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October 02, 1954 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1954-10-02

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German Arms
And Alhied Unity
LAST MONDAY, representatives of Britain, the
United States, Canada, France, West Germany,
Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
sat down together in London in another attempt
to unify West Europe.
Thursday night, a new proposal emerged. Call-
ing for the armament of West Germany under
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the plan
also proposed the admission of West Germany
and Italy Into the Brussels Pact of 1948.
However, France has again used the veto to de-
feat the rearmament of Germany. Last night, she
refused to okay the proposal, thus once more plac-
ing the entire question of Germany in a precarious
We well may ask if, from the point of world
security, this was the wisest of moves. We may
also ask France exactly what it is that she
Germany has paid well for her role of aggressor
in World War II. The policy of submitting Ger-
many to world humiliation after the First World
War did not achieve anything but bitterness and
discontent among her people. Why should we think
that after the Second World War, it will cause
harmony and repentance? Germany has the right
as a potentially strong nation to be once more ad-
mitted into the family of nations . .. the Western
family. Naturally, there must be precautions taken.
These precautions must be taken because Rus-
sia, planning on continued growth of the Com-
munist Party of East Russia, is anxious to see an
independent West Germany.
Aside from this fact, a powerful European Army
can, not achieve full power without members of
Germany in the corps. With her great industrial
potentialities as well as rich coal and iron fields,
Germany is vital to any effective plan for a West
European Army.
And a West European Army is necessary to safe-
guard the defense of the continent, in the opinion
of the Western powers.
Last May, France vetoed the proposal to in-
clude West Germany in EDC. Now she has
brought about the failure of this new plan, a
plan which has been a compromise betyeen the
requests of that country and the other European
French Premier Pierre Mendes-France told the
conference that the Spaak proposal does not con-
trol the aspects of the manufacture and distribu-
tion of arms rigidly enough.
The Spaak plan to which Mendes-Frances ob-
jects-forwarded by Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian For-
eign Minister-provides for a control organization
to deal with the maximum size and equipment of
a Continental military establishment. The organi-
zation would take the form of an agency respon-
sible to the Consultative Council of the Brussels
Treaty Organization.
The French Premier wishes a plan of his own
to be adopted instead. This proposal would call
for a European Armaments Authority to control
the manufacture and distribution of arms.
EAA would have the authority to place orders
for the manufacture of weapons needed by con-
tinental members, organize and control the de-
livery of the weapons, supervise contracts, author-
ize the export and inspect arms plants in conti-
nental countries.
This suggestion has already been rejected by the
other delegates to the conference as cumbersome
and difficult to operate.
The delegates have given as their reasons for
this rejection, the fact that the executive com-
mittee would have to employ thousands of peo-
ple. Also,a slow down in the pace of European
industry would be an effect.
Thus it appears that another compromise with
France will have to be made. But how much can
the Western Powers, to whom West European
Army is vital and necessary, compromise?
-Louise Tyor
c i


"Yes, Dear" "Yes, Dear" "Yes, Dear"
4 ...

THE JUDGMENT of the Watkins committee
under Category One, whether Sen. McCarthy
was guilty of contempt of the Senate or a Senate
Committee, raises the gravest question in the
whole affair. The question is whether the issue
which this judgment poses can be settled by a
vote of censure.
The Watkins Report deals with Sen. McCar-
thy's refusal, accompanied by denunciations and
insults, to testify before the Sub-Committee on
Privileges and Elections which had his "honesty,
sincerity, character and conduct . . . under in-
quiry." Sen. McCarthy has failed, says the Wat-
kins Report "to explain to the Senate these mat-,
ters: (1) Whether funds collected to fight Com-
munism were diverted to other purposes inuring
to his personal advantage; (2) whether certain
of his official activities were motivated by self-
interest; and (3) whether certain of his activities
in Senatorial campaigns involved violations of
the law."
The judgment of the Watkins committee is that
Sen. McCarthy's failure to explain these charges
to the Senate's Committee on Privileges and Elec-
tions was "conduct contumacious toward the Sen-
ate and injurious to its effectiveness, dignity, re-
sponsibilities, processes, and prestige."
* * * *
FOR THIS THE Senate recommends that he be
censured. But if the Senate votes to censure him
for his failure to testify, what happens after the
censure? Unless Sen. McCarthy goes before the
Committee on Privileges and Elections in order to
testify, he will still be, though censured, "contemp-
tuous" and "contumacious" and "obstructive to leg-
islative processes."
It is hard to see how censure alone can settle
this matter. Unless Sen. McCarthy submits to in-
vestigation on the three charges, the Senate will
not have made, as the Watkins Report says it must,
"the dignity, honor, authority, and powers of the
Senate . . . respected." Sen. McCarthy will still
be avoiding an investigation into charges which,
if proved, would call not for censure but for ex-
THE WATKINS REPORT is so long and so close-
ly reasoned that almost certainly it will not be
read in full by all those who will take a stand
on the hot issues it raises. But the public must
not allow itself to be misled by claims that the
Watkins Committee recommended censure because
of Sen. McCarthy's opinions. The crucial judg-
ment, condemning his contemptuous refusal to ex-
plain charges against his honesty, has nothing to
do with his opinions or with his manners. It has
to do with questions affecting his fitness to hold
public office, with the question, for example, of
whether he used for his personal advantage any
of the funds collected in order to fight Commu-
The gravamen of the finding under Category
One, if the Senate support the Watkins Commit-
tee, is that the investigation by the Sub-Commit-
tee on Privileges and Elections should be resumed
in order to have McCarthy testify before it. This
has nothing to do with freedom of thought. It has
to do with the enforcement of the laws of the land.


* * *


Current Movies

At Architecture Auditorium
THE DESERT FOX starring James Mason
.ROM THE opening scene, a rather confusing
commando raid, to the ending speech by Sir
Winston Churchill, we are led through a maze of
roaring cannon barrages, an overwhelming D-Day
invasion, and various bombing missions to the
conclusion that Field"Marshal Erwin Rommel was
a great man; the unfortunate victim of circum-
stances who could probably have won World War
II for the Germans had he been given a free hand.
The picture is taken from a biography of Rom-
mel written by one Lt. Colonel Desmond Young
of the British Army. In it we see James Mason
as Rommel struggling, in an admirably sub-
dued fashion, to overcome the inner conflict be-
tween his loyalty as a soldier to his superiors,
and his belief that Germany is being led to in-
evitable defeat. It is very dramatic. Rommel
can't quite believe that Hitler is best classed as
"That Berlin abomination."
A plot is hatched by "Sound men, all of them"
to assassinate the Bohemian Corporal, but Rom-
melrefuses to become a party to the plan. His
reason? Really quite simple and after a repeti-
tion or two, a bit boring: "I am a soldier, not a
Hitler himself finally convinces Rommel In a
dandy insane dictator scene. From here on, Rom-
mel somehow or other becomes head plotter. Every-
thing is set. Unfortunately, just at the time the
coup d' etat is scheduled, Rommel's staff car is
straffed, and the field marshal must spend some
time recovering from wounds "that would kill any
but the toughest of soldiers."
Without Rommel the plot fails. Hitler still lives.
'aA t

THE REPORT of t- Sub-Committee was filed
twenty months ago, on Jan. 2, 1953. McCarthy's
contempt of that Sub-Committee, which is now
to be censured, was committed before the report
was filed. The contempt was open and notorious as
long as Jan. 2, 1953. What has happened in the
twenty months to cause the Senate to go back
and revive the issue which it had until now chosen
to ignore?
At bottom what has happened it, I believe,
that McCarthy, instead of working for his party,
showed that his purpose was to rule or to ruin
his party. Twenty months ago he was encouraged
and supported and built up by the party organ-
ization in the belief that he was an effective
fighter against Democrats and a highly useful
supporter of Republicans. The events have showi:.
however, that his real target has been to over-
throw Eisenhower's control of the Party, to purge
and discredit the Eisenhower faction, and to
make himself the big boss of the Republicans.
He has compelled the Eisenhower wing of the
Party to fight back and he had made it clearer
and clearer that the issue is he or they, his ruin
or their ruin. The reality first became clear last
autumn in his television speech, ostensibly ans-
wering President Truman, in reality challenging
President Eisenhower. That was when the fight be-
gan which has led to the Watkins committee.
In this fight, waged nominally against Com-
munists, ostensibly against the Democrats, really
against Eisenhower, McCarthy has lost ground
steadily. Why? In the last analysis because he
ran out of ammunition. His campaign depended
on his making good on his charges that the gov-
ernment under the Democrats and even under
the Republicans is infiltrated with spies and
traitors. Had he been able to ferret out one ser-
ious spy or traitor during the past year, his
power would not have declined so spectacularly as.
soon as people in Washington began to stand
up to him. But all he could do was to try and
hitch-hike on the serious investigations conduct-
ed by the F.B.I. The country has gradually
realized that he was not really contributing any-
thing of importance to the detection of spies
and traitors, and that he was enormously con-
fusing the whole issue.
* * * *
THE DAMAGE done during these twenty months
to the morale of the -nvrnm n+ vnnr +o itr,.

WASHINGTON-The resolution censuring Senator McCarthy, now
almost certain to pass the Senate, will be only the beginning of
jumpy Joe's troubles. His colleagues are now talking about hitting
him with a one-two punch.
" Number one punch: This will be the censure vote itself, which
should send Joe sprawling. Now that the Watkins Committee has
knocked down McCarthy's guard by recommending censure, most Sen-
ators are eager to vote against him.
Number two punch: A group of Senators, led by Republican
Ralph Flanders of Vermont and Democrat Clint Anderson of
New Mexico, are planning to follow up the censure tote with a
demand that McCarthy reply to the long-unanswered questions
about his finances.
This could lead to the final knockout blow-namely, impeach-
ment by the Senate.
Meanwhile, doctors at Bethseda Naval Hospital whisper that Mc-
Carthy's recent "sick spell" was not so much sinus as it was nerves.
It is true that McCarthy has had chronic sinus trouble. It is
also true that, immediately after the Watkins recommendation to
censure him, McCarthy turned up at Bethseda Naval Hospital
for sinus reatment. But the doctors frankly found more wrong
with his nerves than his sinus.
Chronic sinus is aggravated by damp weather, they point out.
McCarthy came for treatments after the "sinus season" during a com-
parative dry spell.
One doctor told this column that McCarthy's nerves were "shot,"
also that he has been drinking more than is good for him. Joe seldom
turns down a can of beer or a shot of bourbon, but in the past, he
hasn't really been a heavy drinker.
MEANWHILE, Senators Flanders and Anderson intend to keep Mc-
Carthy on the defensive. They are counting on Joe's personal un-
popularity with his fellow Senators to roll up a decisive vote against
him. Now that a dignified Senate committee has recommended cen-
sure, it gives Senators all the excuse they need to vote against hin'
After the roll call, Flanders and Anderson will demand that
Joe answer the questions about his finances that he has ducked
for two years. They will point out that one of the censure counts
is McCarthy's contempt for the committee which investigated his
finances, also that McCarthy himself has criticized witnesses who
refused to answer questions.
On these grounds, they will introduce a follow-up resolution call-
ing upon McCarthy to answer the questions he has been dodging. If
these answers are unsatisfactory, they may urge another investigation
to determine whether McCarthy ought to be impeached.
Note 1-Chairman Arthur Watkins of the censure committee
fought vigorously behind closed doors for a stronger report con-
demning McCarthy. Once a McCarthy admirer, Watkins cooled
off abruptly after Joe issued a public statement hinting that the
Agriculture Department is riddled with Communists. Both Wat-
kins and Agriculture Secretary Ezra Benson are Mormons.
Note 2-Sen. Herbert Lehman, New York Democrat, is compiling
all the evidence that the Watkins Committee overlooked. He plans to
bring it up on the Senate floor during the censure debate. However,
his colleagues are urging him to lay off, for fear the censure counts
will be lost in the ensuing verbal brawl.
ANOTHER AFTERMATH of the McCarthy hearings may be a move
to cnsure Joe's political pal-suave, curly-haired Sen. Everett
Dirksen of Illinois, a Chicago Tribune Republican.
Senators are gravely concerned over an unpublicized finding,
namely that Dirksen sent a political agent into secret sessions of
the McCarthy Investigating Committee where highly confidential
matters were discussed. What's more, this unauthorized visitor
actually took part in questioning Brig. Gen. Ralph Zwicker about
secret security matters.
The man in question is Harold Rainville, formerly Dirksen's
assistant, who since mid-1953 has been employed by the Republican
Senatorial Campaign Committee.
Though not on the Senate payroll, Rainville attended several
secret committee sessions at Dirksen's authorization and with Mc-
Carthy's permission. This was done in utter contempt of the rules
and traditions of the Senate. In fact, it was a violation of the Mc-
Carthy Committee's own rules, which state that only committee mem-
bers or authorized staff assistants may question witnesses and that
only official committee representatives may attend closed-door ses-
In 1929, Sen. Hiram Bingham, Connecticut Republican, was offI-
cially censured by the Senate for doing almost exactly what Dirksen
did. The charge against Bingham was that he allowed an unauthor-
ized person to attend closed sessions of a Senate Committee.
(Copyright 1954, by the Bell Syndicate)

HAVING learned Dirty Hands,
went by the names of Les Maines
Sales (Paris), Red Gloves (New
York), Cerveni Rukavice (Prague),
we were not taken totally aback
last night when the title So Little
Time flashed across the Orpheum's
But no fratricide. And not a
trace of Jean Paul Sartre. And
a different movie entirely.
Feeling slightly betrayed, we
tore up our notes on existen-
tialism and turned our attention
to the credits, which by now had
reached the "Miss Schell's gowns"
stage, so we can at least report
it was a British movie.
It can further be classed as a
"problem" film. The scene is oc-
cupied Belgium during World War
II; a German officer and a Bel-
gian girl contrive to fall in love.
The film attempts to deal with
the morality of this, and if the
question is not quite answered, the
attempt itself is noteworthy.
What really is asked Is this:
does there actually exist a bond
or a potential feeling between men
which transcends realities, how-
ever evil, such as war? Specifical-
ly, does war imply a total personal
committment to the friend/enemy
Ina time like now, where the
measure of a man seems to
chiefly be determined by the na-
ture of his political affiliation,
the question appears to be par-
ticularly pertinent.
Marius Goring as the comman-
dant played with great distinction
and managed to avoid the two pit-
falls the part might lead a lesser
actor to: the Nazi stereotype on'
the hand, beer and gemutlicheit
on the other.
An equally brilliant performance
was turned in by Marie Schell.
A lovely and gifted actress, above
all she possesses the rare quality
of intelligence, a quality which
does not seem to agree too well
with our more amply bosomed
screen ladies. -J. W. Malcolm
Monkey Business ..
WHAT IS going on at the Uni-
versity of Michigan in con-
nection with the investigation of
alleged subversion activities of
three members of the teaching
staff is not a matter alone of the
Regents, the President of the Uni-
versity, the faculty and of the stu-
dent body but is a matter of grave
concern of all civilized people of
this state and of this country.
The background of this struggle
is as old as civilization itself; it is
a struggle between the forces of
dark, savage, irrational fears of
the primitive tribal days and of
the powers of light, of reason, of
enlightment, of free inquiry into
understanding and knowledge.
The Regents of the University
and the President of the Univer-
sity have put on blinkers, stuffed
cotton into their ears and assumed
the role of the proverbial three
Chinese monkeys, of "Hear noth-
ing, See nothing, Know nothing,
and you'll be Happy." It is up to
the articulate and fearless to see

to it, that they will hear every-
thing, see everything, know more
than they are willing to know, and
by all means don't let them be
The two men who were dismiss-
ed are men of rare intellectual
courage and integrity; they are
men who ought to be praised and
rewarded for speaking fearlessly
on behalf of their convictions, ev-
en though those convictions are
today unpopular with the unthink-
ing mob. This country was settled
by fearless and courageous men
and women and this country will
not survive unless we will have
fearless and courageous men and
women who will not be intimidat-
ed by those who do not wish to
be disturbed in the enjoyment of
their privileges.
The University of Michigan was
once a great, not only a large uni-
versity, it is up to the Faculty, the
student body to preserve that
greatness, if the Regents and the
President have not the courage to
preserve it. -Lee H. Gregory
Rogers City, Michigan


The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication (be.
fore 10 a.m. on Saturday).
Vol. LXV, No. 11
Freshman Testing Program: Make-up
sessions for Freshmen who missed any
of the Aptitude tests given during Ori-
entation Week will be held on Tues.,
Oct. 5 and Thurs., Oct. 7. Please report
to Room 130, Business Administration
promptly at 7:00 p.m. For further infor-
mation call ext. 2297.
Late permission for women students
who attend the second performance of
"All Star Jazz at the Philharmonic" on
Wed., Oct. 13, at Hill Auditorium, will
be no later than 45 minutes after the
end of the performance.
The Art Print Loan Collection, 510
Administration Building: All prints
that have been reserved will be held
till Sat., Oct. 2. Monday they will be
made available to students, members
of the faculty, and employees of the
University. Any rental fees for prints
that have not been picked up will not
be refunded.
..University Directory. Al additions
and corrections for office and home ad-
dresses must be reported by Mon., Oc-
tober 11. For further information, call
Florence Boyd, 1523 Administration
Bldg., Extension 2152.
Academic Notices
The make-up exam for the Botany 1
course of spring semester, 1954, will be
given on October 5 at 7:30 p.m. in
room 2004, Natural Science Building.
Doctoral Examination for Elliott
Greenberg, Chemistry: thesis: "Prep-
aration and Thermodynamics of Urani-
um Oxyhalides," Saturday, October 2,
3003 Chemistry Bldg., at 9:00 a.m.
Chairman, E. F. Westrum, Jr.
Doctoral Examination for Charles
Manson Thatcher, Chemical Engineer-
ing; thesis: "Local Rates of Mass
Transfer in a Packed Bed of Spheres,
with Orifice Entry of Air," Saturday,
October 2, 3201 East Engineering Bldg.,
at 9:00 a.m. Chairman, J. C. Brier.
Events Today
The Congregational-Disciples Guild:
Football Open House - Right after the
game. Guild House, 438 Maynard.
S.R.A. Saturday Lunch Discussion.
12 noon at Lane Hall. Ulrich Curtius,
Fulbright Scholar from Germany will
discuss World University Service. Call
Reservations to NO 3-1511, extension
Alice Lloyd Hail, Coffee Hour after
football game, Oct. 2, 4:00-6:00 p.m.
Episcopal Student Foundation. Can-
terbury Square Dance will be held Sat-
urday, October 2, at 8:00 p.m., at the
Parish House. Stag or drag. Cider and
doughnuts will be served.
Open House at Muriel Lester Co-op,
Editorials printed in the Mich-
igan Daily are written by mem-
bers of The Daily staff and rep-
resent the views of the writer
,only. This must be noted in all

900 Oakland, on Saturday, Oct. 2 aft.
er football game. Refreshments served.
Everybody welcome.
Jordan Hall is having an Open House
after today's football game. Everyone
is welcome to come and enjoy refresh-
ments and dancing."
Coming Events
Informal Folk Sing at Muriel Lester
Co-op, 900 Oakland, on Sun., Oct. 3 at
8 p.m. Everybody invited.
"A Survey of Liturgical Music." A dis-
cussion course, treating the items of the
Jewish Service, the Roman Catholic
Mass and the Protestant liturgies, with
special emphasis upon the music: its
history and importance in the service.
Under the leadership of Miss Marilyn
Mason, Assistant Professor of Music.
Lane Hall. 4:15 p.m.
Graduate Outing Club will meet Sun.
at 2 p.m. at the N.W. entrance to the
Rackham Bldg. Wear old clothes. Bring
cars if have. Return about 7. Newcom-
ers welcome.
The Fireside Forum Group of the
First Methodist Church for single grad-
uate students and young adults of
post-college age will meet at the back
of the church at 2:00 Sun. for an after-
noon outing, Transportation will be
provided. The regular evening meeting
will be held in the Youth Room at 7:30
at which time the Director of Christian
Education, Helen Thomas, will be the
Hillel: Sun., Oct. 3. Supper club at
6:00 p.m. followed by record dance.
The Unitarian Student Group will
meet Sun., Oct. 3, 7:30 p.m. at the
church. Students interested in trans-
portation will meet at Lane Hall at 7:15.
Transportation will also be provided at
7:15 in front of Alice Lloyd Hall for
students in that vicinity.
Kaffeestunde. The first .afternoon
coffee hour sponsored by the German
Club will be at 3:15 Monday, Oct. 4.
It provides an opportunity for speaking
and learning German in an informal
atmosphere. The faculty will be repre-
sented. The Kaffeestunde meets regu-
larly at 3:15 on Mondays and Thurs-
days throughout the academic year.
THOUGH America's scientists in
their great quest for know-
ticipation of breakthroughs on
every frontier of the unknown, the
past year has filled them with
doubt and discouragement. Odd-
ly enough, their doubt and disc;
couragement rise from the very
area in which the scientists have
contributed most largely to the
nation and in which they have
been most lavishly recompensed.
This is the area of national se-
-The Economist
Sixty-Fifth Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board In Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Eugene Hartwig.......Managing Editor
Dorothy Myers................City Editor
Jon Sobeloff..........Editorial Director
Pat Roelofs.......Associate City Editor
Becky Conrad.........Associate Editor
Nan Swinehart......Associate Editor
Dave Livingston......... Sports Editor
Hanley Gurwin ..Assoc. Sports Editor
Warren Wertheimer -
..............Associate Sports Editor
Roz Shlimovitz........Women's Editor
Joy Squires .... Associate Women's Editor
Janet Smith. .Associate Women's Editor
Dean Morton.......Chief Photographer
Bu~siness Staff
Lois Pollak........,Business Manager
Phil Brunskill, Assoc. Business Manager
Bill Wise.........Advertising Manager
Mary Jean Monkoski..Finance Manager
Telebhone NO 23-24-1

Mr. Attlee's Slim Victory




T HERESHOULD be a general'
sigh of relief throughout the
democratic West now that the
resolution to support German re-
armament has squeaked through
the annual conference of the Bri-
tish Labor party at Scarborough.
It was a close call, as it figured to
be one way or another, but in a
democracy like Britain the verdict
of a majority, however slim, is
Defeat would have been at least
a minor catastrophe for the Labor
movement, because it would have
shown the party as a whole (re-
presented by the present meeting
in Scarborough) at odds with the
Trades Union Congress, which en-
dorsed German rearmament on
Sept. 8, and with the Parliamen-
tary Labor party headed by Clem-
ent Attlee and Herbert Morrison.
Defeat would likewise have been
a serious impediment to the Nine-
Power Conference in London
which is seeking an agreed basis
for German sovereignty ahd re-
armament. Foreign Secretary Ed-
en has to remember that there
will be a general election next
year and that the public opinion
polls are running in favor of the
Socialists. It would have been dif-

ficult to commit Britain to a pol-
icy that seemed against the popu-
lar will.
The great question - still in
doubt - is where British public
opinion does stand on this issue.
The conflict within the Labor
movement should not be misun-
derstood. While there are a few
trade unions dominated or swayed
by Communists or fellow-travelers,
the sentiment against German re-
armament is in no sense a reflec-
tion of Communist sympathy.
There is and always has been a
powerful religious and moralistic
urge for pacifism in the Labor
movement. In addition, there is
the ineradicable thought in the
Socialist ranks that conciliation
and negotiation must be possible
even with Communist Russia. At
last, but by no means least, these
is a strong residue of suspicion
and fear of the Germans among
all Britons- a natural hangover
from two World Wars.
All this builds up a tidal wave
of emotion which makes it actual-
ly gratifying that the annual con-
ference of the Labor party should
have voted for German rearma-
ment by any margin at all.
-N.Y. Times





Political Nuisance' Activity A llowed

Louisville, Ky.
The right of a Courier-Journal
employee to become a "political
nuisance" in the community dur-
it-no 'hi nffr? ty hrnic ha hP

the newspaper. Now a registered
Democrat, he is a former member
of the Progressive Party.
Recently Mr. Braden and his
mrf m - fnrmpr rniri-.r_ T-n.vnrl

ever been Communist Party mem-
bers, or whether they had ever
read or subscribed for the Daily
Worker, party newspaper.
Trha Rraann e rfusedt+noanswer.

if they aren't working deviously in
behalf of the newspaper, Mr. Bra-
den would be fired for the unor-
thodoxy of his political views.
"We cannot rnc.1 that any em-

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