HUE MICHIGAN DIAILZY
THURSDAY, TUY 16, 1939
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Official Publication of the Summer Session
make yourselves proof against chauvinistic argu-
ments, unless, in short, you regard human life as
of more importance than several square feet of
land or any amount of foreign trade.
The really tragic element is that in the same
paper which bore the announcement of the meet-
ing of these 20,000 converted pacifists, were the
War planes are demonstrated by France at Le
Tie-up of dictators seen as Mussolini quits anti-
Japan plans eight railways and an auto road in
Secret pledge made by Austria to Hitler to build
up her army.
Anschluss is now considered as being a mere
matter of time.
Czechs suspicious of Reich pledge of Austrian
the Austria tightens press censorship, threatening
i foreign writers.
THU r~rRSDYJUY16 13
- 'Zn -
Published every morning except Monday during1
University year and Summer Session by the Board
Control of Student Publications.
Member of the Western Conference Editorial Assoc
tion and the Big Ten News Service.
MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
The. Associated Press is exclusively entitled to thei
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it
not otherwise credited in this paper and the local ne
published herein. All rights of republication ofaspe
dispatches are reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan,
second class matter. Special rate of postage granted
Third Assistant Postmaster-General.
Subscription during summer by carrier, $1.50, by m
$2.00. During regular school year by carrier, $4.00;
Offices: Student Publications Building, Maynard Stre
Ann Arbor, Michigan. Phone: 2-1214.
Representatives: National Advertising Service, Inc.,
Madison Ave., New York City. -400 N. Michigan AN
MANAGING EDITOR ............THOMAS E. GROEHN
ASSOCIATE EDITOR.............THOMAS H. KLEENE
Editorial Director ...............Marshall D. Shulman
9ramatic Critic-.....................John W. Pritchard
Assistant Editors:. Clinton B. Conger, Ralph W. Hurd,
Joseph S. Mattes, Elsie A. Pierce, Tuure Tenander, Jewel
Reporters: Eleanor Bare, Donal Burns, Mary Delnay. M. E.
Graban, John Hilpert, Richard E. Lorch, Vincent Moore,
Elsie Roxborough, William Sours, Dorothea Staebier,
BUSINESS MANAGER..........GEORGE H. ATHERTON
CREDITS MANAGER ...................JOHN R. PARK
Circulation Manager................J. Cameron Hall
Office Manager.......................... Robert Lodge
Letters published in this column should not be
construed as expressing the editorial opinion of The
Daily. Anonymous contributions will be disregarded.
The names of communicants will, however, be regarded
as confidential upon request. Contributors are asked
to be brief, the editors reserving the right to condense
all letters of more than 300 words and, to accept or
reject letters upon the criteria of general editorial
importance and interest to the campus.
Morturi Te Salutamus
To the Editor:
There was a pretty cruel streak in those old
Roman fellows, with their gladiatorial combats.
Any American knows that. And what American
won't condemn that old Spanish custom, the
bullfight, as the perverted pleasure of a decidedly
inferior and, of course, non-Nordic race. Well,
Nero may have done some fiddling in his time;
and the University of Michigan may make its
worthy contributions to human enlightenment,
while the University's newspaper carries the ad-
WANTED: Single man to drive stock auto-
mobile in a head-on collision with another
automobile at the Ft. Miami Racetrack,
Toledo, Sunday afternoon only, July 26 ....
Must crash at speed of forty miles per hour
or no pay. Already have driver for other
car. Must give unconditional release in
case of injury or death.
Wondering now, if it wouldn't be entirely appro-
priate for the fellow who takes this little job, as
he enters the amphitheatre, to solute sovereignty,
in the persons of the assembled American spec-
tators with an "Ave, Caesar! Morituri te salu-
tamus!" -B. Baum.
Two students at the University of Illinois have
opened a dating bureau this summer, with the fol-
lowing announcemenit: "Due to the forced inactiv-
.ity of many students registered in the summer
session, in the extra-curricular activity of the
University, the Illini Introduction Bureau makes
its first appearance on the campus."
The Daily Illini tells of the man who always
went to bed with a penny in his hand so that if he
started tossing in his sleep he'd be prepared.
MARY OF SCOTLAND
Rich with the cavalier color of early Elizabethan
times, turgid with the tight-packed interplay of
hot tempered and ambitious personalities and fac-
tions, Maxwell Anderson's "Mary of Scotland"
was meaningfully brought to us last night by a
company highly trained in technique and char-
Valentine B. Windt, director, has previously
shown us that he excels in this particular depart-
ment-the manipulation of heavy drama. This
production combines the best uses of color, tempo,
business, tonal fidelity, and sets (the last compre-
hendingly designed by Alexander Wyckoff); but
there is more than that: both the finer details of
character delineation and the greater, more gen-
eralized meanings lying beneath personal conflicts
are placed in relief by means of stage craftsman-
ship as well as through individual performances.
Many interpretations have been made of the
characters of Mary and Elizabeth, and many edi-
fices of speculation have been erected concern-
ing the emotional implications of their conflict.
Mr. Anderson, whatever his motives for so doing,
chooses in this play to regard Mary as a vital,
sympathetic, too-trustful girl-queen who was led
astray, despite her native wit, by an idealisml
that ignored the inconvenient factor of human na-
ture. Elizabeth, on the other hand, is painted as
an egotistic incubus, steeped in the lore of Machi-
There were many surprises in the acting. The
greatest was the performance of Charles Harrell,
as Bothwell. Previously weak, Mr. Harrell ex-
ecuted what was then the best performance of
his career in low comedy in "Squaring the Circle,"
and then soared to a magnificent accomplishment
as bluntly dynamic Bothwell. He uses his voice
effectively in lines requiring forceful delivery and
a strong tinge of sarcasm; the two roles are related
in that respect; the resulting suggestion is that no
one had previously bothered to determine what Mr.
Harrell was good at.
Second surprise was Virginia Frink's Queen
Mary. To my knowledge Miss Frink, always com-
petent in comedy roles, has never previously tread
the borders of high drama. The role of Mary is
almost too big for any amateur; yet Miss Frink
filled it, not to perfection, but with great merit.
Her variations of mood were good, her best mo-
ments being the more tender and wistful ones, al-
though her energetic periods were excellent. Her
difficulty was that the necessity of reaching her
emotional peak early in the show made her later
peaks seem rather high plateaux than apexes..
Much credit is due her work.
Sarah Pierce again played Elizabeth and only
the comparative brevity of her role prevented
this intense actress from taking the show single-
handed. It was she who vitalised Elizabeth, and,
with her subtle inflections and mobile eyebrow
and mouth patterns, converted a self-centered ice-
berg into a living queen. Too, the contrast be-
tween this Elizabeth and the other, older Eliza-
beth was carefully drawn.
There were no poor performances. -J.W.P.
A cypress believed to be 2,500 years old grows
in Winn parish, La.
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VOL. XLV No. 15
THURSDAY, JULY 16, 1936
Niagara Falls Excursion: Reserva-
tions for the Niagara Falls excur-
sion, July 17 to 19, should be made
at the Office of the Summer Session
by this noon, July 16. A deposit
of $8.90 for railroad fare will be
necessary at the time of reservation.
Physical Education: Graduate and
(Continued on Page 3)
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISI NG_
Am interested in obtaining an old-
fashioned lantern of the type used
on horse.and. buggy carriages. Reply
FOR RENT:,Forest 928. 3-room fur-
nished apt. Electric refrigeration.
private bath. Electricity fur-
nished. Will rent for short or long
term. $10 per week. Mrs. Fergu-
son. Phone 2-2839. 11
DIES SAYING MOTHER
DETROIT, July 15.-0P)---Eighteen-
year-old Elizabeth Schaffer's attempt
to aid her mother, trapped in their
burning residence, cost the girl's life
Wednesday. She led two smaller
children outside then went back .for
her mother, but was trapped.
in the Singing,. Dancing
EComedy, Cartoon, News
LAUNDRY FOR SALE
LAUNDRY WANTED: Student Co- REMINGTON Standard Typewriter
ed. Men's shirts 10c. Silks, wools, in excellent condition, $25.00.
our specialty. All bundles done sep- Phone 3236. 1208 Ferdon Rd. 10
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Two h~t rOok
TO OUR BEST KNOWLEDGE, there
is but one place where complete
college education is free to all, and that is in
New York City. This week, the Citizens Budget
Commission recommended that a tuition fee of
$75 be established to help to cover the cost, which
is more than $253.15 annually for each student.
We do not know the financial'condition in New
York, and cannot say whether this is being urged
only as a last measure of financial expediency,
but the resistance which the proposal is meeting
from prominent New York citizens, including
Mayor LaGuardia, encourages us to observe that
such an act would be one of retrogression.
Today it is possible for students to work their
way through university, and, through scholarships,
loan funds and the NYA, many students are be-
ing helped through who would otherwise not be
able to attend. Nevertheless, it still remains true
for a large group of young people, that their
chances of attending a school of higher education
are heavily affected by the'economic status of their
parents. We believe that these present student
aids, slender though they be, are gestures in the
direction of the day when education will be open
to all who may profit by it, when ability will
be the sole determining factor for admission to
a college. Such a condition is indispensable
to an intelligent populace and an effective democ-
Class & individual in-
struction in al types
of, dancing. Teachers.
course. Open daily dur-
ing Summer Session
10 A.M. to- 9 P.M.
Terrace Garden Studio
Wuerth Theatre Blg.a
The Challenge Of Cooperatives
Private Competitive Enterprise Had Better Reform Or-
IN THE RAIN, 20,000 veterans of the
World War stood this week at the
site of the battle of Verdun and pledged them-
selves to peace.
They were from fourteen nations-Germany,
France, England, Italy, the United States, and
others-and they had come together 20 years
after the War to commemorate those who have
remained at Verdun these 20 years, and to dedicate
themselves to the proposition that war is futile
Bedraggled from the rain, mud and their sleep
in the rough billets, the soldiers from many na-.
tions fraternized spontaneously in Verdun, espe-
cially in the restaurants. The rain prevented the
program of speeches which had been planned, for
which no doubt everyone was grateful.
"The 500 Germans naturally were the most ob-
served," writes the correspondent of the New York
Times. "They bore themselves with tactful- dig-
nity, so much so that when they hesitated to un-
furl their flag, their French hosts urged them
to do so. In the course of the day, moreover, the
French deputation accompanied them to one of
the German emeteries north of Verdun, where
a short commemorative ceremony was held.
"As the day wore on, the fraternization of
these veterans from fourteen nations was com-
plete. It has had no precedent and may be never
repeated. It would be pretentious to call it his-
toric, yet it may have been more useful than quite
a number of diplomatic conversations."
The expenses were paid, in part by the Blum
government, which is inclined toward pacifism, but
politics played no part in the celebration.
What a tragic sight it must have been, to see
these .20,000 men, who, 20 years ago, through no
inclination of their own, were hating each other
savagely and trying to impale each other on bay-
onets. What a stupid, blind, dumb, unintelligent,
imbecilic, undeveloped race of feeble-minded mor-
ons we are, that we allow this paradoxical situa-
tion to exist-that men who have no hatred of
aarh nf a hall ha innmari by rnthrc (not nmax
(From Nation's Business)
A FEW YEARS AGO, industry looked with tol-
erant amusement on efforts of a few daring
men who were trying to establish retailer-wned
co-operatives. Wholesale grocers scoffed and tried
to prevent co-operatives from getting reliable
sources of supplies. Manufacturers refused to sell
But today, it is claimed that about 7000 co-
operative societies of all kinds are operating in
the United States, with about 2,000,000 mem-
bers, and that memberships are growing at the
rate of 5 per cent a year. Their total retail trade
in 1933 was more than $400,000,000. Their com-
bined wholesale and retail sales are said to exceed
one billion dollars.
In the farm field alone, according to the Co-
operative Division of the Farm Credit Adminis-
tration, $250,000,000 of the supplies 'used by farm-
ers are now purchased co-operatively. Twenty-
five large co-operatives, each doing an annual
farm supply business of more than a million dol-
lars, are rapidly expanding to include housing,
groceries and general merchandise.
The first co-operative began some 90 years
ago when 28 Rochdale (England) weavers pooled
their savings for a year, and with the sum-$1401
-set up their own system of buying and distribut-
ing goods. The principles they laid down are still
used in many organizations of this kind. The in-
dividual member had one vote, regardless of the
number of shares of stock he might have owned.,
Most revolutionary of all, they stated that all
profits, after a portion had been set aside for
education and expansion, should be returned to
the purchaser, according to his purchases during
* * * *
the Federal Government as well. Information
may be obtained at Washington on how to start
and operate a consumer co-operative. Wiscon-
sin has enacted a law requiring the teaching
of "consumers' co-operation."
The churches are giving the movement open
support. Large numbers of conferences and con-
ventions of churches in most denominations have
gone on record to "aid in their respective commu-
nities in the olganization of consumer co-opera-
tives." Last year, a meeting representing 4700,
clergymen addressed an open letter to the Pres-
ident, urging further radical political action to
raise the standard of living.
It is easily apparent that the consumer co-op-
erative moment is not to be ignored. To all
those loosely under the term "middlemen,"
this movement offers a serious challenge, since
its purpose is to "cut the price between the pro-
ducer and the consumer." The aim is to place
a practical check on the profit motive in distribu-
tion, with the ultimate object of replacing it
with the service motive solely.
The record of actual operating progress already
made is impressive. The inroads which co-opera-
tives have made into private competitive whole-
saling and retailing are enormous.
If private enterprise insists on ignoring the co-
operative, the day seems not far distant when it
may find itself replaced. Moreover, if private
enterprise intends to do anything about this new
rival, the time to do it is now.
* * * *
What is to be done?
The first step is for private industry to stop
washing dirty linen in public. The next is to
evolve a plan through which the competitive sys-
tem will serve the producers and the consumers
more efficiently than is possible through any other
plan. Assuming that the profit motive is doomed
when it fails to serve the common good, assuredly
self-interest should force private business to cor-
rect some of its faults before it is too late.
Third, private business will have to sponsor
and direct a sustained educational consumer
program in behalf of the economic and social
benefits of private competitive enterprise. This
section of activity will have to cover informing
the public of the restraints and restrictions placed
on the retail trade and the processes through
which an article goes before being placed on
Fair practices in free and open competition
will have to be encouraged, and adiustment mae
The Detroit Edison Company's policy of renewing lamp bulbs makes
it easy for you to keep your sockets filled with Mazda lamps of the
right sizes. All you need do is to bring your BURNED OUT lamps
to any Detroit Edison office, present your most recent electric bill
for identification, and you will be given new lamps for old.
The Company's rule- requiring you to bring your electric bill for
identification is partly for your protection since it keeps others who
are not Detroit Edison customers from getting lamps which you pay
for in your rate for electric service. Also, this practice eliminates
wasteful. renewals and provides the Company with the necessary
records on lamps passed out.
As part of its lamp renewal service, the Company will gladly advise
you as to the proper sizes of lamps to fit your various needs, and will
exchange large sizes for small, and vice versa. The next time you
exchange~lamps, GET THE RIGHT SIZE.
Note: Lamps are renewed without extra charge only for
residential and commercial customers paying lighting rates
and in the following sizes: 25 W, 40 W, 60 W, 100W,
150W, 200W, 300W, 500W, and three-lite lamp, 100,
The Detroit Edisonn Co..
The idea caught on. Last year, the two co-opera-
tive wholesales in England and Scotland were the
central organizations for over 2,000 retail co-
operative societies. These joint wholesales owned,
controlled and operated for the consumer mem-
bers some 150 factories and manufacturing plants.
They owned their coal mines, tea plantations in
Ceylon and India. They were the largest single'
purchaser of Canadian wheat, buying it straight
from the fields.
American co-operatives cannot rival those of
Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Switzerland, New Zea-
land or Germany, where they handle more than
40 ner cent of all retail and wholesale distribu- i