4, in Room B, Haven Hall.
Please sign for the examination be-
before today in the History Depart-
ment Office, 119 Haven Hall.
Lecture: "Ultracentrifugation." Dr.
Andre Gratia, Laboratorie de Bacteri-
ologie, Liege, Belgium, will speak at
4:15 this afternoon in Room 1528,
East Medical Building.
Lecture: "The Next Step in Pan-
Special Menus and Private Rooms
for Parties or Groups at
417 E. Huron St. Free Parking
Matinees 25c-Evenings 35c
Now! Last Day

_______I Andl
--_ _ Saturday
Dead End Kids
"ell'sI Kitchen"

Americanism." Professor Jesse S.
Reeves will discuss this subject at
5:00 this afternoon in the Lecture
Hall of the Rackham Building.
The combined High School Clinic
Band and the University Summer
Session Band, will give a concert
this evening, at Ferry Field, at
7:15 o'clock, to which the general
public, with the exception of small
children is invited, without admis-
sion charge.
Visitors' Night: Students' Observa-
tory, Angell Hall, from 8 to 10 this
All members of Blue Key, national
Leadership Fraternity, attending the
Summer Session are asked to meet
in Room 302, Michigan Union, today
at 7:30 p.m.
Organ Recital. William Barnard,
organist, of Shawboro, North Caro-
lina, will give a recital in partial ful-
fillment of the requirements for the
Bachelor of Music degree, this eve-
ning, 8:15 p.m. in Hill Auditorium.
The general public is invited to at-
Androcles and The Lion by George
Bernard Shaw will be presented by
the Michigan Repertory Players at
8:30 this evening in the Lydia Men-
delssohn Theatre.
Ed. D. degree in Education. The
qualifying examination for educa-
tion students looking forward to the
degree of Doctor of Education will
be held on Saturday morning, July
29, at 8:00 in 1022 University High
School. Those expecting to take this
examifnation are requested to leave
their names in the office of Profes-
sore Woody, 4002 UHS at their earl-
iest convenience.
This week's Rackham Record Con-
cert, which will be held Saturday at
3 p.m. in the Men's Lounge, will con-
sist of a group of smaller works em-
bracing several periods in music lit-
erature. The program is 'as follows:
Suite for strings, horns, flutes and
English horn, Purcell-Barbirolli; Bal-
let Music from "Le Coq d'Or," Rim-
sky-Korsakoff ; Serenata Notturna,
Mozart; Death. and Transfiguration,
Strauss; L'Apres-midi d'un Faun,
Debussy; Rumanian Rhapsody Num-
ber One, Enesco. The records are
from the library of Mr. J. W. Peters.
Graduate Outing Club will have a
picnic, including swimming, base-
ball, volleyball, hiking, a treasure
hunt, and a camp-fire, on Sunday,
July 30, at Saline Valley Coopera-
tive Farms. The group will meet at
2:30 at the northwest entrance of
the Rackham Building. Transporta-
tion will be by car, and all those own-
ing cars are urged to bring them.
(Continued on Page 3)


8805.' IIdifng
AVNUE James Stepheuson " Eddie Foy., Jr.
Pete Smith's "Poetry of Nature"
"Barnyard Brats," Color Classic
"Land of Contentment," Travel
News and Musical
Andy Hardy Gets Spring Fever


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