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September 22, 1957 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1957-09-22

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«.

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Marine Disputes A ppear Again in World Affairs

FORMER BOY SCOUTS:
APO's Services Cover Wide Territ

nest
id'
W)-The State
e asked again
provg an ambi-
iding program
University.
ver, the previ-
>gram will be
years and costs
cent higher.
money during
session to get
posed five-year
to cost $103,-
s reJected the

'.r

By SUSAN HOLTZER

I of Agriculture
o resubmit the
e State Budget
ion provides the
s for Governor

They used to wear an eagle and
fleur-de-lis.
Now they wear a black armband
initialed with a white "APO."
The former is the emblem of
the Boy Scouts of America; the
latter, the identification of Alpha
Phi Omega, the National Service
Fraternity.
Performs Many Duties-
APO originated on the campus
of Lafayette College in 1925, as an
outgrowth of the Boy Scouts. Be-
cause of their affiliation with the
organization, an APO member
must at onetime have been a
registered member of the parent
group.
Outside of that one stringent
qualification, the fraternity itself
is a rather nebulous organization,
consisting of an indeterminate
number of members at any given
time, chartered ons this campus
sometime in the 1930's, and per-
forming any particular sdrvice it
happens. to think of at any parti-
cular time.
Registration Work
APO ,like Topsy, seems to have
"jest growed." Its members have'
no clear idea as to just how they
have come to take over the various
progranjs they now run. Whether
suggestions were put forth by the
University, or whether they volun-
teered, no one quite knows.
Be that as it may, the fraternity
now manages to involve itself with
a phenomenal number of 'affairs
and programs, .having become
somewhat hydra-like in its make-
up.

Perhaps their most valuable
"head" is the one that concerns
itself with registratic Besides
administering smelling salts to
overcome freshmen, APO a l s o
operates the Lost and Found
booth, and members act as sort of
roving information agencies.
Poster Service
Smaller but sturdy heads include
the poster service that they oper-
ate for the benefit of any dampus

Rv JOT.HN f' IJUEW

organization that wishes to
itself of this service, a grea
of mimeographing, dittoing
dressographing, and the like
extensive chariyt work, pa
larly for the Boy Scouts.
At present, the fraterni
preparing for its current'
meeting. This will be held on
day, Sept. 24, at 7:30 p.m. in z
3-R and -S of the Union, a
open to all who wish to atter

ms, who in turn '"'""""^ ^^~~~
mmendations to The age-old question of freedom
of the seas is again raising Its head
opriation in contemporary international pol-
will be asked to itics.
8,800 during the Two actions within the last year
r for. a start on have brought the problem into
wilding ' program diplomatic focus once more. In the
eriod. first and better-known of these,
ed that building Israel and the Arab nations are
increased eight disputing the former's right to use
year to account the Aqaba Gulf. In the second,
al. Russia recently announced that
A . Hannah re- Vladivostok Bay would be closed,
a.d that le had to foreign ships in the future.
from George S. Israel claims the gulf is an
r of the State international w a t e r w a y, Arab
>riculture, asking states bordering on the gulf, Egypt
willing, torlease and Saudi Arabia, have declared
the campus asa that it is within their jurisdiction,
ng to house the that' Israeli use would violate Arab
datmeth territorial waters. '
Stare Vladivostok Closure

became that territorial seas, could
have no basis in theory unless a
state could control them in fact.
The Hibernian powers were clearly
unable to control three oceans,
and Great Britain, the Netherlands
and other states went ahead with
expansion and trade.
This rather Machiavellian pro-
cess provided the basis for the
present. doctrine of "freedom of
the seas for all." Subsequent cen-
turies saw the modification of that
basis into a principle of interna-
tional law so important that the
United States in 1812 went to war,.
over it.
Control. Extends
Three natuical miles (about
three. and one-half statute miles)
was the commonly a c c e p t e d
boundary in those days. Now, with

super-weapons, direct control of
the seas can easily be extended
well past the "three-mile limit."
The United States has been one
of the major powers upholding the
three-mile concept. But President
Harry S. Truman's 1945 claim of
tthe continental shelf areas as
American territory violated this
rule, and started a wave of similar
shelf-area claims, particularly in
Latin America.
Fishing rights also complicate
the picture. Particularly in the
Scandinavian area, where fishing
is often the major livelihood of a
nation, states have claimed fish-
ing jurisdiction as far as their
fishing vessels could go. This las
been a constant sore spot between
the Soviet Union and Norway.
President Truman's act and the

subsequent Tidelands Oil dispute
brought home to many people the
fact that immense natural re-
sources exist in submerged waters.'
This is one of the causes of fric-
tion in the Middle East.
International agreements re-a
specting continental shelft rights
are in force in some areas,.but oil
companies, unwilling to risk capi-
tal where no recognized interna-
tional law prevails, are seeking to
establish a group of precedents.
These companies are basing
mush of their hope on. the forth-
coming conference next spring. If
any sort of agreement can be
arrived at, it will provide assur-
ances to the companies. If not,
development of a strategic re-
source of the Middle East-r-oil-
may be seriously hampered.

Tonight 'at 8:00
Color
ROBERT TAYLOR
ELIZABETH TAYLOR
JOAN FONTAINE
ARCHITECTURE AUDITORI UM
5Qe

A

RVAMW lqww

I

so
A o

it
the
was

s add

endation
ek more

Ban
1ave

',I

(Conitiued from Page 1)
out any charges. The group,
ommented, had no idea what
"had to do to return to full
i with the national when its
would again come up at the
onvention.
rker expressed the belief that
S"was nothing sneaky" in the
they had pledged the fellow;
was a freshman. We kept the
d Lodge completely informed
ow things were going, during
hree week rushing period last
h.
tiough he also disliked the
ner in which the man was said
we been pledged, Epker said
roup voted to keep the Am-
t local, "because we felt we
not want to lose them as a
ter."
pile "to my knowledge,'" the
erst pledge would have be-
the first Negro in the fra-
.ty, had the convention not
, Epker said, the University
has had Chinese, Indian and
h members.
' e should pledge a Negro,
n't feel we would -be sus-
ed."
te last fall the Administration
inherst college had asked all
aternities whether thgir pol-'
were in keeping with an Am-
ruling prohibiting discrimin-
in membershij bec. .e of
color or creed.
eta Xi had answered that
was a conflict between its
fraternity's policies and the
erst regulation.

- Moscow's statement on Vladi-
vostok Bay has created conster-
nation among other nations, par-
ticularly Great Britain and Japan.
The Bay forms part of the Japan
Sea, and it closing cuts off a large
part of that sea. Both the British
and the Japanese have declared
Russia's action to be aviolation of
international law and encroach-
ment upon open water.
These two disputes have once
more raised the question of just
what constitutes open water. A
United Nations commission has
been working for more than six
years in an effort to develop a'
working basis for discussions of
maritime disputes.
Conference, Scheduled
Twelve miles was recommended
by this commission as a maximum
figure for territorial sea limits. It
also suggested that an interna-
tional conference be held to fix a
definite figure.
A conference has been scheduled
for next spring in either Rome or
Geneva, but its prospects for
reaching any worthwhile agree-
ment are not good. The problem
which delegates will attempt to
solve has a history reaching back
at least five 'centuries, to the days
when Portuguese, navigators first
ventured forth on unknown seas
and claimed them for Portugal in
the name of Prince Henry the
Navigator.
Historically, the principle of
freedom of the seas is relatively
new. It dates only from the 17th
and 18th centuries, and is largely
an outgrowth of the desires and
efforts of Northern European
states to gain territory in the
newly-discovered c o n t i n e n t s.
Spanish and Portuguese claims to
proprietorship of the Atlantic, Pa-
,cific, and Indian Oceans stood in
the way of these states.
The principle of the agressors
Senifor VPhotos
All senior picture appointments
must be made before Wednesday,
Oct. 9, according to the 'Ensian
staff.
, Seniors may sign' up for ap-
pointments with the 'Ensian Staff
at. the Student Publications Build-
ing, 420 Maynard, from 3:00 to
5:00 daily. If appointments are
broken witliout giving notice, the
$2.00 fee will be forfeited.

MEMBERSHIP MIXER

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