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April 26, 1945 - Image 2

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PAGE TWO

TI

~SD Y ~P~Th 26, 1943

Fifty-Fifth Year

WASHINGTON MERRY-GO-ROUND:
ed s Have Reasons for Doubti

Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Editorial Stafff

Evelyn Phillips
Margaret Farmer
Ray Dixon .
Paul Sislin
Hank Mantho
Dave Loewenberg
Mavis Kennedy
Ann Schutz
Dick Strickland
Martha Schmitt
Kay McFee

S . .- . Managing Editor
. . . . Editorial Director
. . . City Editor
. . . Associate Editor
* . .Sports Editor
. . Associate Sports Editor
Women's Editor
. Associate Women's Editor
Business Staff
. . Business Manager
. . Associate Business Mgr.
. . . Associate Business Mgr.

Telephone 23-24-1
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for re-publication of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
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Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1944-45
NEPESENTED POR NATIONAL ADVERTIING BY
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CICAGO * BOSTON . Los ANGELES * SAN FRANCISCO
NIGHT EDITORS: IVERSON & GOLDMAN
E4itorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by menbers of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
Educatiou
MANY OF US who are critical of America's
system of higher learning and skeptical of
the ability of college graduates to cope with the
problems of peace might well examine the
causes which led to the recent resignation of
Dr. Ernest Bernbaum from his position as
English professor at the University of Illinois.
Dr. Bernbaum, declaring that the University
"emphasizes technologicalvocational and ma-
terial interests to the detriment of cultural
values," retired in protest. He contended that
salaries paid liberal arts professors at Illinois
do not compare adequaely with those teach-
ing vocational and technological subjects.
If Prof. Bernbaum's charges are valid, they
may indicate that Illinois would have the college
student thoroughly trained in the practical
business of earning a living, minimizing his duty,
as a member of society, to understand and
criticize his environment.
But education is primarily a means of insuik
ing progress. The well-educated man, who is
thoroughly grounded in the principles of social
relationships, is supposed to construct from
these principles a sound, well-balanced, orderly
world. Education to earn a high income should
not be the sole aim.
A denunciation of education, then, should be
aimed at its failuye to bridge the gap between
these diverging views and to assert, more defi-
nitely, its aim of progress. What we need in
higher learning is not better preparation to earn
a living, but preparation to mold the future.
The emphasis in education, Dr. Bernbaum
believes, should be placed in the study of liberal
arts, making the student aware of his place
in the realm of ideas and goals of humanity.
Greater efficiency in all professions, a genu-
ine interest on the part of all practitioners
would follow. From this new educational
set-up would emerge men worthy of respect
in the community. With a shift in educa-
tional emphasis would come a change in the
attitude of society toward the product of the
college.
--Carol Zack
Army Schools
JHREE POSSIBLE orders await our Yanks on
V-E Day. There is only one, of course,
that the boys really want to receive-the as-
signment home. But not everyone Will be that
fortunate. Many will be sent to the Pacific
immediately, or perhaps after a short leave
in the States. Others will remain as an army
of occupation in Germany.
Yanks are a restless bunch at any time,'
and they'll be especially restless with the
prospect of going home dangling before their
eyes. So the Army has planned an educa-
tion program, under the supervision of Maj.
General Frederich H. Osborn, which will give
every soldier a chance to continue his educa-
tion abroad.

Four types of schools have been organized:
Unit schools offering courses from art to zoology
operating within Army units and having pre-
trained instructors recruited from the unit;

By DIEW PEARSON
AN FRANCISCO-Last fall it leaked out that
there was a drastic difference of opinion be-
tween the State Department and the Treasury
over a soft peace for Germany, and after several
weeks of discussion, President Roosevelt defi-
nitely threw his weight with the treasury in
favor of a hard peace.
Top War Department officials, influenced by
the atrocities committed against American and
Allied prisoners, finally agreed with the Presi-
dent, and even the State Department reluctantly
swung into line.
For a long time it has been no secret that a
group inside the State Department favored a soft
peace for Germany wih a view to making her
a bulwark against Russia after the war. But
as long as Roosevelt was in the White House,
the State Department appeasers kept quiet.
However, on the day after his body was
buried, a meeting of the German reparations
committee was held in the office of Assistant
Secretary Will Clayton at which both the State
and War Departments suddenly reversed
Roosevelt's policy of a hard peace.
Specifically, they argued against the removal
of Nazi factories, machine tools, plant equip-
ment or goods out of Germany. The Russians
have proposed the removal of German war
plants to help build up the hundreds of Rus-
sian factories destroyed by Germany. But the
State and War Departments maintained that
no such German equipment could be removed
from Germany without the unanimous consent
of the reparations commission. Naturally this
means that either the United States or Great
Britain could block such removal since both
sit on the commission.
At this meeting, Assistant Secretary of
State Clayton argued that American policy
should favor leaving factory equipment and
machinery in Germany so she can get back
on a sound economic basis. He even mentioned
the fact that Germany would need to import
cotton to manufacture clothes and should be
permitted to have enough exports to pay for
the imported cotton. (Clayton is the biggest
cotton exporter in the world and did a heavy
business with the Nazis before the war.)
Russians Remember.. .
UNFORTUNATELY the Russians are all too
familiar with the attitude of the State and
War Departments toward them. Unfortunately,
also, some observers believe this distrust of the
U. S. State Department is one reason why the
Russians demand a strong, all-Communist Pol-
and.
However, no matter how efficient the peace
machinery devised at San Francisco, it will not
work if the two strongest powers supposed to
keep the peace already have begun jockeying
against each other.
The Russians cannot forget among other
things the strategy of the Cliveden set in.
England (with which Churchill was once
sympathetic) to stir up war between Germany
and Russia while England sat on the sidelines.
The Russians also know all too well the type
of anti-Russian conversation that goes on at
the home of Mrs. Eva lyn Walsh (Hope Dia-
mond) McLean,, when she entertains the
eliteof Washington society at her famous
dinners at what is sometimes called the head-
quarters of the American Chiveden set.
The Russians knew in advance, for instance,
that the Douglas Aircraft Company had sold the
plans for its DC-4 to Japan for $1,000,000 be-
fore Pearl Harbor.
American Industry Wants In..,.
ALREADY, the State Department is being bom-
barded by American industrialists who own-
ed factories in Germany before the war and
want to get back to start operating them. Among
the leading pressure boys is Graeme Howard,
vice-president of General Motors in charge of
operations in Europe (and Germany). Howard
helped organize Franco's truck transport service
during the Spanish Civil War, has a personal
interest in the open auto works in Germany,
and has been busy as a hound dog around the
State Department wanting to get back to Ger-
many.
Another factor making the Russians suspi-
cious is the British demand that food which the
Russian Army funds in Germany be used to

O N SE C ON D
4 TH OU G HT... 4
MONDAY will be Fielding H. Yost day accord-
ing to a state Senate concurrent resolu-
tion that has just been adopted. You merit
such attention, Coach, because you have a
yost of friends.
* * *
A tailor in town was discussing the chilly
April weather we've .been having lately. He
sadly observed that he didn't expect any im-
provement until after May Festival-tradition-
ally a bad-weather time of year.
The battle for Berlin is reported to be raging
in the city's subways. An analogy might be
New York in the five p. m. rush, sans guns.
Sans Francisco is now theF seat of a con-
ference being held to assure that New York's
subways are always sans guns.

feed the German people rather than to feed
starving Poles and Russian slave laborers. Short-
ly before he left London, both Foreign Mini-
ster Eden and Sir James Grigg, British War
Minister, took the position, in secret talks
with U. S. officials, that food found in Ger-
many must be used to feed the Germans, not
Polish and Russian civilians. The British ar-
gument is that if German food is diverted to
the Poles and Russians, the Allies will have
to import more to the Germans.
Suspect 0SS ..-.
fINALLY, the Russians are probably most
uspicious of the mysterious U. S. espionage or-
ganization called OSS. The OSS, or Office of
Strategic Services, has, strangely, distributed
some of the most powerful bahkers' represent-
atives in the U. S. A. at key points where
they can influence U. S. policy in occupied Ger-
many.
(Copyright, 1945, Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
'D RATHER 13E RIGHT:
San Francisco
D B y S A M U E L GRA F T O N
N OTES ON SAN FRANCISCO: 1. We Ameri-
cans vibrate between two poles on the ques-
tion of the Conference. We are alternately con-
vinced that the Conference ought to try to
solve every problem in the world, and also
that any one problem can wreck it. We think
it ought to handle every outstanding issue, but
we are in despair when even one issue arises.
On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays we feel
that we have no problems; and on Tuesdays,
Thursdays and Saturdays we feel that we have no
problems; and on Tuesdays, Thursdays and
Saturdays we feel that we have no solutions.
We must stop being quite so desolated when an
issue arises, such as the seating of a Polish
delegation; this is a conference, after all, and
not a World's Fair.
If there were no problems, there would be
no need for a conference, and the whole mat-
ter could be handled by radio, an interesting
modern invention.
2.There are special difficulties in the way of
holding a more-or-less public conference, which
do not exist in the case of a secret conference.
This conference is being elaborately covered
by press and radio; hundreds of skilled and
honest craftsmen in both fields are in San
Francisco. There is a duty on these hundreds
of workers to write and talk, each day, about the
most important development of that day. The
result, however, is that a kind of innocent
total distortion may take place. So many arti-
ulate persons, writing about one point, may make
it seem that the Conference is tied in a knot
on that one point, by sheer weight and bulk of
matter. Over the last week-end, it certainly
looked as if the whole Conference was hung
up on the question of seating Poland, and it
wasn't.
It is nobody's fault, but the effect is like the
one we sometimes get on a Saturday after-
noon in November, that all of America is
playing football.
THE CONFERENCE is being held before the
end of the war. That fact makes it a
weapon of the war. The meeting will be watched
by the Germans and the Japanese; a success-
ful conference will help to break their resist-
ance, overt or covert. They will see the postwar
world taking shape, with themselves out of it;
the enormity of their isolation will grow on
them. The Conference cannot be divorced from
the war. That fact compels us to follow the
news from the Conference with a certain steadi-
ness, and not to be loud in our dismay over any
temporary setback, any more than we would
scream and chew the carpet if one of our divi-
sions in the field were temporarily thrown back.
The enemy will be interested to see just how
nervous we are.
4. The Conference will not be a static exhi-
bition; it will be a process. It will change, in
mood and amosphere, as the men and nations
in it get to know each other. It will be a
different conference in a fortnight, and differ-
ent again in a month. There will be the
usual premium on disagreement at the begin-
ning, and the usual premium on agreement

toward the end, as the thing begins to take
shape, and it begins to seem advisable to get
on board.
<Our own Constitutional Convention met on
May 2, 1787. Only two of the States bothered
to show up on opening day. It took until May
25 to get a quorum of seven delegations together,
a bare majority of the thirteen states. The con-
vention was deadlocked on state voting powers
until deep in July. If the public had known
how desperate the deadlock was, the quantity
of colonial headache remedies consumed would
have been prodigious.)
5. And we, the people, will go through a
process of change, too. Everything that is in
us, our idealism, our provincialism, our hope
for a good relation with Russia and Britain,
our anti-Britishism and our anti-Russianism,
all these become fluid and go into solution
now, and we shall see what crystalizes out.
The prospect may seem a little scary. But I
like to remember that a man named Franklin
Roosevelt helped pick the date for this meet-
ing. He thought it would be all right, he
thought it would work out.
(Copyright, 1945, New York Post Syndicate)

The -
By BERNARD ROSENBERG
WHEN Norman Corwin 'said directly
after Franklin Roosevelt's death
that America was orphaned, he hit
upon a profound psychological truth.
Our late president occupied a pa-
ternal position, and like all father
objects received an almost equal
share of love and Kfate. The press
that had villified him for so long,
on April 13 paid its reverent re-
spects to Roosevelt.
Some columnists. however, took im-
mediate occasion to warm-over a few
stale tid-bits from last year's politi-
cal stew. They suggested that our
loss should show Americans a thing
or two about longevity: no president
could live longer than two terms.
This idea was embodied in a
Constitutional amendment that
passed several state legislatures
jiust before election time. Those
really concerned with the further-
ance of democracy are dead set
against it, even as they were when
the plan was to block a sure-fire
Democratic candidate.
If Roosevelt's untimely departure
from this world teaches us any les-
son it is that we should do away with
the anachronism in American gov-
ernment which separates the execu-
tive and his legislature. Did we make
such a change, upon the demise of a
president, if his part successor could
not receive Congress' vote of confi-
dence, a national election would be
held.,
There should be no particular
tenure of office for the president or
for legislators; they ought to be
superseded at that moment when
their opinions no longer reflect the
people's will: at the end of a month,
a year, a decade as the case may
be.
With a Constitutional revision to
that effect the possibility of an im-
passe would be averted. No longer
could a Wilson or a Hoover be poli-
tically handcuffed by obstructionist
Congresses. A majority always pre-
fers one part or another-and true
democracy equates the people with
the government.
To maintain, and as is now pro-
posed, to extend rigid presidential
limitations of tenure and, at the same
time, to have in office groups that
will not only check and balance but
checkmate and unbalance: this is to
court unwieldy, unresponsive, undem-
ocratic rule.
It creates such a situation as ex-
ists in Michigan where the electo-
rate has sent two Republicans to
the Senate and yet backed a Dem-
ocratic president. With one hand
we delegated Franklin Roosevelt to
act for us in the White House and
with the other we voted Romer
Ferguson into the Senate-so that
they could thwart each other and
paralyze our government.
This is to allow a projection of
America's schizophrenia from the vot-
ing booth to Washington. Actually,
it is impossible for most of the people
to favor two antagonistic views simul-
taneously. We shall have Democratic
Harry Truman as president for three
years, nine months even if a Re-
publican landslide occurs in 1946.
Elsewhere, of course, parliamentar-
ianism has been abused-but, the
form a government takes will mean
nothing if people are not prepared
for it. There's every reason to be-
lieve that America is, prepared for
this change. There is no reason why
it, instead of the reactionary altera-
tion, should not be made.
Men like Gerald Smith oppose any
change at all. I once heard him say
publicly, "God was present at the
writing of the Constitution"-to
which Preston Slosson replied, "Does

Mr. Smith suppose that God has
been on a vacation ever since?"
T. R. B. said recently, and as
though in anticipation, of the pres-
ent crisis, "I have been covering
Washington some twenty years,
and I am increasingly persuaded
that the real trouble with our fed-1
eral government is the way it is
composed, the institutional antag-
onism set up between the executive
and legislature. Our problem is
to combine a strong executive withj
legislative supremacy. Other dem-
ocracies have solved it."

T11E QUESTION of military force to
be used by the Security Council
if it sees fit and the limiting of the
armies of member states will consti-
tute one of the problems facing the
San Francisco Conference. As the
issue stands now, in the Dumbarton
Oaks proposals, "each state will de-
termine its own international con-
tribution of armed forces through a
special agreement or agreements
signed by itself and ratified by its
own constitutional processes."
All member states would obligate
themselves to make available to the
Security Council specified numbers
and types of armed forces, facilities,
or other aids, and to hold immediately
available national air-force contin-
gents to enable urgent military meas-
ures to be taken by the Organization.
These agreements would be subject to
the approval of the Security Council.
Armed forces placed at the dis-
posal of the Security Coupcil would
operate under its authority in ac-
cordance with plans made by the
security Council with the assistance

DUMBARTON OAKS:
quota Should Be Established

of the Military Staff Committee.
The weakness of this plan or pro-
posal is that the Security Council,
as it is now, cannot be guaranteed
forces strong enough to meet any ag-
gressor the Council decides to act
against. All contingents of Army,
Navy, and air-force units are too ar-
bitrarily limited or established. Un-
less these contingents represent a
strong, powerful force against which
no aggressive nation would consider
fighting, this "stick" in the hands of
the Council would be completely in-
effective.
At the San Francisco Conference
it is imperative that a quota be es-
tablished for each nation and coun-
try that is to become a member of
the organization, so that adequate
military forces would be available
at all times. Perhaps after the or-
ganization has been functioning
successfully it can authorize plan-
ned reduction of these military
units and ┬░of armament programs.
-Lois Iverson

: j

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

I

THURSDAY, APRIL 26, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 131
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to allnmem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angell Hail, by 2:30 p. m. of the day
preceding publication (10:30 a. m. Sat-
urdays).
CENTRAL WAR TIME USED IN
THE DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN.
Notices
Biological Station: Applications are
now being considered for the 1945
session of the University of Michigan
Biological Station, held from June
23 to August 18, near Cheboygan,
Michigan, 285 miles north of Ann
Arbor. A full enrollment is indicat-
ed. Persons with college credit in
Botany or Zoology are permitted to
apply. If you wish to apply, you
should do so before May 1 to insure
full consideration in choice of cour-
ses and cottage. Information may
be secured at the Summer Session
Office, 1213 A. H., or at the Biologi-
cal Station Office, 1073 N. S. Appli-
cations are available at the latter
office.,
A. H. Stockard
Director.
Candidates for the Teacher's Cer-
tific ate for June: Please call atthe
office of the School of Education,
1437 University Elementary School,
this afternoon, between 1:30 and
4:30 to take the teacher's oath. This
is a requirement for the certificate.
Candidates for the Teacher's Cer-
tificate for June: A list of candidates
has been posted on the bulletin
board of the School of Education,
Room 1431 University Elementary
School. Any prospective candidate
whose name does not appear on this
list should call at the office of the
Recorder of the School of Eduction,
1437 U. E. S.
Seniors in Aeronautical, Civil, Elec-
trical, and Mechanical Engineering:
Mr. R. Alvarez of Chance Vought
Aircraft, Stratford, Conn., will inter-
view seniors graduating in June and
October, 1945, today. The company
has openings in Aerodynamics,
Structures, Drafting, Instruments,
Electronics, Materials, and Spot-
weld. Interviews will be held in Rm.
B-27 East Engineering Building. In-
terested men will please sign the
Interview Schedule posted on the
Aeronautical Engineering Bulletin
Board. Descriptive material and-ap-
plication blanks may be obtained in
the Aeronautical Engineering Office.
Seniors: College of L. S. & A. and
Schools of Education, Music and

foreign
friends

students, and their American
are cordially invited.

Michigan Youth for Democratic
Action: There will be-a meeting of
the committee for the Federal Aid
to Education Bill today at 3:15 p.m.
in Rm. 321 in the Union.
Junior Girls Play: "Take It-From
There" will be presented in Lydia
Mendelssohn Theatre in the League
at 6:30 CWT Thursday and Friday
at 7:30 CWT Saturday. Thursday's
performance will be exclusively for
junior and senior women, while the
other two performances will be open
to the public. Tickets for the public
performances will go on sale at 1:00
p. m. CWT Wednesday in the theatre
box office.dThe price will be fifty
cents, including tax.
Come Join the Folk Dancers: All
desiring to learn leadership in Euro-
pean and American Country Dancing
are welcome as guests or new mem-
bers to an informal non-sectarian
group every Thursday at 7 p.m.,
Unitarian Church. Students, faculty,
and the public is invited.
Phi Beta Kappa: The Annual Ad-
dress of the Alpha Chapter ofMichi-
gan will be given in the Rackham
Amphitheater tonight at 7 p.m. Dr.
Howard Foster Lowry, President of
the College of Wooster, will speak on
"The Enemies of Learning". The
address will be followed by a recep-
tion for the initiates in the Assembly
Hall. Please note that this event
will take the place of the usual ini-
tiation banquet. All members of Phi
Beta Kappa, whether members of
this Chapter or not, are cordially
invited.
Xi Chapter of Pi Lambda Theta
will have a guest reception this eve-
ning at 7 p.m. in the East Conference
Room of the Rackham Building. All
members and alumnae are cordially
invited.
Coming Events
District No. 2 of the Michigan Li-
brary Association will meet at 10
a.m. and 2:30 p.m. in the Kellogg
Auditorium on Friday, April 27. Ad-
dresses will be given by Mr. Alfredo
T. Morales, Mr. Samuel McAllister,
and Prof. Lewis G. Vander Velde.
The Romance Language Journal
Club will meet on Friday afternoon,
April 27 at 3:15 in the West Confer-
ence Room of the Rackham Building.
Dr. Vincent A. Scanio will speak
on "La collezione Giordani" in Bo-
logna, and Mr. Emiliano Gallo-Ruiz
will read a paper entitled "The For-
mal Organization of La Barraca".
Graduate students and all inter-
ested are cordially invited.
Biological Chemistry Seminar will
meet on Friday, April 27, at 4:30 p.m.
in Rm. 319 West Medical Building.
'The Relationship of Blood Proteins
to Dietary and Body'Proteins". All
interested are invited.
There will be an evening of films
on Central andSouth America at
Rackham Amphitheater, Friday at
6:30, sponsored by the University
Bureau of Visual Education, the
Inter-Racial Association, the Post-
War Council, and Michigan Youth
for Democratic Action. All those
interested are invited to attend.
There will be no admission charge.
Post-War Council is sponsoring a
mock conference to coincide with
San Francisco Conference Saturday,
April 28, at 2 p.m. CWT in Rms. A,
B and C of the League. The public
is cordially invited.
The Annual French Play: Le Cercle
Francais will present "Ces Dames
aux Chapeaux Verts", a modern
French comedy in one prologue and

*4

'

V v v _ Public Health : Tentative lists of sen-
S* iors for June graduation have been
Res onsibl1tp osted on the bulletin board in Room
4 University Hall. If your name is
HE EDUCATIONAL Committee of misspelled or the degree expected in-
HE EDCTOA omt fcorrect, please notify the Counter
the Inter-cooperative Council is Clerk.t
providing an opportunity for the C
student body to learn more about
te plnsfoyworldeacmoe b ue State of Connecticut Civil Service
senting Prof. Preston Slosson ina Announcement for Local Health
discussion of the San Francisco Con- Consultant, salary $5,100 to $5,700
ference at 8 p.m. Friday in the Rob- per year, has been received in our

,

i

ert Owen Cooperative House.
As college students who will some
day be expected to help in the main-
tenance and administration of world
peace, we owe it to ourselves and our
country to become well-informed on
this subject.

office. For further information stop
in at 201 Mason Hall, Bureau of
Appointments.
Permission to attend the perfor-
mance of Il Trovatore tonight, may
be granted to women students by
house heads. Students shall return
to their residences immediately after
the performance is over.
Concerts

BARNABY
So what if my three shares of O'Malley
stock did dron a few noints I still say

By Crockett Johnson

Stocks declined sharply in heavy

..,,GE

o~- OHNSO J/

4

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