Cloudy and Continued.
Cold with Rain
VOL. LV, No. 131 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN THURSDAY, APRIL 26, 1945
PRICE FIVE CENTS
Third Nears Austro-German Border
TEXT OF TRUMAN ADDRESS:
To Peace Meeting
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, April 25-Text of President Truman's speech to dele-
gates at the United Nations Conference at San Francisco:
The world has experienced a revival of an old faith in the ever-
lasting moral force of justice. At no time in history has there been a
more important conference, nor a more necessary meeting, than this
one in San Francisco, which you are opening today.
On behalf of the American people, I extend to you a most hearty
President Roosevelt appointed an able delegation to represent the
United States. I have complete confidence in its chairman, Secretary
of State Stettinius, and in his distinguished colleagues, former secre-
tary Cordell Hull, Senator Connally, Senator Vandenberg, Represent-
ative Bloom and Representative Eaton, Governor Stassen and Dean
They have my confidence. They have my support.
In the name of a great humanitarian-one who surely is with us today
in spirit-I earnestly appeal to each and every one of you to rise above
personal interests, and adhere to those lofty principles, which benefit all
Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his life while trying to perpetuate these
:high ideals. This conference owes its existence, in a large part, to the
vision and foresight and determination of Franklin Roosevelt.
Each of you can remember other courageous champions, who also
made the supreme sacrifice, serving under your flag. They gave
their lives, so that others might live in security. They died to insure
justice. We must work and live to guarantee justice-for all.
You members of this conference are to be the architects of the
better world. In your hands rests our future. By your labors at this
conference we shall know if suffering humanity is to achieve a just and
Let us labor to achieve a peace which is really worthy of their
great sacrifice. We must make certain, by your work here, that another
war will be impossible.
We, who have lived through the torture and the tragedy of two world
coiflicts, must realize the magnitude of the problem before us. We do not
need far-sighted vision to understand the trend in recent history. Its
significance is all too clear.
With ever increasing brutality and destruction, modern warfare, if
unchecked, would ultimately crush all civilization. We still have a choice
between.the atern tives: the continuation of international chaos-or the
establishment of a world organization for the enforcement of peace.
It is not the purpose of this conference to draft a treaty of peace in the
old sense of that term. It is not our assignment to settle specific questions
of territories, boundaries, citizenship and reparations.
This conference will devote its energies and its labor exclusively
to the single problem of setting up the essential organization to keep
the peace. You are to write the fundamental charter.
Our sole objective, at this decisive gathering, is to create the
structure. We must provide the machinery, which will make future
peace, not only possible, but certain.
The construction of this delicate machine is far more complicated
than drawing boundary lines on a map, or estimating fair repara-
tions, or placing reasonable limits upon armaments. Your task must be
We represent the overwhelming majority of all mankind. We speak
for people, who have endured the most savage and devastating war ever
inflicted upon innocent men, women and children.
We hold a powerful mandate frongour people. They believe we will
fulfill this obligation. We must prevent, if human mind, heart and hope
can prevent it, the repetition of the disaster from which the entire world
will suffer for years to come.
If we should pay merely lip service to inspiring ideals, and later do
violence to simple justice, we should draw down upon us the bitter wrath of
generations yet unborn.
We must not continue to sacrifice the flower of our youth merely to
check madmen, those who in every age plan world domination. The sacri-
fices of our youth today must lead, through your efforts, to the building for
tomorrow of a mighty combination of nations founded upon justice for
Justice remains the greatest power on earth.
To that tremendous power alone, will we submit.
Nine days ago, I told the Congress of the United States, and I i
now repeat it to you:
"Nothing is more essential to the future peace of the world, than
continued cooperation of the nations, which had to muster the force
necessary to defeat the conspiracy of the Axis powers to dlOflinat the
"While these great states have a special responsibility to enforce the
peace, their responsibility is based upon the obligations resting upon all
states, large and small, not to use force in international relations, except
in the defense of law. The responsibility of the great states is to serve, and
not dominate the peoples of the world."
None of us doubt that with divine guidance, friendly cooperation, and
hard work, we shall find an adequate answer to the problem history has put
Realizing the scope of our task and the imperative need for success,
we proceed with humility and determination.
By harmonious cooperation, the United Nations repelled the onslaught
of the greatest aggregation of military force that was ever assembled in the
long history of aggression. Every nation now fighting for freedom is
giving according to its ability and opportunity.
We fully realize today that victory in war requires a mighty united
effort. Certainly, victory in peace calls for, and must receive, an equal
Man has learned long ago, that it is impossible to live unto himself.
This same basic principle applies today to nations. We Were not isolated
during. the war. We dare not become isolated in peace.
All will concede that in order to have good neighbors we must also
be good neighbors; That applies in every field of human endeavor.
For lasting security, men of good will must unite and organize. More-
over, if our friendly policies should ever be considered by belligerent lead-
ers, as merely evidence of weakness the organization we establish must be
Truman Opens San Francisco Conference
Task of Peace
Voiced at Meeting
Last Route to German
Redoubt Is Cut by Allies
French First Army Smashes Nazi 19th in
Black Forest; Patton Nearing Hitler's Retreat
By The Associated Press
PARIS, Thursday, April 26-U. S. Third Army tanks punched within
15 miles of the German-Austrian border last night as other American
*and French forces raced almost unchecked across southern Germany,
threatening Munich and Hitler's Berchesgaden retreat, which the RAF
attacked yesterday with 12,000-pound "earthquake" bombs.
The Third Army spearhead, already east of Berlin although 250 miles
to the south, cut the last direct route to the Nazis' so-called national redoubt
by mopping up the rail and highwa
By The Associated Press
SAN FRANCISCO, April 25.~-
President Truman opened a confer-
ence of statesmen of 46 United Na-
tions today and solemnly dedicated
them to the task of forging a perma-
nent peace, to becoming "the archi-
tects of a better world".
In a single, succinct sentence the
President brought sharply into focus
the challenging opportunity con-
'Still Have Choice'
"We still have a choice between
the continuation of international
chaos-or the establishment of a
world organization for the enforce-
ment of peace."
Into an impressive stone building,
whose flag flew at half staff in honor
of the late President Roosevelt, the
voice of his successor was brought
from Washington to launch one of
history's great international meet-
Other voices were raised in ex-
pressions of confidence and hope-
the hope of a world scourged for
years by bursting steel-that dele-
gates from many lands will weld
their polyglot tongues into one migh-
ty voice for enduring tranquility
The delegates themselves in San
Francisco's War Memorial Opera
House appeared grimly determined
Prospects Seem Bright
Prospects for success seemed bright'
-save for serious Anglo-American
differences with Russia over a new
Polish government and giving it
representation here in United Na-
I'he delegates listened, too, to a
brief address by Secretary of State
Stettinius, their temporary chair -
man, and welcoming words from
Governor Earl Warren of Califor-
nia and Mayor Roger Lapham of
"No one of the large nations, no
one of the small nations," Stettinius
said. "can afford anything less ,than
success in this endeavor. Each of
them knows too well what the con-
sequence of failure would be."
More Power Sought
But in pre-conference consulta-
tions, smaller nations had continued
up to the opening hour to jockey for
positions of greater prominence, and
the Big Three failed to break their
deadlock on creating a Polish gov-
ernment acceptable to all.
Russia's outlook improved on an-
other point. If the Soviets press the
issue, they apparently can tally three
votes for themselves in a proposed
general assembly of a world organi-
Some Latin American nations were
reported lining up with the Rus-
sians; the British Commonwealth of
Nations already had done so.
It isn't that they would like to see
Russia get two extra votes. But they
would prefer that to any breakdown
of the conference.
The American delegation remain-.
ed hopeful Russia wouldn't raise the
STETTINIUS WELCOMED TO .SAN FRANCISCO-San Francisco's
mayor Roger Lanham (left), greets Secretary of State Edward Stettinius
upon his arrival by plane in San Francisco for the United Nations
'TAKE IT FROM THERE':
jntor Women Hionor Seniors
During Traditional Ceremony
Honoring all senior women, the
first performance of Junior Girls
play, "Take It from There", will be
given, at,7:30 p.m. EWT (6':30 p.m.
CWT) today in the Lydia Mendels-
sohn Theater in the League.
Senior Night, which has grown to
be a traditional ceremony, will be
attended exclusively by junior and
senior women. Public performances
will be held at 7:30 p.m. EWT (6:30
p.m. CWT) tomorrow and at 8:30
p.m. EWT (7:30 p.m. CWT) Satur-
day in the theater. Tickets for these
performances, which are fifty cents
tax included, are now on sale at the
theater box office in the League.
Robed in their black caps and
gowns, seniors will occupy the entire
first floor of the theater. Preceding
the play, informal entertainment will
Probate court hearing for Ralph
Burton, 11, who last week admitted
shooting his brother Ray, 14, will be
held tomorrow, it has been an-
The younger Burton admitted that
he shot his brother last Tuesday fol-
lowing a quarrel concerning a record
Ray, admitted to University Hos-
pital almost 24 hours before the case
was reported to the police, suffered
numerous wounds but is expected to
live 'U' Hospital officials have taken
steps to eliminate staff negligence in
reporting such cases.
County Prosecutor John W. Rae
said yesterday he would recommend
that the 11-year-old youth be sent
to the Michigan Children's Institute
for nine months.
be presented by the seniors. Led by
Jean Gilman, president of Women's
Glee Club, the singing of songs from
last year's JG play will begin the
Following this, seniors will par-
ticipate in the Wishing Well cere-
mony. Any senior who isn't engaged,
married or pinned must drop as
many pennies as she is old into the
well before she can make a wish.
Married seniors must blow out can-
dles; engaged ones suck lemons; and
those pinned will receive tiny strai-
225 Juniors Contribute Talents
Tomorrow's performance will be-
gin promptly so that those who have
tickets to Panhel-Assembly Ball may
be able to attend both affairs. Ac-
cording to Frances Goldberg, chair-
man of the play, coeds and their
dates are invited to attend the play
The central committee which has
directed the progress of the play is
as follows: Miss Goldberg, chair-
man; Peggy Kohr, assistant chair-
man; Mary Bartley, secretary-treas-
urer; Carol McCormick, director;
Wanda Mathias, assistant director;
Jean Harvey, bookholder; Claire Ma-
caulay, call girl; Marian Johnson
and Marcia Wellman, script; Evelyn
Horelick, music; Carolyn Brown, lyr-
ics; Ann Crossle yand Masaka Ono,
chorus; Tady Martz, orchestra;
Jayne Gourley, dancing; Jo Ann
Brundidge, stage force; Lois Bassett
and Mary Holtman, technicians;
Nancy Tressel, secretary; Dona Gui-
maraes and Joan Portz, costumes;
Cam Fisher and Joyce Siegan, make-
up; Teddy Campbell and Carol Watt,
properties; Jean Gaffney, tickets;
Helen Alpert, publicity; Carol Evans,
programs; and Janet Rubin, ushers.
The cast includes Pat Barrett, Ju-
See JGP, Page 4
center of Regen and then drove
straight for the frontier of Austria at
Passau. This column was 76 miles
north of Berchtesgaden.
Seventh Breaks Through
To the west the American Seventh
Army broke through German posi-
dons and fanned out on an 80 mile
front along or across the Danube
River within 45 miles of Munich and
the French First Army completely
rmashed Germany's veteran 19th
Army in the Black Forest.
The Allied armies-estimated at
nearly 400,000 men and thousands
of tanks-were charging into the Al-
pine foothills along a 200-mile front
in a determined effort to crush any
last-ditch Nazi stand in the southern
redoubt before it could get well start-
Patch Nears Munich
Leading the rapid surge of Allied
forces today was the 11th Armored
Division of Gen. George S. Patton'
Third Army, which stabbed 15 mile
southeast beyond captured Regen to a
point only 18 miles from the Aus-
trian border and 79 miles due north of
Closest to Munich was the 12th
Armored Division of Lt. Gen. Alex-
ander N. Patch's Seventh Army.
By The Associated Press
LONDON, Thursday, April 26.-
Adolf Hitler's chalet near Berchtes-
gaden was obliterated and the ad-
joining weird "Eagle's Nest" fortress
was damaged yesterday by more
than 350 RA'F heavy Lancasters
which raided the mountain retreat
for the first time in an apparent
attempt on the Fuehrer's life.
The big barracks of Hitler's body-
guard, munitions stores, and the
whole fabulous establishment from
which the Nazi overlord once ruled
German Europe were smashed by the
six-ton British bombs while Ameri-
can Eighth and Ninth Air Force
planes by the hundreds ravaged se-
lected targets throughout the Berch-
Simultaneously the Eighth Air
Force hurled more than 300 Flying
Fortresses at the Skoda munitons
works at Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, ad-
vertising the devastating attack in
advance with a radio warning to
slave laborers to flee from that last
great Nazi war plant.
Council To lie
Michigan students who will repre-
sent Allied Nations in the Post-War
Council mock United Nations Con-
ference Saturday afternoon and eve-
ning in the ABC Room of the League,
were announced yesterday by Eliza-
Hawley, president of the council.
Delegates on the the panel en-
titled "Feeling with Our Fallen
Foes", at 3 p.m. EWT (2 p.m. CWT)
are the following: Netherlands,
Frances Vander Mey; UnitedrStates,
Harry Daum; Russia, Rose Lessin;
Czechoslovakia, Joseph Otrhalek and
Great Britain,. Marie Martell.
Students on the panel, "Erecting
the Bulwark of Peace", at 8 p.m.
EWT (7 p.m. CWT) are: India, Arun
By Red Armies
Amuerican Forces Are
Only 17 Miles Away
By The Associated Press
LONDON, Thursday, April 26-Two
mighty Russian armies completely en-
circled half-conquered and doomed
Berlin yesterday and southwest of the
crumbling German capital swarmed
across the Elbe River on a 24mile
front, slashing westward toward an
imminent link-up with American for-
ces 17 miles away.
- As Marshal Stalin announced the
encirclement of Berlin in a historic
order of the day, the German radio
admitted that Russian storm troops
had smashed through jungles of
twisted steel and stone to the blazing
heart of the wrecked Nazi capital.
Moscow's nightly war bulletin dis-
closed that Marshal Ivan S. Konev's
First Ukrainian Army had crossed the
Elbe River between Torgau and Riesa
northwest of Dresden.
Reds Near Bruenn
The Soviet High Command also an-
nounced that Russian troops far to
the south were fighting on the out-
skirts of the great Czechoslovak war
arsenal city of Bruenn (Brno), one
of Hitler's last remaining war produc-
Perhaps 500,000 German troops
were trapped in the encirclement of
Berlin and the Hamburg radio ad-
mitted that these forces rapidly were
being overwhelmed in a fantastic, in-
credible battle that raged with in-
creasing fury above and below
ground. The Bermans previously had
reported that Hitler and his Propa-
ganda Minister, Paul Joseph Goeb-
bels, were in Berlin directing its de-
The Hamburg broadcast said that
Red Army Forces which reached Ber-
lin's center in an unidentified sector
had been "halted by German counter-
thrusts" as deafening battles roared
back and forth in Berlin's subways
and sewers. On the surface Russian
armor beat toward Unter Den Linden,
heart of Hitler's dying Third Reich.
German Casualties Announced
The Moscow radio meanwhile an-
nounced that nearly 2,000,000 Ger-
man troops had been killed or cap-
tured on the Eastern Front since Jan-
uary 1, raising to more than 11,000,-
000 the vast toll of German casual-
ties exacted 'by the Red Army in
nearly four years of war
With Berlin already more than half
mn Russian hands, the capital was
encircled in swift drives around its
western outskirts by Marshal Greg-
ory K. Zhukov's First White Russian
Army and the First Ukrainian Army
of Marshal Ivan S. Konev.
The dramatic encirclement appar-
ently ended all possibility of further
German reinforcements reaching the
trapped Berlin garrison.
To Hear Lowry
Dr. Howard F. Lowry, president
of the College of Wooster in Wooster,
O., will deliver the annual address
of the Michigan Alpha chapter of
Phi Beta Kappa at 8 p.m. EWT (7
p.m. CWT) today in Rackham Am-
ARMY UNIT COMMANDANT:
Lt. Gol. ilt*,ler Promnoted to Colonel
Promotion of Lt.-Col. Reginald R.
Miller, commandant of all Army
units in Ann Arbor and head of the
Judge Advocate General's School, to
the rank of colonel was announced
yesterday by the War Department.
Col. Miller first served as director
of military affairs for the JAG
school beginning in February, 1943,
and as assistant commandant for
several months last year. He became
Phi Gamma Delta social fraternity,
Phi Delta Phi legal fraternity and
the Order of Coif, legal honorary.
His senior law partner in Pmaha,
Stanley Rosewarter, was a graduate
of the University of Michigan law
school in the class of 1908.
Infantry Reserve Officers
A former Infantry Reserve offi-
cer, Col. Miller was graduated from
the Command and General Staff
School at Fort Leavenworth, Kans.,
and commissioned in the regular