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November 22, 1953 - Image 9

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1953-11-22

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SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1953

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

PAGE WMY

NO APATHY YESTERDAY:
Michigan Rooters Match OSU Visitors

(Continued from Page 1)
in an effort to bring the steel
structure down. Their efforts a
failure, the goal-post sitters did
minor acrobatics for the crowd
which didn't leave until nearly
half an hour after the actual game
was over.
One Ohio State student did
manage to get the top part of
the goal post after some minor
skirmishes. Swinging the heavy
pole in front of him to force
others to keep their distance, he
carried it out of the stadium.
Other fights broke out, resulting.
in one bleeding battler being rush-
ed to the dressing room. State
police moved in and one policeman
claimed at least half a dozen peo-
-ple had been pulled in for dis-
k)orderliness.
S* * *
ADDING TO THE toll of the
afternoon were 13 yard markers
j taken by eager souvenir hunters.
State police reported no serious
auto accidents, only minor bump-
:er collisions.
By 4:30 p.m. the stands were
empty and only a few hangers
on still ran over the field trying
to drum up some more excite-
vment.
Empty bottles, hot dog wrappers
and discarded programs remained
the only evidence of the afternoon
that closed Michigan's 1953 foot-
ball season.

Calendar of Events
MONDAY:
Arnold Vas Dias, noted Dutch journalist, will discuss "The Press
in Europe" at 3 pm. in Auditorium A, Angell Hall. The address will be
under the auspices of the journalism department.
Emilie Sargent, Executive Director of the Visiting Nurse
Association of Detroit, will give a School of Public Health lecture
at 4 p.m. in the School's Auditorium. Topic of the address is
"Public Health Nursing Care of the Sick at Home."
The Interdepartmental Seminar in Machine Computation will hold
a discussion on the subject 'Analog and Digital Computation Meth-
ods in Nuclear Reactor Space Simulation" at 4:30 pm. in Rm. 429
Mason Hall. The discussion will include the use of MIDAC to perform
problems in simulation of reactors.
Prof. Marian A. Owen of the School of Music will present a
piano recital at 8:30 p.m. in Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. The
concert is part of a series of presentations by faculty members of
the School of Music.
* . , *
TUESDAY:
Prof. Sydney Chapman of Oxford University will present the ninth
in his series of lectures on "The Earth's Atmosphere" Topic of the
address is "The Aurora Polaris: Its Morphology." Sponsored by the
astronomy department, Prof. Chapman's address will begin at 4 p.m. in
Rm. 1400, Chemistry Bldg.
A zoology department lecture will be given by Prof. F. J. W.
Roughton, colloid science specialist at Cambridge University, on
the topic "Recent Work on the Kinetics of Hemoglobin and, Its
Application to the Problems of Gas Exchange in the Human Be-
ing" at 4:15 p.m. in Rackham Amphitheater.
Fourth concert of the University Musical Society's Choral Union
Series will be presented by the dePaur Infantry Chorus at 8:30 p.m.
in Hill Auditorium.
WEDNESDAY
Thanksgiving Recess will begin at 5 p.m.

Jp
COy
Ttw

I

o1rdavESS

0S

I'lt

1to

Between
South University
& Washtenaw
on Forest
Open Monday Noon
till 8:30

-Daily-Don Campbell
TOUCHDOWN--Michigan fullback Dick Balzhiser smashes
across for the first score in yesterday's game as Ohio State guard
Dave Williams (64) makes the tackle too late.

SPORTSWEAR at our
CAMPUS TOGGERY
1111 South University
near the Diag

I

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El

.

Paid Political Advertising

F

CULTY

D

STUDE

TS

C'

E

Wesleyans Link Religion, Liberty

/4'

" 4

Free Thought Upheld,
By Labor Youth League

(Newman Club Talks of Goals

We BELIEVE that our tradi-
tions of religious liberty and
our political democracy are in-
extricably linked, and that relig-
ion has a vital relevance to the
problems of society and nation. We
also recognize that freedom in
whatever form is limited, that man
is free to do' as he pleases so long
as he does not in any way encroach
upon the freedom and liberty of
others. Therefore we wish to pre-
sent the following paragraphs as
representative of our views upon
the current issue of Academic
Freedom:
"It is our belief that God speaks
to and may speak through every
individual, and therefore each per-
son has the obligation to follow
the dictates of his conscience,
which may lead him to express

dissent, and to take responsibility
for constructive action.
"Each citizen should be encour-
aged to enrich society with his in-
sights. Recently many Americans,
their fears heightened by possible
Soviet aggression, seem to have
lost their faith in that individual
freedom of conscience and expres-
sion which sustains a free society.
There have been many demands
for conformity, reflected in aca-
demic circles by demands that
teachers sign (loyalty) oaths, that
dissenting speakers be denied plat-
forms, that critical books be ban-
ned. These seem to us to be evi-
dence of a spiritual "failure t.of
nerve."
"We call upon Americans to re-
affirm their faith in the integrity
of the individual. We believe it

Knappen Cites Conflict
Of Reality and Idealism

By MARSHALL KNAPPEN
Professor of Political Science
Maintaining academic freedom
is very important. How to d
it is one of the major problems o:
our time, and those who made the
effort to focus the attention of ouj
University community on thi
problem are greatly to be con-
gratulated.
In the ideal university academic
freedom - the privilege, afte
adequate study, of holding, ex-
pounding and advocating any set
of value judgments in any field
- would be an absolute and un-
trammeled right for everyone
Such an ideal university would
be securely located on an inac-
cessible island, would be supported
by adequate endowment funds
under its own control, and would
be composed of persons devoted to
the cause of learning in general
and academic freedom in particu-
lar.
In a real university in a real
world the conscientious scholar
will do his best to conform to
the ideal pattern, as Plato ad-
vised, whether there is. or ever
can be in fact any such heaven-
ly organization. What his best
will be in any given set of
circumstances will vary as con-
ditions vary. In the real world
the scholar must consider the
sources of a university's sup-
port, the prevailing temper of
the society in which it exists,
and the fallible nature and
limited outlook of some of the
people who compose it.
Most of the American academic
world has, in fact, never enjoyed
unlimited academic freedom. For
example, the American Associa-
tion of University Professors has
traditionally recognized the right
of denominationally-controlled in-
stitutions to make adherence to
immrn A Mf Tnu 1

certain religious principles an
essential condition of a teacher's
n employment. In an era when the
o free world is being challenged by
f a world-wide movement which
e holds as one of its cardinal prin-
r ciples Lenin's thesis that long-
s continued coexistence of the Com-
- munist and capitalistic state sys-
tems is impossible and that in
the end one or the other must
r conquer, comparable limitations
- are unfortunately inevitable. One
who would deny academic freedom
to others has no moral right to
it himself. At a time when the
- survival of the free world must
be our primary objective the con-
stitutional right of elected offici-
als toconduct inquiries cannot
be challenged.
However much we may de-
plore the self-seeking and dem-
agogic manner in which such
inquiries are sometimes con-
conducted and the harmful ef-
fects they produce in the aca-
demic world, the cure for this
situation must rest with the
voters. In an all-out struggle -j
for survival professors and stud-j
ents are expendable as well aso
service men and career diplo-;
mats.
The argument for maintaining
the highest possible degree of
academic freedom, including per-t
mission for otherwise qualifiedt
Communists to teach, must, in myt
opinion, rest on tactical consider-f
ations rather than attempts tok
establish a claim to absolute
rights during a life-and-death1
struggle. More is to be gained, ats
present, by permitting Commun-
ists to teach - though they havet
no moral right to do so in a freer
society they aim to destroy -
than is lost by any damage they
can do.t
Our present hysteria over theI
supposed menace of a party re-c
n ,. a c. a n+ i n cr O infnif .ci n .. r

basically important for all people
to support educational efforts
which respect the right of the
teacher to seek and teach the truth
as he finds it, and of the student
to study differing views in arriv-
ing at his own judgements. The
society toward which we work
thrives on creative diversity and
withers on coerced conformity."
--from a statement on Aca-
demic Freedom approved
by the Executive Board of
the American Friends
Service Committee, Jan. 9,
1952.
Yet we must also recognize
that the general issue of Aca-
demic Freedom is spoken of very
broadly and with many varying
meanings. In the face of this,
we cannot propose a simple def-
inition which all could accept;
however, we wish to state the.
following specific aclarations,
to which we feel that we have
been led by our Christian faith:
1. Education, in order to serve
democracy, must of necessity in-
clude the presentation and criti-
cal evaluation of various opinions,
both majority and dissenting. Thus
only can the ideals of individual
citizenship be fostered and youth
be taught to make up their own
minds by examining and apprais-
ing the differing opinions in to-
day's conflicts, in order to vote in-
telligently and other wise express
their convictions in action. This
requires that the widest freedom
possible, within the bounds of taste
and certain standards of profes-
sional conduct (stated below),
should be observed in respect to
the expression and exchange of
ideas in the classroom, from the
lecture platform, and through
reading matter.
2. Employment or non-employ-
ment in the teaching profession
should be based primarily upon
academic proficiency, teaching
ability, recognition of certain ethi-
cal principles which should be
considered as essential to the pro-
fession, and a normally decent
and healthy moral life. Hence
membership or suspected associa-
tion with any particular group or
organization should not be taken
as a criterion for hiring or firing.
3. Certain activities, such as
conscious distortion of fast to sup-
port a personal opinion, teaching
opinion in such a way as to re-
quire its acceptance as fact, a
conspicuous attitude of viewing
teaching chiefly as a "sounding
board" for personal convictions or
proselytizing, etc. should be re-
garded as violations of the profes-
sional standards mentioned above,
and if proved to be habitual and
uncorrected, might conceivably be
held as grounds for dismissal.
4. Other activities, more difficult
to identify or "prove," may also be
deplored: such as the hiding of
one's opinions or convictions in1
order to subtly foster and support

The celebration of Academic
Freedom Week is a demonstra-
tion to those who would set up a
tyranny over mind and thought
that we, students of all shades
of opinion and belief, join hands
in saying: we will think for our-I
selves. We will investigate all
ideas - popular and unpopular;
we will use logic and rational pro-
cedures in the study of all sub-
jects - including economic and
political questions; and we will
follow the evidence of study and
research to whatever conclusion it
leads.
The attempt to set up a
tyranny over ideas is nothing
novel. One reads in history of
the Inquisition; of the Star
Chamber; and of the witchhunts
of early New England fame. One
is reminded of great figures like
Socrates, Christ, Joan of Arc,
and Galileo who had to face
the McCarthyites of their own
times. Socrates' enemies ac-
cused him of "corrupting the
youth." That has a familiar
ring. Christ was an uncooper-
ative witness lbefore the com-
mittee of his day. The Bible re-
lates: "And the chief priests ac-
cused him of many things; but
he answered nothing."
Yet the ideas of Socrates and
Christ, and countless others, still
flourish.
In more recent times our own
country has witnessed a small but
powerful group of people degrad-
ing themselves in a futlie attempt
to suppress ideas. Recall the
famous Scopes Case of 1925 in
which the State of Tennessee
placed a man on trial because he
taught the theory of evolution in
public school. Recall the Sacco
and Vanzetti Case in which the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts
sentenced two men to be execut-
ed for a crime from which all the
evidence absolved them, including
a confession by one of the actual
participants. But Sacco and Van-
zetti held "unpopular" ideas, they
were anarchists, they had opposed
World War I.
Recall the Rosenberg Case,
which also took place during a
"red scare", in which, protest-
ing their innocence to the end,
two people were put to death for
conspiring to steal atomic
secrets which scientists all over
the world claimed could have
not have been stolen. But the
Rosenbergs held "unpopular"
ideas, they were progressives, -
they opposed the Korean War. .
And today, read the newspapers.
Eighty-one teachers fired in New
York; one-hundred fired in Cali-
fornia; a sixty-eight-year-old Dai-
ly Worker correspondent sentenced
to twenty years in jail for "sedit-
n,,,, wr,,inv n,.n,,tec, smingt

The McCarthyites of every age
have ever found an appropriate
excuse for repression. Yesterday
it was religious heresy. Today it
is Communism. Any excuse, as
long as it causes people to fear to
think and act for themselves.
Note such words as those of
Thomas Mann, which sketch
the grim path of a people that
loses the right to do its own
thinking: "I testify that ... as
an American citizen of German
birth, I am painfully familiar
with certain political trends.
Spiritual intolerance, political
inquisitions, and declining le-
gal security, and all this in
the name of an alleged 'state of
emergency' . . .that is how it
started in Germany. What fol-
lowed was fascism, and what
followed fascism was war."
It is no accident that fascism
and war are such close collabora-
tors. The would be American
Hitlers need war to produce that
"state of emergency" where con-
flicting opinions can be suppress-
ed, where new ideas are slaughter-
ed at birth, where social progress
is impossible, where the benefici-
aries of the status quo have no
fear of change. And towards this'
end, they need to make it seem
that peaceful negotiations must
fail, that war is inevitable.
The outcome in Germany need
not repeat itself in the United
States. But then it is necessary for
us to become continuers of that
heritage of independent thought
for which so many men and
women throughout history have
struggled.
Today, McCarthyism, like an
octopus, slowly pushes out its
tentacles in every direction,
bringing about an increasing
strangulation of civil liberties
wherever it gets a hold. The
Investigating Committee is one
arm, and it strangles by smear
and innuendo; the Smith Act is
another arm, and it strangles
by trial and jail for "dangerous
thoughts;" the McCarran- Wal-
ters Act is another arm, and it
strangles by political deporta-
tion; the McCarran Act is an-
other arm, and it strangles by
"registration". And reaching
straight into the center of
campus life is the a r m of
McCarthyism which sets up
political criteria for teaching.
Let us not deceive ourselves; we
cannot free the land of this danger
by fighting loose from only one
tentacle, the one which seizes 'us.
We must work together and make
the monster shrink back and flee
for its life; we must chop off all
its strangulators, we must direct
our blows at its very heart.
Let us then take as the theme
for our work the stanza from an
n.I (r.n'ia foilk, viG 4hiO,

Academic freedom has been
widely construed these days
as the liberty of a professor to ex-
press himself as he pleases on any
subject. However, it has been the
experience of units of society that
such self-expression is not always
advantageous and that only as
much freedoni can be allowed to
the members as is harmonious
with the purposes of the unit. The
purpose of academic units has
been to acquire and retain know-
ledge of what is true; freedom to
discover and disseminate the
truth was essential, just as free-
dom to teach falsehood was unen-
durable.
How does the University of
Michigan correspond to this pat-
tern for academic units? We
notice immediately that there are
almost as many different ideas of
its purpose as there are admin-
istrators and faculty, which means
that there is no general idea of
its purpose. But any kind of free-
dom exists only in relation to a
goal and is measured in relation
to the obtainability of that goal.
Academic freedom cannot even
be defined unless the professors
set some sort of unified goal for
themselves: then the observer
could tell if they are free to reach
the goal.
Under the present circun-
stances, then, it is extremely
difficult to decide whether or
not academic freedom is ad-
vantageous, or even what sort
of academic freedom is under
discussion. If the traditional
freedom to discover truth be
what we are talking about, it
is unfortunately all too evident
that truth is not of major im-
portance today. To no one, un-
less to his own conscience, does
the professor have any respon-
sibility for the truth of his
statements. Even if he differs
violently and/or foolishly with
experts in his own field, his dis-
Young
Friends
Comment
We of the Young Friends group
feel that an essential part of a
college education in a democracy
is the student's exposure to a wide
range of ideas and viewpoints. In
times of national stress we feel it
especially important that we re-
sist the temptation to become
rigid in thought,
In accordance with this we
believe that the primary con-
sideration in selecting a teacher
should be an examination of his
competency in his specific field.
Membership in any organiza-
tion should neither be used as a
sole criterion for employment,
nor as sole criterion for dis-

agreement is "just another new
theory." Or two professors may
have opposite views on some
basic fact; instead of alarming
anyone, this is considered
healthy. Apparently our aca-
demic society, symptomatic of
our total society, has lost the
ability to see that certain
courses of 'action are suicidal
and that progress is only gain-
ed by building on the discoveries
(intellectual as well as geogra-
phic and mechanical) of former
ages.
To toss out the idea that man's
mind is capable of learning the.
truth, in favor of the idea that he
may occasionally have a few glim-
mers of truth but can never know
anything for sure, is not to be-
come more free but to descend to
chaos 'and sterility. Today's aca-
demicians have the responsibility,
as well as the privilege, of insist-
ing on the truth. And it is more
difficult for them than for their
predecessors, because for most of
them there is no higher intellec-
tual authority than their own
minds. To them belongs the dig-

nity of lonely men, and the nee-
essity of humility before the im-
mensity of the problem is always
with them.
One other problem remains to
be considered: what of the student
and academic freedom? Most of
the above also applies to him, but
with special caution. It is one
thing to express freely your un-
derstanding of the truth after
years of study and sifting of the
conflicting claims of this schooi
and that, to bring to self-ex-
pression years of discipline and a
mature mind. The student must
be wary of presuming complete
knowledge on the basis of brief
acquaintanceship, a n d of too
rashly stating his own point of
view as the absolute truth. If his
ideas are true, they will grow
clearer with time and control; if
false, he will be glad he did not
express them. The student, after
all, comes to the university to
learn, not to teach.
Academic freedom, then, is but
one facet of the problem of our
time: How free is man, and how
must he react to his freedom?

Westminster Group
Quotes Grand Council,

"S erious thought needs to be
given to the menace of com-
munism in the world of today and
to the undoubted aim on the part
of its leaders to subvert the
thought and life of the United
States. Everlasting vigilance is
needed.
"At the same time the citizens
of this country . . . have reason
to take a grave view of the situa-
tion which is being created by
the almost exclusive concentration
of the American mind upon the
problem of the threat of Com-
munism ..
"Treason and dissent are be-
ing confused. The shrine of
conscience and private judg-
ment, which God alone has a
right to enter, is being invaded.
Un-American attitudes toward
ideas and books are becoming
current. Attacks are being made
upon citizens of integrity and
social passion which are utterly
alien to our democratic tra-
dition .. .
"We suggest therefore that all
Presbyterians give earnest con-
sideration to the following three
basic principles and their im-
plications for our thought and
life.-
"I. The Christian Church has
a prophetic function to fulfill
in every society and in every
age.
"While it is not the role of the
Christian church to present blue
prints for the organization of
society and the conduct of gov-
ernment the church owes to it its
_ , a + a n in orpn-

shown to have greater propaganda
value. The demogogue who lives
by propaganda is coming into his
own on a national scale. Accord-
ing to the new philosophy if what
is true "gives aid and comfort to
the enemy" it must be suppressed.
At the same time great words like
"love," "peace," "justice" ;and
"mercy" and the ideas which un-
derlie them are becoming suspect.
"It is being assumed in effect,
in view of the magnitude of -the
issues at stake, the end justifies
the means..
"III. God's sovereign rule Is
the controlling factor in history.
"That we have the obligation
to make our nation as secure as
possible no one can dispute. But
there is no absolute security in
human affairs, nor is security the
ultimate human obligation. A
still greater obligation as well as
a more strategic procedure, is to
make sure that what we mean by
security and the methods we em-
ploy to achieve it, are in accord-
ance with the will of God ...
"Let us always be ready to
meet around the conference
table with the rulers of Com-
munist countries. Let us beware
of the cynical attitude which
prevails in c ear t a I n official
circles to regard as a forlorn
hope any negotiated solution of
the major issues which divide
mankind. In this connection
the United Nations while far
from perfect is the natural and
best available agent for inter-
national cooperation. It is im-
,.~s_ a_ r_ a~ bL

I

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