TTTF MI.CTTTAN DAILY ULU U4.V. . L.3 .PS..1 __
WEDNESDAY, JULY 26,
i 11 LT11,4 ai l v is 11 .v naa a
TOWN & GOWN
By STAN M. SWINTON
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CHICAGo ' BOSTON ' Los ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO
"Hon. William Randolph Hearst,
San Simeon Ranch,
San Simeon, Cal.
You have known me for more than 50
years and as you remember, when we sat
in your home on Riverside Drive, you wrote
that beautiful letter about me to Arthur Bris-
bane which was instrumental more than
anything else in my election to Congress for
the first timje.
And I want you to take my word for it that
my neutrality bill: H.J. Res. 306, which goes
back to strict neutrality, is the only way we
can kiep this country out of war, and I now
want the help of the Hearst newspapers as
ths bill will come up in the Congress a week
from now.. .
Please let me hear from you and advise me
your decision in the matter. Very best re-
gards and best wishes,
Sol Bloom, M.C., Chairman of the
House ,Foreign Affairs Committee
The Chief said no. "You know that I am a
sincere friend of yours and have always hereto-
fore supported you but I cannot in this instance;
and actually, Sol, not only for the sake of the
peace and unity of our common country but for
your own fine record and high fame, I hope the
bill does not pass. You are an admirer of George
Washington. Stick to his principles and keep
free from foreign entanglements and disastrous
internal dissensions," the Chief wired.
And here's the sort of a guy the Chief is-he
was afraid Sol might not get to read the tele-
gram so had it printed on the front page of his
p W. Buchen . y Business Manager
Park Bh. . . . . Advertising Manager
RIGHT EDITOR : HARRY M. KELSEY
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the
0 0 0
B LASE AND SOPHISTICATED colleg-
ians may scoff at Governor Dick-
inson's "expose" of the "evils" of modern "high-
life," but all the scoffing in the world will not
refute the Governor's basic thesis: that modern
civilization has not kept pace spiritually with its
The Governor's position, to be sure, is an
extremist one. The problem goes far deeper than
drunkenness and prostitution which are prob-
ably no greater today than they ever were. And
these vices, bad as they may be, pale into insig-
nificance beside the spectres of want, insecurity!
and brutality which stalk the world today.
How "close to the brink of ruin" a few foolish
virgins appear when they trek to a New York
night club or an Ann Arbor beer garden may be
of minor significance to a generation schooled
in the easy morals of the post war, post depres-
sion escapist trend. But how near to the brink
of ruin is the America Dream of a free people
living in comfort and security? That is the prob-
lem which concerns us all.
Viewed in relation to this larger problem,
Governor Dickison's cry for a return to the Chris-
tian way caries vital significance. America has
seen, in the decadence of the stern morals of her
founders, not just the ruin of a few misguided
girls but the rape of a continent by robber barons
who know no code but greed. She has witnessed
not just the carousals of intoxicated citizens but
the financial orgies of politicians drunk with
lust for power. Dwarfing the growth of organized
vice, have sprung huge cartels which have
shackled her competitive economy by centering
wealth and power in the hands of a few men.
The apparent helplessness of the individual
confronted with such forces has bred a phil-
osophy of despair and a race of parasites. The
pioneer hewing a path through the wilderness
has been supplanted by the pressure group cut-
ting a slice from the public treasury. The sweat-
shop employer, the grafting politicians, the labor
racketeer are characteristic of the times. Yet few
of our economic microbes would plague us today
if greed and selfshness were to disappear.
Collectivists, of course, will argue that the
problem is not individual, but institutional. Re-
move the profit system by substituting collective
for competitive control, they insist, and selfish-
ness will dissolve as if by magic. The logic ap-
pears obvious. Once the incentive to exploit is
gone, exploitation will vanish.
Ten or twenty years ago all this would have
sounded quite convincing. But the debacle of
Russian, Italian and German collectivism has
demonstrated precisely the opposite to be true.
Instead of the lust for power disappearing with
the destruction of private, competitive enterprise,
it simply manifests itself in new forms of ex-
ploitation. The power-crazed dictator and the
greedy bureaucrat replaced the wealth-mad
financial magnate. And the net result was more
misery and less liberty than before.
The moral is obvious. Reform must come pri-
marily from within rather than without. Insti-
tutional change to be effective, must be preceded
or at least accompanied by a spiritual regenera-
tion of the individual. Until the latter is achieved,
the promised land of peace and plenty will re-
main always beyond the horizon.
Progress, then, must come not through social.
revolution but through individual evolution. Until
the golden rule becomes a fact, not just a phrase,
want,'insecurity and brutality will continue to
.. . 4 .. I.1 -A" n hi ol rt fntrn,
FROM 'TUE NEW STATESMAN AND NATION,'
July 8, 1939
By F1EDA UTLEY
(Continued from Yesterday)
Not only are new mines being' opened up, new
factories being erected, and new roads and rail-
ways built to link China with Indo-China and
Burma and so ensure the import of arms in spite
of the loss of the old ports. Perhaps the most
hopeful development of all in war-time China is
the Industrial Cooperative Movement. By creat-
ing a multitude of small production units all
over the country, including the so-called occupied
territories, this movement hopes not only to
provide for the needs of the mobile Chinese
forces, but also for those of the civilian popula-,
tion. If the Chinese people can manufacture for
themselves the few necessities they require,
they will not be forced to trade with the
enemy, the standard of life of the people will be
raised, and Japan's economic and military con-
quest of the country will be made almost im-
In estimating China's chances of survival cer-
tain primary facts should not be disregarded by
those who, after witnessing the defeat of the
Spanish Government and the fall of Bohemia,
are inclined to undue pessimism. China is not
only vastly larger, but her unity, at least as long
as China is supported by the West, is also greater
than was that of the nations which have suc-
numbed to German or Italian aggression. Japan
has looked in vain for a Franco to emerge and
cloak her conquest in a Chinese dress. No one of
even second-rate importance has been willing to
become a Japanese puppet. This fact is of im-
mense importance and is in part to be explained
by the nature of Japanese Imperialism, which
can offer nothing to the possessing classes in
Lastly, there is the stoicism of the Chinese
people and their past conditioning to famine,
floods and disasters. There are now estimated
to be 50 million refugees in China-a figure so
colossal that the suffrings of Jews, Czechs and
Spaniards seem small in comparison. The
Chinese, whose struggle for existence has always
been so desperately hard, can, it would seem,
survive a war which would break a Western
people. All this does not mean that they do not
suffer as acutely as ourselves, or that we should
not be moved by their agony more than by the
business interests of a few thousand British
people in China.
newspapers right along with equally touching
and delicate essays on the latest murders, policyc
raids and lynchings,.
Somehow the Chief reminds me of those c
guys in the other team's dugout when you've
got three balls and no strikes on the batter,.
They want to make absolutely sure you know 1
how they feel on the subject so they don't t
just come over and whisper to you.
"Yah, you big louse," they yell, "You're
going to lose the game. You can't pitch. Go
back to the farm, mush-face."
Yes, sir, the Chief just wanted to make sure 1
Sol got his answer and he figured front page
editorials were a nice, personal way of ;
I'm particularly fond of the Chief's line about
George Washington and foreign entanglements.
It seems to me I heard something about a war
in Cuba and people wanting circulation for news-
papers and boys slain on foreign soil, some of
them shot and some wounded and dying froni
lack of medical attention and some killed by
disease. And, come to think of it there isn
familiar ring to that name Hearst When I think
of the Spanish-American War. The way I figure
out his stand on that one is this: The Chief and
George Washington had a spat and for a day or
so-say while a New York paper was picking
up circulation-the Chief figured George was
wrong and foreign entanglements were OK,
especially when your advertising picked up. Then
George and the Chief made up again and the
Chief-who didn't need circulation any more-
decided those damn entanglements were un-
American after all.
Now I'm all for Sol Bloom. I even support what
Mr. Hearst has termed his WAR DICTATOR-
SHIP BILL. Sol deserves some special considera-
tion-he's the only Congressman who trained for
his job by managing Little Egypt at a World Fair.
But still and all I don't like the way Sol addresses
Hearst at all, even if the Chief is an admitted
nickname. As I understood it, Congressmen were
their own chiefs. That's what my poly sci 1
book said and there wasn't a word in it about
Congressmen writing newspaper publishers and
calling them "Chief." It would be a good thing
for what Mr. Hearst would call THIS AMERICA
OF OURS if Sol and a number of other Con-
gressmen whose names could be mentioned would
refer to the Lord of San Simeon as Mr. William
Randolph Hearst and save the Chief for their
By. KARL KESSLER
Bacteriophages, their origin and possible
nature were discussed here yesterday by Dr.
Andre Gratia of the Laboratorie de Bacteriologie
of the University of Liege, Belgium.
A minute organism or substance, bacterio-
phages are recognized by their parasitic action
on bacteria and viruses. Their exact nature, Dr.
Gratia indicated is not definitely known, but
several theories as to what causes the results
observed on bacteria have been advanced by
One conception held that bateriophage was in
reality an enzyme and of an endogenous nature.
A further ramification of this theory concluded
that it was not an organism, but rather a secre-
tion of the bacteria, which, under the catalytic
action of certain body fluids, destroyed the bac-
Another theory formerly quite prevalent
maintained that all phage effects could be at-
tributed to the action of a single micro-organism.
Various manifestations of phages, of widely dif-'
ferent natures were, according to this theory, ex-
plained by ascribing to this organism a very
The enzyme theory was proved false by Gratia
by a simple dilution experiment. If the phage
were of the nature of an enzyme, the strength of
its solution should decrease its power until, at a
certain point, all action stopped. This point, if
the theory is to hold true, should depend only
upon the extent of dilution, not upon the total
volume of solution in the container.
Actual experiments showed that this was not
the case, but that the points at which all action
stopped was shifted by an increase in the total
volume, thus pointing to the theory that the
agent was in the form of minute corpuscles.
George Bernard Shaw Discusses
'Androcles And The Lion'
In this play I have represented one
of the Roman persecutions of the
early Christians, not as the conflict
of a false theology with a true, but
as what all such persecutions
essentially are: an attempt to sup-
press a propaganda that seemed to
threaten the interests involved in the
established law and order, organized
and maintained in the name of reli-
;ion and justice by politicians who are
pure opportunist Have-and-Holders.
In short, a Christian martyr was
thrown to the lions not because he
was a Christian, but because he was
a crank: that is, an unusual sort of
person. And multitudes of people,
quite as civilized and amiable as we,
crowded to see the lions eat him just
as they now crowd the lion-house in
the Zoo at feeding-time, not because
they cared two-pence about Diana or
Christ, or could have given you any
intelligent or correct account of the
things Diana and Christ stood against
one another for, but simply because
they wanted to see a curious and ex-
citing spectacle. You, dear reader,
have probably run to see a fire; and if
somebody came in now and told you
that a lion was chasing a man down
the street you would rush to the win-
dow. And if anyone were to say that
you were as cruel as the people who
let the lion loose on the man, you
would simply be indignant.
Now that we may no longer see a
man hanged, we assemble outside the
jail to see the black flag run up. That
is our duller method of enjoying our-
selves in the old Roman spirit. And
if the Government decided to throw
persons of unpopular or eccentric
views to the lions in the Albert Hal:
or the Earl's Court stadium tomor-
row, can you doubt that all the seats
would be crammed, mostly by people
who could not give you the mos
superficial account of the views ir
question. Much less unlikely thing
have happened. It is true that if such
a revival does not take place soon
the martyrs. will not be members o
heretical religious sects: they will b
Peculiars, Anti-Vivisectionists, Flat
varth men, scoffers at the labora
tories, or infidels who refuse to knee
down when a procession of doctor
goes by. But the lions will hurt them
just as much, and the spectators wil
enjoy themselves just as much as th
Roman lions and spectators use
It was currently reported in th
Berlin newspapers that when An
drocles was first performed in Berlin
the Crown Prince rose and left th
house, unable to endure the (I hope
very clear and fair exposition of auto
cratic Imperialism given by the Ro
man Captain to his Christian prison
ers. No English Imperialist was in
telligent and earnest enough to d
the same in London. If the report i
correct, I confirm the logic of te
Crown Prince, and am glad to fin
myself so well understood. But I ca
assure him that the Empire whic]
served for my model when I wrot
Androcles was, as he is now findin
to his cost, much nearer my hom
than the German one.
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Summer Session until 3:30 p.m.; 11:00 a.m. Saturday
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Physics Symposium, Prof. Gerhard Herzberg of the University of
Saskatchewan (Room 2038 East Physics Building).
Physics Symposium, Prof. Enrico Fermi of Columbia University
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
"The Home of Revealed Religion," luncheon talk by Prof. William
W. Worrell of the department of oriental languages (Union).
Excursion to Greenfield Village.
"Old Testament Prophets," Religion Conference seminar, Prof.
Leroy Waterman of the department of oriental languages (Room
2029 Angell Hall).
"Moslems in the Near East," by Prof. George Michaelides of the
Near East School of Theology, Beirut, Syria (Alumni Memorial Hall)
"The Real Economic Problem of Japan," by Dr. William W. Lock-
wood, jr., of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Rela-
tions (Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).'
"The Development of Special Education in the Public Schools" by
Charles M. Elliot, head c.f Department of Special Education, State
Normal College, (University High School Auditorium).
"Plant Viruses" by Prof. Andre Gratia, University of Liege, Belgium
(Lecture Hall, Rackham Building).
Men's Education Club picnic (Portage Lake).
"Archeology of Bible Lands," illustrated lecture by Prof. Leroy
Waterman of the department of oriental languages (Lecture Hall,
To the Editor:
I should like to record some im-
pressions of mine after seeing modern
China in "The 400 Million," Satur-
day night. In the first place, of,
course, there is the awful sense of
tragedy. It is tragic to see on the
one hand the apparently indiscrim-
inate taking of life, and on the other
hand, so many innocent civilians dy-
ing to no good avail. It is tragic to
see the wholesale denial of the worth
of- individual personality that is im-
plied in the use of the war method-
in the attempted forcing of terms by
one group on another. It is even deep-
er tragedy to see a conflict that de-
velops the most brutal part of hu-
man nature, in Japanese and Chinese
soldiers, and inevitably in large num-
bers of Chinese civilians. And lastly,
it is tragedy to watch the develop-
ment of nationalism and a military
machine in China, whose culture has
been a peaceful and universal one for
so many centuries (not to mention
further development of Japanese na-
tionalism and militarism).
And then one gets a sense of fu-
tility. All the horrors of war, and
the great cost of it, might be over-
looked if one were assured that
worthwhile ends might be achieved.
Saving democracy, ending war, crea!-
ing a genuinely peaceful society, are
things worth going through a lot of
suflering for. But what will this war
lead to? A victory on either side
means saddling China with a military
machine. I am not sure that the
Japanese could ever really win a vic-
tory, for a dictatorship really needs
support of the population in general,
and it is hard to see how the Japanese
could get that support; but there
would certainly be military rule if
they should win. On the other hand,
war being what it is, and humanity
seeming to be pretty much the same
around the world, one would expect
WEDNESDAY, JULY 26, 1939
Stalker Hall. Luncheon today at
12:15 for Summer Session students
at the First Methodist Church. Prof.
one am not convinced that the results
of war are worth the horror and the
However, one is faced with the ap-
parent necessity of fighting. One sees
only two possibilities, to fight or to
submit. Certainly the picture last
night implied only these two. And of
these two, fighting is the only hon-
But there is a third possibility. I
should like to callt your attention to
techniques of non-violent resistance
which have been worked out, partly
by experiment in India, and partly by
extensive study of history, and of
the nature of man and society. The
essence of the method is a complete
refusal to submit to injustice, or to
assist it, coupled at the same time
with a demonstration of complete
willingness to seek justice, to con-
ciliate on equal terms, and to make
any concessions necessary for a solu-
tion satisfactory from the point of
view of both nations together.
The four basic principles are these:
1. No services or supplies to be
furnished the invaders.
2. No orders to be obeyed except
those of the constitutional civil au-
3. No insult or injury to be offered
to the invaders.
4. All public officials to be pledged
to die rather than surrender.
The fact that some of Japan's great-
,st difficulties in the present strug-
gle lie in the cost of transporting
supplies over great distances, and the
near impossibility of getting substan-
tial cooperation from local Chinese,
gives an indication that this method
might work. One can say that the
losses certainly would not be more,
and that the chances of bringing
about an ultimate solution, while not
perfect, are far better than those of
the war method.
It must also be mentioned that any
such plan as this requires extensive
mass training and discipline, perhaps
on a similar scale as carried on now
in military operations. And further,
outside aid in the way of an arms
embargo on international shipment
of munitions is important.
A few words about Japan's motives
in fighting. I list three. There is
first the desire for raw materials and
markets. Non-violent resistance im-
plies readiness to work out agree-
ments for free trade, and hence im-
plies that this could be achieved with-
out fighting. The costs of fighting
would have to be borne by the in-
vader's industries without material
recompense. Then, there is the de-
sire of military factions for military
victories. But non-violent resistance
allows no opportunities foi glorious
victories or demonstrations of mili-
tary prowess, to keep up the morale of
the soldiers. Thirdly, the Japanese
people seem convinced that they are
fighting a war to bring about peace
and cooperation with the Chinese. If
the methods outlined here were fol-
lowed, that motive would be eliminat-
ed (admitting of course that it will
not succeed now).
Lastly I should observe that solu-
tions to conflict situations are really
only, brought about when each side
voln~tarily maikes con cessions The
George P. Michaelides of Belrut,
Syria will speak. Price 40 cents. Call
6881 or 5555 for reservations.
Excursion No. 9, Greenfield Village.
A visit to Ford's Village, Museum of
earl American life, Edison's Menlo
Park Laboratory, the Dearborn Inn.
Round trip by special bus begins at
1 p.m., Angell Hall, and end's at 5:45
p.m., Ann Arbor. Reservations for
the special bus fare of $1 may be
made in the Summer Session office,
1213 Angell Hall.
Michigan Dames: Wives of all Uni-
versity students are invited to attend
the Michigan League at 2:00, today.
Social Science and Music Program,
today, from 2 to 4 p.m. Architecture
Bell Telephone Sound:
New Voice Highways
Switchboards Old and New
The Brass Choir
The Percussion Group
The String Choir
The Woodwind Choir
The Symphony Orchestra
Men's Education Club Picnic: The
Men's Education Club picnic will be
held this afternoon at Portage Lake.
Cars will leave the U.H.S. between
3 and 4 o'clock. Tickets should be se-
cured from members of the Educa-
tion Committee before this noon.
Price 75 cents.
Speech Students: A Symposium on
?raduate Studies in Rhetoric and
)ratory and the History of the The-
tre will be held in the Men's Lounge
of the Rackham Building at 4
o'clock this afternoon. All candi.
dates for the Master's degree and all
applicants and candidates for the
Doctor's degree, whose work lies
within these fields should attend this
G. E. Densmore.
Lecture, "The Development of Spe-
cial Education in the Public Schools,"
by Charles M. Elliott, head of the
Department of Special, Education,
Michigan State Normal College, at
4:05, this afternoon, in the University
High School Auditorium.
Lecture, "Bacteriophages" by Dr.
Andre Gratia, Laboratorie de Bacteri-
ologies, Liege, Belgium, at 4:15, this
afternoon, in Room 1528, East Medi-
Lecture, "Archaeology .of Bible
Lands" (Illustrated) by Professor Le-
roy Waterman. Professor Waterman
will speak at 5:00, this afternoon, m
the Lecture Hall of the. Rackham
Linguists Institute Lecture, "De-
ciphering the Old Persian Ihcrip-
tions." Professor Roland G. Kent will
speak at 7:30 this evening, in the
Amphitheatre (third floor) of the
Intermediate Dancing Class. The
intermediate dancing class will be
held tonight at 7:30 in the Union