THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SATURDAY, JULY 3, 1937
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Official-Publication of the Summer Session
Dr, Glenn Frank's Centennial
SnC ... I Helre zre JeioIS
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the
University. Copy received at the office of the Summer Session, Room 1213
A r+ii'U"1 n n Alrlx
Golden Text: Jude 1:25.
Responsive Reading: Psalms 89:1,
8, 9, 13-18.
Sunday School at 11:45 after
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NIGHT EDITOR: HORACE W. GILMORE
HE USES to which the words
"freedom" and "liberty" are put
for the sake of argument today are mostly be-
fuddling to the general public. Conservatives
and even liberals are cuick to denounce the
abridgement of freedom which they contend
would inevitably accompany the advent of a
collectivist society. The collectivists deny this
and with as much avidity point out abridgements
and lack of freedom in our present order.
There are three main categories under which
most of the kinds of freedom may be placed.
These are'political freedom, civil freedom, and
The essential feature of political freedom re-
quires that all the members of a community par-
ticipate in the process of government at least to
the extent that all groups have a free voice in
the elections. Political philosophers call this the
"positive" phase of political freedom, and, al-
though there might be some justification for
doubt that all in our country have absolute
freedom under this aspect, there is little question
that, relatively speaking, the United States shares
with France and Switzerlandthe honor of being
the leading countries to foster this type of
The negative aspect of political freedom implies
the absence of domination by foreign interven-
tion or a domestic dictator. . As regards the
former, the Latin American countries, with for-
eign political domination owing to their economic
dependence upon foreign capital and enterprise,
lack this type of freedom. The countries that
are dominated by a purely personal resident
dictator are Germany and Italy, wherein these
theories are formally and definitely rejected with
the preposterous declamations that they do not
constitute genuine freedom.
The second main category of freedom includes
freedom of speech, press, creed, thought, and
privileges-and are called the "civil liberties."
It is probably here that the most obvious abridge-
mients of individual liberty take place. For it is
doubtful that any organized society could permit
absolute freedom of speech, or unlimited freedom
of the press. The laws of libel, indecent speech,
and obscenity in publication attest to this fact.
The famous Rev. Macintosh case sets at least
a war-time limit to freedom of religious convic-
Civil freedom frequently is in conflict with eco-
nomic and property rights, and few will dissent
from the view that all too often the civil lib-
erties of a large group of the public have been
subjugated and made ancillary to property rights.
This is the reason why many feel that they
should organize into such groups as the American
Civil Liberties Union, despite the fact that this
particular organization has been falsely branded
as "red" and "communist inspired."
Probably the most illusory and most debated
kind of freedom falls under the head of eco-
nomic freedom. Here it is that the all-important
constitutional questions of freedom of contract
and property rights fall. In two important, com-
paratively recent, cases a majority of the Su-
preme Court has held that "freedom of contract
is the general rule and that restraint" by the
national government is the exception, which is
"justified only by the existence of exceptional
circumstances." That was the Adkins case in
1923. In a second case which tested the power
of a state government to set minimum wages the
maarityof +t he nnrt aninca tha ii-tifeation
By GLENN FRANK
LTHOUGH but a synthetic alumnus, I speak 1
with a profound affection for the University
of Michigan, for I prize her honorary doctorate,
which came to me in 1924, as among my happiest
possessions. And, again today, I am deeply sen-
sible to the honor Michigan does me in asking
me to bring to focus and climax, if I can, the
discussions of this centennial week in which
one of the truly great universities of the United
States and the world celebrates its hundredth
year of maturity.
On most counts the University of Michigan
confronts and presents the same problems con-
fronted and presented by the Oxfords and Har-
vards of the world. But, after all, the University
of Michigan is a state university and, by the
margin of that fact, its problems and obligations
vary, in important as well as incidental aspects,
from the problems and obligations of the Oxfords
The first obligation of every university, whe-
ther publicly supported or privately endowed, is,
of course, to be a great university, not a trade
school for the poor, not a country club for the
rich, not a propagandist machine for the politi-
cians, but a great upiversity, if possible a model
university. It seems to me, therefore, that the
best contribution I can here make to the Univer-
sity of Michigan is to sketch what seem to me
the major specifications for the model university,
calling attention as I go along to sme of the
special problems and obligations of the state
Down the generations since Abelard men have
sought to define The University Idea and to re-
late it to the life of the time. With due regard
for limitations of time and capacity, that is what
I want now to attempt. I cannot philosophize
as extensively as a Cardinal Newman or muck-
rake on as grand a scale as an Abraham Flexner.
Manifestly, within the boundaries of a single ad-
dress, I cannot cover every point in the university
enterprise. And, anyway, much, if not most,
that I omit from the picture has been dealt with
by my distinguished predecessors in these cen-
tennial discussions. Your patience would wear
thin if I sought to be encyclopedic. I, there-
fore, put but a few suggestive brush strokes on
I have no desire to blue-print an impossibly
ideal university. I shall not hesitate to suggest
forms and procedures that vary widely from
existing practice, but I shall hold myself rigor-
ously to the projection of a university American
educators could create in this generation if all
concerned but left them free to follow policies
they know to be right instead of policies they
are forced to consider expedient.
And to say "if all concerned but left them
free" leads abruptly to the first essential in the
creation and maintenance of a vital university.
It must be free. Its administrators must be
free. Its teachers must be free. Its research
scholars must be free. Its students must be
free. I do not mean a mad anarchic. freedom.
I do not mean exemption from the give-and-
take inseparable from life and work in an or-
ganized society. I do not mean freedom to
bankrupt the institution or make of it a thing
utterly alien to the folk-nature and broad pur-
pose of the particular society it serves. I do
not mean that universities should be shielded
from any impact of the critical process the
public rightly brings to bear on all its agencies.
I mean a very special kind of freedom which the
nature of the university enterprise makes imper-
ative to its integrity and highest usefulness.
With all their inadequacies, by modern stand-
ards of research and teaching techniques, the
Medieval Universities had this special kind of
freedom. Their freedom was both external and
internal, as the freedom of the model university
must now be.
The freedom of the Medieval Universities
from external dictation lay in the fact that
they were virtually independent republics with
but slight subordination to State and Church.
In the heyday of their virility and influence,
with but few exceptions, neither priest nor poli-
tician dictated their personnel or determined
their policy. When we remember how completely
the social order of the Middle Ages was ruled
by regimes of more or less absolute monarchy,
the freedom of these universities would be in-
credible but for the record.
Not only were the Medieval Universities free
from external dictation, but internally they
were conducted as self-governing democracies.
Educational dictators could not thrive in the
atmosphere of these universities, as some power-
grabbing Chancellors discovered. Their policies
and their procedures flowered from the soil of
common counsel of masters and students.
The modern university involves a magnitude of
investment and complexity of arrangement that
make necessary a more rigorous administrative
control than these democratized communities of
scholars employed. But this rigorous adminis-
trative control from the center, essential as it
is in the management of the material resources
and physical arrangements of a modern univer-
sity, spells death to the inner greatness of the
university when it seeks to direct its educa-
tional enterprise with Il Duce or Der Fuehrer
The model university may properly copy the
worker's necessity for a job, by contracting said
worker at starvation wages?
Economic freedom implies the concept of
equality of economic opportunity. This is many
times overlooked by our Rotarian "bigger and
better" philosophies. Many radio commentators
and crackr-haelp nhilosonhers who exhort a
A. H~I. ~ ..L' L\' I ~L~ ~ '/ j . ti Il 3:30; U ii :o.mU~.U1onUU ,turlaUy.
_______Saint Andrew's Episcopal Church:
administrative procedures of the modern cor- Teacher's Certificate Candiates who tive places of worship in Ann Arbor Services of worship Sunday, are:
I # 8 a.m. Holy Communion; 11 a.m.,
poration in the management of its financial and expect to be recommended by the Sunday afternoon. Sunday evening Holy Communi on by The
physical problems, but, in determining its edu- Faculty of the School of Education services will be conducted during the Holy Communion and sermon by The
cational policy and directing its educational at the end of the Summer Session are session as follows: On the campus, Re.HnyLw _
effort, it must recapture the freedom from ex- requested to call immediately at the Vespers at 7:30 p.m. July 4, 25 and
ternal dictation and the democracy of internal office of the Recorder of the School Aug. 15. At the First Congregational St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Lib-
procedure which marked the Medieval Univer-- of Education, 1437 U.E.S., to fill out Church certain cooperating churches erty at Third, C. A. Brauer, minister.
sities. application blanks for the Certificate. announce a program upon vital re- uring July and August this church,
It is not essential to the freedom of the Amer- (This notice does not include School ligious issues at 7:30 p.m. Sunday, affiliated with the Missouri Synod,
of Music students.) . July 11, 18 and Aug. 8. will have an early morning service,
ican university that it be as nearly a state within oybeginning at 8:15. There will be no
the state as the medieval university was. It is TF service at 10:45. Church school and
the essence of this medieval freedom, not itsI The Graduate Outing Club will First Presbyterian Church: 10:45 the service in the German language
I meet at Lane Hall on Sunday, July 4 a.m., Summer Union Service of the bei the Ger9a3 ang.age
form, that is important. at 2 p.m. sharp where cars will meet Presbyterian and Congregational begin at the usual time 9:30 a.m. The
Just now, in the United States as in. Europe, them to carry them to Silver Lake for Churches to be held at the Congre- sermon in both services will be de-
the gravest threat to the integrity of universities swimming, games, picnic supper and gational Church, corner of State and hvered by the pastor on the topic:
is the threat of dictation from the ouside. In the boating. Those planning to go who William Streets. Dr. W. P. Lemon,"The Christian and His Country."
disheveled years of the last decade, a disturbing have cars are urged to bring them. minister of the Presbyterian Church Lutheranastudents are cordially in-
sense of restriction has invaded universities. The All graduate students are cordially in- will preach on the subject "The Lib- vited to attend the services.
stress of the time and the hysterias whipped up vited to attend all meetings of the erty of a Christian."
haves podutedtim and motional citeri i a to club during the summer. 10:45 a.m., Nursery and Church Russian: The class in advanced
have produced an emotional climate inimical to School in the Church basement Russian will meet at 5 o'clock Tues-
the university enterprise. All sorts of forces have Harris Hall: The second meeting of 5:45 p.m., Round Table Conference day, July 6, in Room 2019 Angell
been closing in on the free scholar. Administra-~ the Student Felowship will be held for students dealing with a discus- Hall, to arrange the hours of recita-
tors have tightened the rein. Trustees have, here tomorrow evening.. Arrangements sion of "Nationalism-Man's Other tion.
and there, widened their detailed authority, have been made to visit the Saline Religion." Dr. Lemon will preside.
Political forces have
stepped more actively into
the picture as the distemper of totalitarianism
has spread to the democracies and erstwhilet
liberals have embraced the ancient delusion oft
the all-dominant state as guardian of the human
spirit. A patrioteering journalism has concerned1
itself more and more with what the professor'
should say and leave unsaid. And propagandistt
groups without number have sought to mold thec
universities to their single-track desires. All
these forces combine to constitute a threat un-
precedented of external dictation to American
The model university, in some instances, willt
be privately endowed and, in other instances,
publicly supported. Both the endowed univer-
sities and the state universities are sounder in-
struments of national service because both exist
in friendly competition. The endowed univer-
sities are more democratic in their administra-
tion of educational opportunity because the
state universities exist. The state universities
resist the inroads of crowd demands upon their
standards with stouter heart because the en-'
dowed universities exist. The model university
must, therefore, achieve its freedom from exter-
nal dictation both under private endowment and
under public support.
The maintenance of an endowed university's
freedom depends almost wholly upon the char-;
acter of its trustees and administrators-their
insight, judgment, and courage. If they are
strong, the university is safe alike from dicta-
tion by donors or control by shifting popular
pressures. If they are weak, the university sur,
The maintenance of a state university's free-
dom is less simple. There are two reasons for
this, growing out of the special nature of the
In the first place, the organized forces of bus-
iness, industry, labor, agriculture, religion, pol-
itics and the professions in a state have a lively
sense of proprietorship in the state university
whose bills their taxes pay. They bring to its
activities an intensity of scrutiny and demand
they never bring to the activities of a privately
endowed university in the state. The state
university thus has an extraordinarily direct and
problem-raising relation to the organized forces
of the state's life and to the shifting currents of
its public opinion. If, on occasion, the directing
forces of a state university must, in all honesty,
refuse the demands of some of these pressure
groups or stand rock-like against some transient
hysteria sweeping the state's life, they run the
risk of a penalizing slash in the university's ap-
propriations. The problem here is not different
from the problem in the endowed university save
in its intensity and the promptness with which
the state university may be penalized. It re-
quires unusual clarity of long-range judgment,
not to say heroic qualities, in the trustees and
administrators of a state university to suffer
the rigors of a lean budget, if necessary, rather
than betray the integrity of The University Idea
by truckling to transient hysterias and carrying
on a behind-the-scenes bargaining with pressure
In the second place, in most states, the state
university bears an intimate and direct relation
to the state government. Unless great wisdom
and statesmanship are employed in determining
the nature of this relation, the freedom of the
state university may be tentativerandinsecure.
Concretely, if, as in some states, the Governor I
enjoys plenary and unreviewed authority to ap-
point members of the governing board of the state
university, he may, if that is the measure of
his statesmanship, pack the board with appoin-
tees who have but one conceivable qualification,
and that a disqualification, namely, their will-
ingness to carry out in detail the Governor's will,
if not his whim, respecting both the personnel
and the policy of the university. A state univer-
sity may thus be governed by a kind of political
ventriloquism. The lips of the dummy trustees
move, but it is the voice of their political chief
that barks the commands. This form of appoin-
tive power, which happily does not exist in Mich-
igan, should not exist in any state, for its abuse
can effectively prevent the state university from
functioning other than as the scared and sub-
servient agent of partisan purpose.
We have achieved separation of church and
state and emancipated the press from an official
political control. None, save the deluded apostles
of the totalitarian state, would wipe out that
separateness. As we have watched one crisis-
driven nation after another mold its universities
to a pattern, soft-pedal their researches into liv-
Valley Farms which is a co-
operative experiment between indus-
try and agriculture, and is one of the
most interesting places in Michigan.
A picnic supper will be held at the
Farm and cars will leave St. An-
drew's Church at 5 p.m. The meet-
ing will be of an informal nature and
those coming are urged to wear old
clothes and bring their swimming
The Bureau has received notice of
the following Civil Service Examina-
Junior Agricultural Engineer, $2,000
a year: Soil Conservation Service, and
Bureau of Agricultural Engineering.
Chief of Library Service Division,
$5,000 a year.
Specialists in Public and School
Libraries, $3,800 a year; Office of
For further information, please
call at the Office 201, Mason Hall.
University Bureau of Appoint-
mentsiand Occupational In-
Campus Vesper: The initial Vesper
service of the Summer Session will
take place at the Library Terrace,'
Sunday at 7:30 p.m., July 4. Dr.
Louis A. Hopkins, Director of ' the
Summer Session, will address the
summer students. Music will be un-
der the directorhip of Prof. David A.
Mattern supported by the summer
E. W. Blakeman.
Summer Session Chorus will sing
on the Library steps at 7:15 o'clock,
Sunday, July 4.
Religious Service: Summer Session
students are invited to their respec-
The price of the supper is 15c.
First Church of Christ, Scientist.
409 South Division St.
Morning service at 10:30 a.m.
Faculty Concert: Prof. Joseph
Brinkman, pianist, will play an in-
teresting program in the first con-
I cert of the summer Faculty Series,
Tuesday evening, July 6, at 8:30
(Continued on Page 3)
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LAUNDRY. 2-1044. Sox darned,
Careful work at low price. 1x
GIRLS' ROOM with house privileges
and garage. Reasonable price.
Phone 3481. 613
NEAR CAMPUS: Rooms single or
double. Clean and reasonable. 432
S. Division, 618
FOR RENT: A double room for either
men or women. Also one-half
All Work Guaranteed
Panties ........................ 7c
Pajamas ................10c to 15c
Hose (pr.) ..................... 3c
Silks, wools our specialty. All bundles
done separately-no markings. Call
for and deliver. Phone 5594. Silver
Laundry. 607 E. Hoover. 3x
EXPERIENCED laundress doing stu-
dent laundry. Call for and deliver.
Phone 4863. 2x
double room for a woman. Reason-
able. 335 E. Jefferson. Phone 6044.
IF YOU HAVE A PATENT to sell,
develop, or promote, write 955
Cherry St., S. E. Grand Rapids
BOARD for women during Summer
School in League House. Excellent
food. $4.50 for 14 meals. 1223 Hill
St. Phone 2-2276. 617'
WANTED: Second-hand bicycle with
a definitely second-hand price.
Leave message for Fitzhenry At
Mich. Daily. 620
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