T l 1 U f!1 rx N U IJILY
FRIDAY, JULY 31, 1936
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MANAGING EDITOR ..............THO
ASOCIATE EDITOR ..............THO
Editorial Director ..................Mars]
Assistant Editors: Clinton B. Conger,1
Joseph S. Mattes, Elsie A. Pierce, Tuure
U-porters: Eleanor Barc, Donal Burns, M
Graban, John Hl1pert, Richard E. Lorcl
Elsie Roxborough, William Sours, D
The United States . .
NTERVIEWED as h
back to his post asi
Germany, William E. Dodd drew
comparison between the efforts c
Washington. He has just finishe
lectureship on "Critical Moments in
tory" at the University of Chicago
"One of the points was to s
modern world has refused to l
from the World War," 'Mr. Do
example, Woodrow Wilson offered
same thing that George Washingt
American States in, 1779 when we
There was a good deal of similar
people do not realize.
"By pursuing the Wilson policy
always believed he was right-we w
of this great war preparation an
would have had the money to pa
Wilson was the hope of the world
"Washington carried his point by
If Virginia had stayed out ther
been no Union. But he succeeded<
peans did not."
Most of us recognize today that Wi
His fatal error was that he was w
promise on a bad treaty in order to g
idea. We know now that it would h
to have had no League and a bet
the forces engendered by the vindic
have been too violent for the League
There is no mending the evil the
done. To concede now to German
demands would be to strengthen, no
nationalist forces within her. More
we strengthen the League of Nation
cure do we make the terms of the
it is the fundamental purpose o
to perpetuate the treaty through
terms of the League covenant is vi
sible. The best that has been don
The only logical answer to this ta
the old League behind. It has faile
crises; it is discredited and useless
state. We must build a new League
support the terms of the most blu
settlement the world has ever seen,
chains of that treaty no longer bindi
League may be free to offer substa
tional security on a basis of equitab
of economic resources. One of the
requirements of the success of such
be that it shall include every im
power; unless this is the case, it s
more than a loose group of nations
those interested in preserving the s
those forced to militant action to de
as we could not have had a United S
ginia wanted to preserve her integri
cannot have an effective League of
of the United States insist on prese
tionalism above world peace.
- - tthe six New England states. Missouri is one of
)AILY 17 states which provide school segregation by law.
merSesionAs 0Missouri is one of the eight states which have
ner SessIon I1not passed teachers' oath laws or any of the
other measures designed to put patriotism in the
schools on a compulsory basis. The others are
The Freest State Wisconsin, New Mexico, Ohio, Kentucky, Louis-
(From St. Louis Post-Dispatch) j iana, Mississippi and Alabama. This state is par-
SSOME YEARS AGO H. L. Mencken, while editing ticularly to be congratulated on its absence from
the American Mercury, measured the states of the company of 21 states that require the teachers'
the Union by a series of tests of his devising in an oath.
effort to determine which was the most backward On the basis of one score for each map, the most
of the 48. When all the returns were in, he found points a state could get would be five. Our tally
_ Mississippi occupying the bottom ung. What Mr. shows the freest state to be Wisconsin, which has
~~Msisip ocuruspres.gTtse wbhtthrm srurg.rWhNwtYMrk
Mencken did was considered quite a feat for the four scores. Those with three scores are New York,
T periodical journalism of the time, and many per Washington, Wyoming and New Mexico. Missouri
sons will recall the widespread discussion which it and Illinois each have two, the others with two
stirred being Maine, Louisiana, Ohio, Utah, Minnesota,
"H p. GPennsylvania, Massachusetts and Maryland, which
"How Goes the Bill of Rights?" as the current,
nday during the likes to think of itself as "the Free State."
by the Board in annual report of the American Civil Liberties n reality, the raing of Missouri is higher than
Union is titled, suggests an investigation to deter- .r
Editorial Associa- .its two scores indicate. It lacks wholly the types
(mine which is the freest state in the Union. This istosoe niae tlcswol h ye
iof state laws which affect human rights more ad-
D PRESS 96-page booklet contains five maps, each marking I versely - those designed to curb "radical" activ-
titled to the use the states according to the existence or lack of e a
credited to it orr-ties and those imposing a special loyalty oath on
d the local news repressive legislation or of legislation which guar- teachers.
cation of special antees certain rights. By making a composite \of
We may not enjoy as many scores as Wisconsin,
bor, Michigan, as these maps, by finding out which state has the but Missouri is a free state Let us keep it so
stage granted by highest number of scores, it is possible to identify
r, $1.50, by mail the freest state in terms of the standards of the
carrier, $4.00; by American Civil Liberties Union. Black Eyes And Blindness
Maynard Street,. The first map charts laws to curb so-called "rad- (From the Daily Iowan)
ical" activities. It shows that there are no laws of MOST OF US are inclined to scoff at the serious-
Service, Inc., 420 this sort in Missouri, Texas, Maine, Maryland, ness of a black eye. Invariably a black eye
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina does not receive the attention of a medical doctor.
and Virginia. (In several of the Southern states Dr. Emanuel Krimsky of Brooklyn, N. Y., warns
on this list, old "riot incitement" laws going back in a recent issue of The Sight-Saving Review,
LAS E. GROEHN to slave days stand as curbs against "radical" ac- quarterly journal of the National Society for
MAS H. KLEENE tivities.) The presence of Missouri in this group the Prevention of Blindness, of the seriousness of
hal D. Shulman means that this state has no criminal syndicalist such a physical injury.
ohn W. Pritchard law such as 17 states have, no sedition law such as "Among children-and sometimes among our
Tenander, Jewel 20 states have, no criminal anarchy law such as alcoholic brethren-a black eye is regarded with
ary Delnay, M. E. nine states have and no law against the red flag honor, in the same sense that German students
, Vincent Moore, such as 31 states have, honor a scar on the cheek as evidence of dual-
rothea Staebier, The next map shows the states in terms of laws istic prowess," Dr. Krimsky says. "If such an
limiting the use of the enjoining power in labor outward discoloration represented the whole story,
disputes, providing for jury trials for contempt of we might have reason to laugh it away.
E H. ATHERTON court and abolishing "yellow-dog" contracts. The "But the inexperienced can see only skin-deep.
.JOAN R. PARK states which have legislation of all three sorts It may be that the large majority of these cases
SCameron Hal and so belong in the composite map on this score can well survive the ordeal, even without having
..Robert Lodge t o oadco.Btta eti ubro
are: Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, to go to a doctor. But that a certain number of
Colorado, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, black eyes also show, on more careful examination,
Indiana, Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and either a fracture of the skull or a hemorrhage of
Massachusetts. the eyeball with almost sudden blindness, is not
States with laws relating to religion in the generally known. It would seem almost unrea-
* public schools are shown on another map. The sonable, therefore, to submit all eye injuries to
11 states which rate highest by the Civil Liberties medical examination, to avoid any possibility of
e was sailing Union test, that is, those which prohibit Bible permanent harm."
ambassador to reading, are Illinois, Wisconsin, New York, Louis- In bringing to our attention the many precau-
an interesting iana, Wyoming, New Ne- tions to be employed in saving our eyes the Na-
f Wilson and vada, California and Washington. Missouri is one tional Society for the Prevention of Blindness
d a five-week of the 12 states whose laws are silent on Bible is rendering a great service. And how effective
American His- reading. Bible reading is optional in six states, such an educational program is-includes safe-
Summer Ses- specifically permitted in seven and required in 12. guarding the eyes of infants at birth and im-
The 12 which require it are Maine, Massachusetts,proved lighting-is seen in the prediction made by
how how the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Kentucky, the society indicating that in time there will be
earn anything Idaho, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Arkansas and little or no blindness in the United States.
dd said. "For Tennessee. The two last named and Mississippi
the world the have laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution. Editor's Note
on offered the Still another test of freedom in a state is its at- The last quotation attributed to Professor
got a Union. titude toward Negroes. The states which have no 'Counts in the letter entitled "Democracy,"
rity that most legal restrictions on the rights of Negroes are: which appeared in yesterday's Daily, should
Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, have read: "Remember that I am biased. Re-
'-and I have New York, New Jersey, Kansas, South Dakota, member, too, that every individual you hear
ould have none Montana, Washington, Wyoming, New Mexico and in life is also prejudiced."
To the Editor:
I should like very much to answer
the editorial printed in your paper,
on Wednesday, July 29, 1936, in
which Dr. Irving Maurer, president
of Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., was4
criticised for preferring " . . . per-
sonal administration rather than
bureaucratic management of our af-
fairs . . . " I think the wrong slant
was given an otherwise excellent edi-
torial by the introduction of Dr.
Maurer's statement as it is obvious
that he, and the others whom the
editorial mentions, had in mind the
present day usage of the term and not
the strict meaning selected by your
editorial writer. Incidentally, it
might be of interest to quote the Funk
and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary,
which says, "Bureaucracy-govern-
ment by bureaus, especially by rigid
and arbitrary routine." This defini-
tion gives one more latitude than the
one quoted in the editorial under dis-
As your editorial stated, sensible
people, using the definition chosen by
your writer, would probably be in
agreement with you, but I see no
cause for caustic statements directed
toward those who use the term under
discussion in its more common and,
perhaps, looser sense. Dr. Maurer
made no reference wvhatsoever to the
"G-Men" and would be one of the last
to condemn any efficient bureau aid-
ing the country through law enforce-
ment, hence I resent the implication
that he opposed governmental bu-
reaus as a whole, in his sermon de-
livered at Detroit, as I am sure such
was not his meaning. For these rea-
sons I consider the treatment of Dr.
Maurer in your editorial to be'
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d the nations
y their debts.
only six votes.
e would have
and the Euro-
lson was right.
illing to com-
ain his League
ave been better
ter treaty, -for
y all that she
t appease, the
over, the more
s, the more se-
f the League
which it was
e is to ignore
ngle is to leave
d in important
in its present
not bound to
and with the
ing it, the new
a League must
till will be no
tatus quo and
estroy it. Just
tates had Vir-
ity, just so we
Nations if we
rving our na-
Europe's Intellectual Decay
-Progress Is Stilled While Minds Are Regimented-
(Count Carlo Sforza in Books Abroad, Published at University of Oklahoma)
BEFORE the World War, there was only one
autocratic government in Europe; the Rus-
sian Empire. We should not forget, indeed, that
the Germany of the Junker and of William II, as
well as Austria-Hungary, recognized the freedom
of the press. And where there is freedom of the
press-or even a certain amount of it-it is impos-
sible to speak of dictatorial autocracy.
What characterizes the post-war dictatorships
in Germany, in Italy and in Russia is essentially
this: all newspapers, all books, all printed matter
are instruments of govenmental propaganda, with
the same result everywhere-intellectual debase-
It has been fashionable for years to say that
democracy, is a form of mob rule, while dicta-
torships offer government by the best. But it is
now obvious to everyone that it is the dictatorships
that are organized on the basis of mob rule and
often on the basis of lynch law.
All the European dictators have proved to be
demagogues and first-rate showmen. No Primej
Minister in pre-war Europe was so prodigal of
ready-made, catch-penny phrases as the dic-
tators of post-war Europe-except Stalin, because
he is the only dictator who is sure of his own
One understands now what Cavour meant when
he said that any fool can govern by martial
How is it, then, that such a lowering of the in-
tellectual and moral atmosphere of Europe has
In my opinion, those who answer by citing arma-
ments, feverish nationalistsm and trade barriers as
causes of the world depression are certainly right;
but they forget the main human reason: that dur-
ing the four most horrible years in the history of
the world, the flower of European youth fell in
* ** *
Does not each of us, who lived during or fought
the war, remember that it is on the Carso and on
the Alps, in Flanders and in the pestilential
trenches of ,Macedonia that two or three of our
best friends died-friends whom we considered as
the purest promises for the scientific and moral
life of tomorrow? How many times have I seen
their shades, and have bitterly felt their absence
in the sessions of the Italian Parliament, in which
I took part, or later as I observed the proceedings
Af fthe French Chnmher of Depitie from the m-
that violence was bravery and duty, that blind
obedience, even spiritual obedience, was a moral
virtue, that "patriotism" explained and excused
everything, even spying on a friend on what was
called the "home front," very far from the fire
of the enemy. If the greater part of acts of vio-
lence committed by Fascists in Italy and Nazis
in Germany is characterized by base cowardice,
it is because their authors believed or wished to be-
lieve that after all they were committing acts
of war-where all is permitted.
The dictators accelerated the process of moral
debasement, for everywhere-Russia included-
they favored the flatterers, the so-called experts
(who under the pretext of doing their technical
work have lent themselves without conscience to
serve everybody and everything), but they elim-
inated all the courageous servants of the state, the
most reliable critical minds, the original brains.
(I am not thinking in the least of myself. Am-
bassador to France when Fascism went into power,
I was not "eliminated"; I resigned at once-and
maintained my decision in spite of written en-
treaties by the leader of Fascism to keep my post
with him. I went to the Senate, in Rome, and
opposed Fascism as long as any public discussion
was allowed-end of 1925).
Years of dictatorship have proved that capable
servants stood no chance unless they debased
themselves by a simulated servility and never ven-
tured frankly to disapprove policies they con-
sidered baneful. But the acceptance of rule by
fear ends in the degradation even of those who
prudently thought that they might obey or feign
to obey the demagogue in power, while keeping
free, at the same time, their inner conscience.
It is the same thing everywhere, even when dic-
tators are intellectually powerful, as perhaps was
the case with Napoleon I and Bismarck. The
following description of Napoleonic days in France
is not from a radical but from Catholic and Roy-
"The whole country has become an empire of
lies; newspapers, speeches, prose and poetry, all
distort the truth. If it rains, we are assured that
the sun is shining. Everything leads up to the
master alone. We must above all yell applause
when a mistake or a crime has been committed.
No book may appear without having pages in it
given up to praise of him.
"ThP vrimP - of+he .nnhlinn R.Pnlilinn n - .
AW 'IL c
Consideration. . .
I7HETHER THROUGH spontaneous
public-spiritedness or a conscious-
ness of November, the director of WPA activity in
New York, Victor Ridder, took a drastic step this
week. A member of the Democratic State commit-
tee wrote a letter to 'Secretary Harold Ickes asking
that a WPA foreman who is chairman of his dis-
trict "Win With Roosevelt" club be promoted to a
his- ~-har a arl + i th XTPA^nnrem a t he n+ li imol .