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November 22, 1953 - Image 8

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1953-11-22

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PAGE! ETGRT

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1953

NO HOLIDAY TURKEYS:
Birds, Beasts Fill Wildlife Lab Freezer

By RUPERT CUTLER
Not a single turkey is to be fouind
among the many strange birds and
beasts in the home freezer in Rm.
4041 Natural Science Bldg., a wild-
life management laboratory.
Some of the fresh-frozen spec-
imens could substitute for the tra-
ditional Thanksgiving fowl-a
Canvasback Duck is in evidence-
but most of the hoary creatures
are quite unpalatable.
* * *
REMOVABLE trays that form
the first layer in thecompartment
are full to the top with birds.
Ducks, grebes and gulls are sur-
rounded by songbirds of lesser
dimensions.
Under the top two trays a
porcupine is cuddled between a
beaver and a large coyote. A
bobcat is stretched outalong
one side and skunks are stuffed
into corners. Squirrels, chip-
munks and mice fill the remain-
ing crevices.
The frozen animals, which are
used by classes in functional ana-
tomy and wildlife management
techniques, have been acquired
through Conservation Department
officials who confiscated them or
from students who collected them
under a special legal permit, ac-

Ceremonie s
Will Be Led
By Cardinal
Dedication ceremonies for the
new Gabriel Richard Center for
University Catholic students at
3 p.m. today will be highlighted
by the presence of Edward Car-
dinal Mooney, Archbishop of De-
troit.
The Rev. Fr. Francis J McPhil-
lips, rector of St. Mary's Student
Chapel, said Cardinal Mooney's
presiding over dedication cere-
monies climaxes "many years of
planning by priests, alumni and
University students."
* * *
NAMED AFTER The Rev. Fr.
Gabriel Richard, co-founder of
the University of Detroit in 1817,
the center' is located next to St.
Mary's Student Chapel at the
corner of William and Thompson.
Ceremonies will begin with a
vesting in the chapel. After-
wards Cardinal Mooney will-ead
a procession to the new center
where he will give a blessing.
A sermon given by The Rev. Fr.
Donald M. Cleary, chaplain of
Cornell University and former na-
tional chaplain of the Newman
Foundation will follow the dedi-
cation.
"Building the center was part
of a $310,000 investment project,"
Father McPhillips said.

Journalist To LectureaI

My i y
V IY }i
r A o
I DX 'fp5'N OQ tp
{cam
,C; e , fluc
y isit Osa Ye
,.,,viest

--Daily-Rupert Cutler
FREEZER FOR ANIMALS--Laboratory Assistant Ed Menning
stuffs a 40-pound beaver into a freezer kept in the wildlife man-
agement department.

Arnold Van Dies, Dutch journal-
ist and war correspondent in
two world wars, will speak on "The
Press in Europe," at 3 p.m. to-
morrow in Auditorium A, Angell
Hall.
Van Dias has been a newspaper-
man for forty years, representing
Dutch newspapers in European
capitals and the United States
and organizing war-time news
services in both hemispheres.
During the summer Van Dias

visited Western Europe where he
accompanied German Chancellor
Konrad Adonauer on a campaign
tour.
Honoring his services to jour-I
nalism, Queen Juliana of the Ne-
therlands appointed Van Dias, on
the occasion of his sixtieth birth-
day, an Officer in the Order of
Orange Nassau.
A coffee hour will follow the
address in the journalism depart-
ment room, 443 Mason Hall.

HALLERS
JEWELERS

cording to Prof. Earl C. O'Roke of
the wildlife management depart-
ment.
Prof. O'Roke said that marten

from Alaska and pigeons that have
killed themselves by flying into
windows of Angell Hall are in-
cluded in the collection

717 N. Univ. - near Hill Aud.

Paid Political Advertising

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Grad Students Outline Freedom Subject

Slosson Gives Views

{Academic Freedom
Ideal Cited by YD's

- " mow.- ..

NATURE OF ACADEMIC
FREEDOM
The instructor is entitled to
unlimited freedom in conduct-
his field in the classroom, except
ing his research and in discussing'
that he should not regard his sub-
ject as a vehicle for the propaga-
tion of personal dogma. Instruc-
tors that do so should recognize
that they are exposing themselves
to the charge of incompetence.
This freedom is not a special priv-
Ilege extended only to teachers
but a necessary protection for
society which enables teachers to
fulfill their social function. Aca-
demic freedom is nothing more
than an application to teachers of
general principles of freedom, as
expressed in the Bill of Rights,
which apply to everyone.
Adequate grounds for dismissal
of a teacher should be limited to:
(1) violation of public laws, (2)
neglect of duty, (3) incompetence.
Dismissal for such resons should
follow only after judgment by his
academic colleagues - as well as
the university governing. body -
and only after both the letter and
the spirit of due process have
been observed. Adherence to any
particular system of dogma should
not in itself warrant dismissal,
and any prejudgment of guilt re-
sulting from invocation of legiti-
mate constitutional protections is
completely unjustified.
It is recognized that the
extra-academic activities of a
teacher may be an embarrass-
ment or a nuisance to the uni-
versity; it is nonetheless true,
however, that such opinions
and activities in themselves -
political, social or religious -
should be given no more weight
in condsidering the dismissal,
of a teacher than in considering
the dismissal of any other
citizen from his job.
Students are the chief concern
of a university and should not be
regarded merely as receptacles
for prevailing orthodoxies. Higher
education aims at increasing the
maturity of the student by teach-
ing him how to think for himself,
by developing his intellectual
curiosity and by stimulating him
to inquiry of his own. If this goal
is to be achieved, the student's
freedom of expression can be no
less extensive than that of his
instructor. Students -are thus en-
titled to as much academic free-
dom as are faculty members.
The university's commitment
to student freedom must ex-
tend beyond the classroom to
include provision for unfettered
meetings of student organiza-
tions on university property.
property. These organizations
should be free to invite speakers
of their choice, discuss subjects
of their choice and engage in
any activities on campus that
are not in violation of civil
ordinances or necessary pro-
cedural rules.
Tit-......n lit in nrn zc nf -,rivt

generally true at the student level.
The chief instance of the tend-
ency to restrict student freedom
has been the Lecture Committee.
Other instances are the un-
necessary restrictions on handbill
publication and distribution and
the requirement of making public
the membership of student organ-
izations.
* * *
TEACHERS AND THE FEAR OF
COMMUNISM
It 'is increasingly asserted that
Communism enslaves its ad-
herents so thoroughly thatrthey
are not free to teach the truth.
This is true, however, only insdfar
as all strongly held beliefs parti-
ally exclude their opposites and'
to that extent enslave their be-
lievers and limit their objectivity.
In this respect Communism as a
belief is in the same class as all
other forms of authoritarian
dogma, so unless we are willing to
forbid teachers from adhering to
any such belief, we cannot forbid
them the belief in Communism.
Those who argue that Communists
are slaves to a foreign power and
therefore not free fail to recognize
that, in this country at least, ac-
ceptance of Communism is volun-
tary and its adherents may dis-
affiliate at will.
Fear of Communism in the
schools derives not from fear of
sabotage nor even of violent re-
volution but from fear of the
power of Communist ideas.
Such fear is an insult to our
entire democratic tradition; it
denies the powerful appeal of
democracy to all those who are

free to choose. In fact, many
leaders of the campaign against
Communism are fully aware of
the fact that Communism is not
an internal ideological threat to
the United States; they are
simply exploiting this fear in
order to supress heterodoxies
and to advance their own poli-.
tical fortunes.
Publicily-supported universities
are especially vulnerable to the
demand for loyalty oaths, faculty
purges, and similar measures.
Even though public employment
is a privilege and not a right,
these institutions should not re-
quire or their employees condi-
tions of professional atcivity that
.are not imposed upon all citizens
and are not reasonably required
to maintain our democratic sys-
tem.
* * .
ACADEMIC FREEDOM AND IN-
VESTIGATING COMMITTEES
fhe legally-accepted interpreta-
tion of the Constitution forbids
Congress from making any law
which impairs the freedom of be-
lief or expression; thus for Con-
gress to investigate personal be-
liefs and expressions, presumably
with a view to regulating them by
legislation, or to try individuals
for unorthodox views in the court
of public opinion, is not to be
condoned.
Therefore when and if a teacher
or a student is called before a
Congressional investigating com-
mittee to testify concerning his
individual political or religious
beliefs -or activities, it should be
his responsibility to protest by

pointing out that the committee,
as a branch of the legislature not
the judiciary, lacks the authority
to inquire into or to require him
to testify concerning the area of
his individual beliefs and activi-
ties.
Written and endorsed by the
following graduate students:
Homer Cooper, Alfred Hunting,
Leo Schnore, John Danielson,
Peter New, Charles Sleicher, Jr.,
John Fopeano, John Pearce and
Norman Williamson, Jr.
Unitarian Group
Michael Servetus was executed
400 years ago because he pro-
pounded heretical (Unitarian)
views in theology and publicized
the results of his scientific re-
search on the circulation of blood
which was in conflict with accept-
ed dogma in medical matters
within the Orthodox Church. In
this anniversity year we as Uni-
tarians are reminded that the
cause of Academic Freedom is of
continuing importance to our
tradition and our faith. Unitrians
feel that complete mental free-
dom, unrestricted use of reason,
and a general tolerance is essenti-
al. We feel that when truth and
falsehood are engaged in free en-
counter, truth will in the long run
win out. We believe that the prin-!
ciples of Academic Freedom en-
dorsed above by a group of gradu-
ate students are necessary con-
ditions to the fulfillment of a
basic Unitarian concept of, in-
dividual freedom of belief.
UNITARIAN STUDENT GROUP

On Studeni
By PRESTON SLOSSON
Professor of History
AS I DO NOT wish to get in-
volved in a semantic dispute, I
will not take up the oft discussed
question whether "academic free-
dom" can be properly applied to
anything other than the freedom
of teaching (Lehrfreiheit). Lop off
the "academic" if you like, and call'
it simply "student freedom." Un-
der any name, the subject is worth
discussing. There are many strong

t Freedom

>- I

colleges and universities where in-
terference with the faculty is al-'
most unheard of; there are none
where problems have not arisen
over such matters as student polit-
ical clubs, invitations to outside
speakers, and the content of edi-
torials in the student newspapers
and periodicals.
That every instiution has, of
necessity, some sort' of supervi-
sion over those who use its facil-
ities may, I think, be taken for
granted. The practical question
is where to draw the line. I do
not intend to discuss here such
questions as athletics, finances,
hazing, wild parties, automobile
bans, liquor, panty raids, cheat-
ing on examinations,. or even
off-color jokes in college comics.
Whatever policies should or
should not be adopted on such
matters, at least they have lit-
tle to do with the main purpose
of the institution: the education
of intelligent citizens. But stu-
dent political activity has a
great deal to do with it. Great

good, and some harm may come
from organizing propogandist so-
cieties, from listening to well
known speakers, from ex-
pressing opinions in . printed
form. I do not know that any
general rule can be laid down,
without being so general as to
be practically useless. Many of
us solemn professorial owls will
reiterate "Liberty, but not liL
cense." True, 0 pundit! But, in
a given situation, which is
. which? More to the point; in
doubtful cases shall we prefer
the risks of liberty of suppres-
sion?
Personally, I incline in all such
cases to the risks of freedom. For
one thing, a bad cause (Commu-
nism, for instance) is best exposed
in the open air. Unsound argu-
,ments cannot stand up to inces-
sant discussion and analysis.
Again, forbidden fruit is notor-
iously attractive. Permit the Com-
munist, or Fascist, or other objec-
tionable person to- speak on the
campus; a handful will go to hear
him. Ban him, and he gets a free
advertisement and a fuller hall
off campus. This has happened
time and again, right here in Ann
Arbor. Also, the speaker gets some
sympathy as a persecuted under
dog, and many people may think
"I wonder what that man has to
say that we are not supposed to
hear? Perhaps there is something
in it, after all." Finally, students'
are not half as gullible as they
are supposed to 'be, or as most
people are. Surely it is strange that
the law permits an agitator to re-
cite glib sophistries, or faked sta-
tistics, or illogical and emotional
appeals to street crowds, most of
whom have not the means to re-
fute him, but fears to let him ap-
pear before highly trained young
men and women, stuffed with in-
formation! It would be more log-
ical (tho not very democratic) to
say to the demagog "You are so
plausible and dishonest that I will
permit you to speak only on col-
lege campuses."
To turn to another topic, it is
very true that student editor-
ials are often exaggerated in
their criticism of the university,
of the nation, and of the uni-
verse at large. But who is real-
ly damaged by it? The student
learns to express himself, and in
time may learn to express him-
self with more accuracy and
moderation. The general public
is not usually a reader of college
papers. I regret to say that, back
in the 1920s, a student was re-
moved from the Daily staff,
partly for saying that "the av-
erage history professor is a sim-
ple, senile, and misguided ass."
Naturally, I did not accept his
opinion,,tho I admired its ca-
dence and rhythm. But what he
said was either true or false. If,
i____ - ...._U . J. rt e 1'.tr

T he Young Democrats declare
themselves unconditionally in
favor of Academic Freedom, which
they would define as a thorough-
going laissez-faire of the mind
for the seekers of knowledge and
truth who comprise the faculties
and student bodies of our schools
and colleges. While we feel that
the ideal of Academic Freedom is
more closely realized in American
educational institutions than in
schools in many parts of the
world, we are aware of many ways
in which our colleges and univer-
sities fall short of the ideal.,
The practice of judging a
teacher unfit for his position be-
cause he holds certain political,
social and economic views is logi-
cally unjustifiable. The sole criter-
ion of dismissal should be incom-
petence to be judged by his pro-
fessional colleagues only. A scho-
lar seeks out facts, classifies and
combines them, ponders their re-
lationship and finally comes to a
conclusion on the basis of whai
he has done. If correct conclusionz
were known in advance, this whole
process would be a useless waste.
The logical basis for education it
a free society is that such a pro.
cess is highly desirable both fo:
the individual and for society
Hence, the dangerous absurdity
of telling a man that if he arrive:
at certain conclusions he will be
rendered unfit for his position a.
a student and teacher.
Students and teachers, like
all other citizens, must obey the
laws of the land. They are en-
titled to the same legal sanc-
tions and protections that any
American is entitled to. It is in
direct contradiction of this ob-
vious principle of justice for a
university to prejudge or take
any action against a student or
teacher who invokes, for his
protection, certain sections of
the Fifth or First Amendments
of the Constitution of the
United States. Yet, many in-
stitutions have taken such
actions. These we condemn for
the violation of Academic Free-
dom.
The right to think freely an'
the right to become acquainte'
with all points of view are twi
sides of the same coin. The forme:
right is meaningless without th
latter. Hence, we view as a viola,
tion of Academic Freedom and de
serving of condemnation the prac,
tice found in many universities
including the U of M, of institut
ing boards with the power to for,
bid any speaker to express hi;
opinion on university property i

The right to hear all points of
view and the right to form opin-
ions freely are only two-thirds of
the Academic Freedom whole. The
necessary third factor is the right
to combine freely with one's col-
leagues, whether they be students
or teachers, for the purpose- of
most effectively giving expression
to a point of view. A refusal on
the part of a university to permit
students or faculty members to
organize and hold meetings be-
cause of their social, political or
economic outlook in inconsistent
with Academic Freedom and
should be condemned.
In view of what has been said
above, it should be obvious that
we look with strong disfavor
on legislative investigations into
education. It ssems their sole
aim has been to purge from our
schools "undesirable" 'opinions.
We believe that a ftee school
system, like a free society, must
be able to accommodate all
opinions, therefore we must
condemn recent legislative in-
vestigations into the area of
private, personal, political be-
lief. The control of academies of
higher education by lay bodies,
whether they be state. legisla-
tives and state electorates (as
is the case with many publicly
supported institutions) or
Boards of Directors of the type
that dictate the policy of many
private colleges is likely to or is
subject to endangering Aca-
demic Freedom. The hiring and
dismissal of teachers, the ac-
ceptance and rejection of stud-
ents, the formulations of educa-
tional policy, must, if they are
to contribute to facilitating the
unhampered quest for trith, be
in the hands of neither the
wealthy nor the politically
powerful nor the most numer-
ours groups in society, but
rather in the hands of the pro-
fessional seekers of knowledge
-teachers, professors, students.
In summary, we assert that we
are unconditionally in favor of
Academic' Freedom, which we
define as a "laissez-faire of the
mind." We feel that Academic
Freedom is threatened or has
been violated by lay control of
educational institutions, jeoture
committees and other speaker
screening processess, restrictions
on students and faculty organiza-
tions, sanctions invoked against
university personnel for holding
unorthodox points of views and
invoking constitutional protect-
ions, and legislative investigating
committees.
We pledge ourselves to resist in
every way the attacks on Aca-
demic Freedom. Every encroach-

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SDA Presents Morality Play on Freedom

A MORALITY PLAY: ON THE Teachers and Students. If we are
SPIRIT OF ACADEMIC to censor them how and to what
FREEDOM degree? Let's take teachers first
Place: Market-place of Free ...
Ideas OPPORTUNISM: It is a matter
Time: Now. of consequence to me who shall
Moral: The Choice is Yours teach. Criteria will be that which
JUSTICE: Spirits of forces now best benefits me. If it is profitable
at work: we have assembled in or- to say communists may not teach,
der to decide a grave question. Is because at the moment the easiest
this market-place to be left free emotion to incite is against com-
or is it now time to tax and cen- munism, then I shall say-CRI-
sor ideas and their merchants? TERION, No communists may
The debatable principle involved teach! If at some other time it
seems to be one stated in our con- will profit me to say-No poets
tract, the principle of FREEDOM. may teach-I shall do that. In
SPIRIT OF OPPORTUNITY: matters of consequence self-wis-
Don't bother me with such dribble. dom is all.
I'm only interested in matters of MYOPIC: You're a selfish old
consequence. Freedom is not a fool. We must think of the good of
matter of consequence. It can't be all the people but WE MUST B9'
seen, counted or put in the bank. CAREFUL. All innovators threat-
SPIRIT OF MYOPIC CONSER- en our equilibrium, our settled
VATISM: You're wrong. Freedom comfort. Criterion for teachers?
is of value and we must make peo- TEMPERENCE.
ple see that it is. But.. . we can't FRIGHTENED LIBERALISM:
let it escape us or it will govern Temperence leads to the "deep
us. We must define it, limit it, tie sleep of decided opinion." Every-
it up in a neat sellable package. one may teach except Communists
SPIRIT OF HUMBLE DOUBT: . .. because of the present danger.
Then "Freedom is a breakfast FEAR: I cannot live with Free-

get so wrong (teachers actions in-
cluded) as to attract the people's
notice, they, the people (students
included) will set them right.
JUSTICE: Well, now what do
we have to say about students'
censorship. This would take the
form of what opinions and ideas
we will allow them to hear.
OPPORTUNISM: All matters of
consequence--facts, that's what.
HUMBLE DOUBT: But what is
a fact?
OPPORTUNISM: That's your
job. I thought you always bragged
that through doubt one investi-
gates and arrives at knowledge.
HUMBLE DOUBT: But if stu-
dents may only hear facts -are
facts, doubts?
MYOPIC: Now stop your squab-
bling boys. Our problem is just
this: We are trying to preserve
certain ideas and therefore we
have the right to keep certain
conflicting ideas and opinions
quiet.
FEAR: I cannot live with Free-
dom.
REASON: But is it not true:
that one learns his own opinion
hucf frn ha inofn ,innrf. f i

undisturbed, as monuments to the
safety with which error of opinion
may be tolerated where REASON
is left free to combat it."
BILL OF RIGHTS: I have not
been repealed yet!
JUSTICE: Then Reason and
Knowledge, you would both say
that the investigations now at-
tempting to limit our market-place
are not in keeping with our con-
tract.. And Opportunism, Myopic
Conservativeism, Fear, you would
say they are right.
ALL: Right.
JUSTICE: Well things certain-
ly are in a muddle. Here we are in
a market-place, supposedly of free
ideas,..-.
But Fear exists-and Fear can-
not live with Freedom
Ideas develop, facts are arrived
at, with freedom to doubt, but
some say
We must have only facts.
Others say we must protect our
freedom by controlling it.
And Stalinism says that by re-
stricting our basic freedoms we're
playing right into their hands.
And the SPIRIT OF THE BILL
n' RTCTT -q -midq 1C_"I ave

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