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November 15, 1939 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1939-11-15

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THE MICHIG XNDAIIY

Clause In Fair Labor Standards Act
is Seen As Answer To Child Labor'

--.« c=
,' ;
..

Ff

ed and managed by students of tihe University of
an under the authority of the Board in Control of
t Publications.
ished every morning except Monday during the
sity year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
Srepublication of all news dispatches credited to
not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
of republication of all other matters herein also
,d.
red at the Post Ofice at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
class mail matter.
criptions during regular school year by carrier,
>y mail, $4.50.
REPRESENTED FOR NATIONAL ADVER-SING BY
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publishers RePresentative
420 MADISON AvE. NEw YORK, N. Y.
CHICAGO BOsroN . LOS ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO
ber, Associated Collegiate Press, 1939-40
Editorial Staff
'etersen . . . Managing Editor
Maraniss . . . Editorial Director
A. Swinton . . . City Editor
i L. Linder . . . . Associate Editor
SA. Schorr Associate Editor
Flanagan . . . Associate Editor
N. Canavan . . . Associate Editor
leary W. . . . . . Women's Editor
neberg . . . . . Sports Editor
Business Staff
ss M~anager . . Paul R. Park
usiness Mgr., Credit Manager #Ganson P. Taggart
is Business Manager . Zenovia Skoratko
i' Advertising Manager . . Jane Mowers
tions Manager . . Harriet S. Levy
MIGHT EDITOR: WILLIAM ELMER
'he editorials published in The Michigan
ly are written by members of The Daily
1 and represent the views of the writers
Y.
eliavelli
ncarnated.

By JEAN SHAPERO
With the provisions in the Fair Labor Stan-
dards Act setting up new regulattins for child
workers, the problem of child 1abor legislation
is once again a live issue in the public mind.
Whether this new law will warkedly affect the
status, of child workers remains to be seen, since
little action has 'yet been :taken by the Chief of
the Children's Bureau in te Department of
Labor to exercise the power given him by this
law.
The clause in the Wage and ,our Act re-
ferred to instructs the Cief to investigate pro-'
duction in which "oppressive child labor' has
been employed. The shipment of such goods in
commerce is forbidden by the law and punish-
able by a fine of $10,000 or imprisonmnent for six
months.
Amendment Partly Ratified4
The amendment proppsed ;by Congress in
1924 which would give it power to enact such
legislation necessary to improve conditions of
child labor has been ratified by only 24 states.
The Supreme Court has recently ruled that the
amendment can still be ratified even though it
has been pending for 15 years. Senator Van-
denberg has replied to sme opponents of the
amendment (who feel that people of 18 should'
no longer be considered "child" labor) by revis-
'ing the amendment to be applicable only to boys
and girls up t 16 years of age, but this bill has
not yet been acted upon.
Necessary To Have Agitatin
Constant agitation since 1842 has been re-
quired of those desiring child labor legislation
in order to make possible as puch progress as
has been achieved in the States. However, even
in the days of the early American c olnies,
people have concerned themselves with how,
when, and for what children should work.
The early attitude among colonists was that
it was good for the child as well as productive.
of goods for the community to have every boy
and girl engaged in some work. They ,believed
"the devil will find work fr idle hands." There
was little concern for the health of the child
at this time, since the main object was to keep
him busy.
tNot until 1842 did any state pass regulations
about child labor. In that year, the citizens
of Fall River, Mass..protested to their legislature
that children who worked in factories were in
peril both of ruining their health and of com-
pletely neglecting their education. The result-
ing law provided that children under twelve could'
not work ,in factories .more than ten hours a
day. Connecticut passed a similar law applying
to children under 14. By 1853 eight other states
had passed the same type of law.
Early Laws Ineffective
These early laws were ineffective because they
contained many loopholes. Three said that the
violations had to be .committed "knowingly,"
while others permitted children to work longer
hours if .they did so voluntarily or if parents
gave written consent for them to do so. . The
children were too frightened and their parents
too ignorant to stop the evils of long hours. Only
two states provided for any administration of
the laws, while six permitted constables to act
if complaints were received.
The eight-hour minimum made its first ap-
pearance in a law by 1903, and most states have
this now, while three states have a 44-hour
week. In the beginning these laws applied only
J/femrio Me,
H leywod B roun
I've seen a lot of them come and go in the
American theatre, and my impression is that our
native drama is far more lusty than it was

to factories and in several states commercial
establishments are not yet within the law.
Employers have fought more furiously against
laws shortening the hours for children than
against any other laws in connection with child
labor. They say enforcement is difficult when
a child in the same establishiment as adults
works shorter days; they also complain that
they cannlot compete with rival business in ad-
joning states.
Federal Government Opposed
To overcome this latter argument, the Federal
Government has introduced legislation to cor-
rect child laboring conditions uniformly, and
has been consistently opposed in every move.
Those who decried oppressive child labor might
still not support regulation by the national gov-
ernment, since they considered this protection
a function of the individual state-the child's
legal guardian.
The first legislation in 1916 coming from
Congress was based on its power to regulate,
interstate commerce. In 1918 (Hammer vs.
Dagenhart) the United States Supreme Court
declared that this law excluding from interstate
commerce those articles manufactured by chil-
dren under 16 years of age was unconstitutional"
because these articles were neither in them-
selves harmful nor would they produce harm
at the end of their journey.
The next endeavor by Congress to control
child labor came in 1919 when they passed a
law placing under special taxes those articles
manufactured by children. This also was de-
clared unconstitutional in 1922 by the Supreme
Court (Drexel vs. Bailey) as being a misuse of
the taxing powers of Congress. Then came the
amendment of 1924 and the subsequent so-far
unsuccessful fight to have it ratified.
Church Opposes Legislation
One of the opponents of the child labor amend-
ment is the church hierarchy. They have op-
posed the enactment of laws governing hours of
child labor because they see a possibility that
the next governmental move will be regulation
of parochial schools. Other forces against these
laws are from farmers who need their children
to help them, and see in such legislation the
loss of this indispensable help. This difficulty
cannot be met by including only large corpora-
tion farms in the scope of the law, because the
act then becomes class legislation, prohibited
by the 14th amendment.
Friends of child labor legislation are now urg-
ing that the Children's Bureau act immediately
upon its power to help exploited children. Until
such action is taken we are still a long way from
the duty of child labor laws as expressed by an
eminent sociologist:
"To protect a child from exploitation at the
hands of employers . . . is a task that belongs
to their guardian, the State."

achiavelli wrote 'The Prince'
i the 16th century, he had no
vaziiszn; yet, his theory that
ous means may be justifiably
strong central government is
n upon which Hitler bases
ch acts as the recent beer-

Germay Rejiuats
IN France they have a proverb: "The
more things change, the more
they stay the same."
After a lapse of 25 years, the Ger-
mans have hauled this present war
into the 1914 "Gott strafe England!"
phase. No matter what happens,
Britain is to blame, according to Ber-
lin, just as it was when Ernst Lis-!
sauer wrote his fiery "hymn of hate"
which made the British responsible
for Germany's troubles.
Three outstanding happenings
within the last few days have sig-
nalized the advent of this 1939 coun-
terpart of the "God punish Eng-
land!" autumn 25 years ago:
The attempt on. Hitler's life 'at
Munich last Wednesday, his speech
there on the same day, and Ger-
man reaction to the offer of the'
{Queen of Holland and the King of
the Belgians to act as mediators in
an endeavor to restore peace to
Europe.
All of these have shown that Eng-
land has been elected again to the
position of official scapegoat for Ger-
many's ills. Once more the full furys
of German propaganda bombard-
ment is beinghurled at the nation
which Lissauer castigated in those
sizzling 1914 stanzas.
Hardly had the smoke cleared
from the Buergerbrau beer cellar in
Munich, following the explosion
which might easily have cost Hitler
his life, before a Berlin paper-of
course, with full governmental sanc-7
tion-announced: '"There is no doubt
that the English Secret Service has
a hand in this affair."
This was a fitting sequel to Hit-
ler's speech, made at that very Buer-#
gerbrau just before the explosion,
which was mainly an infuriated har-.
angue against Britain in general and
against Winston Churchill in particu-e
lar. The Fuehrer, who talked nearly
an hour, scarcely let five minutes
pass at any point in his speech with-
out pillorying Britain and covering it
with angry sarcasm.
"We will now speak to the British
in the language they will probably
best und rstand," he shouted in one
of his typical hysterical outbursts.
"The British Government will learn
that the- attempt to undertake a
police dictatorship must and will fail,
for as police officials we cannott
'stand them."
CONCERNING Churchill, First Lord
of the British Admiralty, selected
some time ago by official Nazidom1
as the most dreadful individual in
the wholedreadful British Empire,
Hitler, after reminding his hearersr
that Churchill was one of those main-
ly responsible for the World War,
cried:
"Churchill at that time forced us
into war. We had a weak govern-
ment. Today he has forced us into
war again but we are a strong gov-
ernment."
Then, working himself into a par-
oxysm of hatred, he screamed:s
"Where is the much vaunted free-t
dom of peoples? Where are all thet
promises regarding colonies? Where
is the assurance of disarmament?r
All lies!"
Hitler also expressed resentment
at Great Britain's failure to declare
war against Russia.
The date may be 1939, but the at-s
mosphere is 1914. "The more things
change, the more they stay the
same." In Germany, anyhow. r
-T. R. Ybarrac
Religious Freedomr
Judge William Clark of the United
States Circuit Court of Appeals at1
Philadelphia has demonstrated thatt
he is as little awed by the tyranny of
pressure groups as by the presence-at
the bar of such defendants as the

.late Dutch Schultz and Mayor Frank
Hague. With his associates con-
curring, Judge Clark ruled last week
that the constitutional guarantee of
religious freedom extends to all sects,
and that no school child may be
forced to salute the American flag if
conscientious objections are raised.
This decision which goes counter toa
the edicts of the Supreme Courts of
Massachusetts, New Jersey and Geor-
gia, means much more than surcease
from annoyance for the relatively
small number of Jehova's WitnessesI
-the sect that raised the flag salute'
issue. It reasserts the fundamental
sanctity of individual freedom. If
sustained by the Supreme Court, it
will call a halt to teachers' oath sta-
tutes and all other patriotism byy law.
As revolting a legislative exhibition
as any that comes to mind was the
seriesyof hearings on the Massachu-,
setts teachers' oath law in the old
Bullfinch Statehouse atop Beacon
Hill. On one side were assembled the
educators of this "schoolroom of the
nation"-from the grade school
teachers to the president of Harvard
College.
On the other side were all the pro-
fessional 100 per cent patriots, spy-
hunters and crackpots-at-large. They
stormed, shouted and threatened.
And, although one State senator,
mindful of the traditions of this an-
cient building, committed pdlitical
suicide by telling them plainly of his
disdain, they carried the day. Massa-
chusetts teachers must now take a
humiliating oath as though they were
all suspect of treason.

DAILY OFFICIAL BULL

(Continued from Page 2)
ate School to be recommended for the
Teacher's Certificate in February and
June 1940 has been posted on the
bulletin board in Room 1431 U.E.S.
Any student whose name does not
appear on this list should report this
fact at once to .the Recorder of the
School of Education, 1437 U.E.S.
Phi Beta Kappa: Members from
other chapters who wish to affiliate
with the Michigan Chapter are cor-
dially requested to notify the Secre-
tary, Hazel M. Losh, Observatory,
giving address, year of election, and
chapter where initiated.
Students, School of Dentistry: There
will be an Assembly this afternoon at
4:15 p.m.,in the Upper Amphitheatre.
Professor J. H. Muyskens will speak
on the subject, "Personality and Com-
munication."
All dental students and hygienists
are requested to be present.
Engineering Ball Tickets will be
available the remainder of the week
at the Michigan Union desk. Tickets
also may be obtained from the fol-
lowing committee members: C. Alex-
ander, J. Brown, H. Fischer, A. Brandt
and R. Goodyear. The sale of tickets
is open to all schools.
The University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Oceupational Tnfonnation
has received notice of the following
United States Civil Service examina-
tions. Last date for filing applica-
tion will be Dec. 11.:
Orthopedic Mechanic (Bracemak-
er), salary: $2,000.
Orthopedic Mechanic (Shoemaker
and Leatherworker), salary: $2,000.
Orthopedic Mechanic (Limbmak-

er), salary: $2,000.
Associate Textile
$3,200.
Assistant Textile
$2,600.-
Jurfior Engineer
salary: $2,000.

4

==.-,

Engineer, Salary1
Engineer, salary:
(all branches),

ect commaid of Hitler. First, it is incredible
it every square foot of the grounds and build-
;s within a quarter mile radius of the site
the Fuehrer's speaking stand was not combed
h the thoroughness characteristic of a man
o cowers behind bullet-proof glass even when
dressing a Gestapo-saturated crowd of his
n. Nazis. German sources asserted that the
mb weighed approximately 200 pounds and
uld require at least two men to place it in
ceiling concealment; and still the Nazis ad-
t that storm troopers and Gestapo agents
>ervised the decoration of the beer-hall. Secret
ants who terrorize citizens into eating a speci-
I amount of butter each day are not even
ious when a group of men hook a 200 pound
nb on the ceiling!
Second, there is the remarkable coincidence'
it the Fuehrer chose this particular time to
vate from his custom of remaining after a
ech, and that none of his right hand men
yed behind to chat with the boys. All seven
the casualties were reported to be minor party
embers who lived around Munich.
['he third reason the professor gave is even
re conclusive. The German censorship
reau that suppresses news of the slightest
;tle loses, that squelched practically all news
the Polish war, that withheld any hint of the
rman-Soviet pact until it was completed, per
ted wires to remain open three hours after
bombing occurred, giving all German and
eign correspondents time to broadcast the
vs over the entire world as quickly as possible.
is startling contrast to the usual Nazi policy
st have some significance.
rhe motive for such a Nazi plot is twofold. A
r disaster of this type arouses the people's
against the government's enemies, and Hit-
is made more dear by his bare escape. The
vernment's enemies are divided into two
ups, foreign and domestic. The ire aroused
iinst the foreign group is best illustrated by
uotation from the Nazi press, "Now we under-
nd the real significance of the Prime Mn-
er's words when he said in Parliament at the
r's beginning, 'I hope to live to see the day on
ich Hitler will be destroyed.' Those are the
itish methods--but God Almighty is against
m!" And the German people are to believe
it if God Almighty is against Britain then He
for Hitler.
[he domestic group is likely to receive a heavi-
burden of blame than Britain.. Conservative
iups in Germany have put up a futile but con-
nal struggle against Hitlerism, and the 1934
aod purge is a sample result of their efforts.
neral von Fritsch was the leader of a powerful
cup of conservative industrialists .in .1937; but
ien they became too active, the Polish war was

of Eugene O'Neill.
seen his decline I

around the turn of the cen-
tury. My first reviewing was
done in days when Clyde
Fitch was still considered the
greatest of the home-grown
crop. Today he is deader
than 20 doorknobs, and de-
servedly. His only gift was
a facility, which is not
enough 'in any art form.
I sat and watched the rise
Whether or not I have also
cannot say until he rteurns

Drew Pe8501
cud t
Robert S.Allen
WASHINGTON--Reports on the Dutch crisis"
which the State Department has been laying on
the White House desk are that the Nazis want
Holland nots as an air-raiding base against Bri-
tain but as a submarine base.
The Dutch coast is indented with some of thF
best harbors of northern Europe, strategically
located along the bottle-neck of the greatest
shipping lane in'the world-the English Channel.
Moreover secret German strategy is to bring
new submarines down the river Rhine into Hol-
land. Hitler is reported dickering with the
Russians for new submarines, and if the deal
goes through, they probably would come from
Russia by rail and the Rhine.
Queen Wilhelmina
The split between Queen Wilhemina and her
cabinet over whether to resist German invasion
has been serious. The Queen leaned toward a
compromise with Hitler, chiefly because she felt
sure her country could not withstand the Ger-
man onslaught and she wanted to save her
people from the same fate as Poland.
The Dutch cabinet, on the other hand, was
emphatically opposed. Sentiment in Holland
is running so strong against Hitler that any
compromise would have meant the resignation of
the cabinet,
Another fear in Queen Wilhelmina's mind,
according to diplomatic reports cabled here, is
the danger of a Japanese attack upon the Dutch
East Indies simultaneous with the German march
across the Dutch border.
This always has been the strategy planned
by the Japanese war lords, but it has been
shaken recently by Roosevelt's sudden transfer
of the U.S. fleet to Hawaii and by the straight-
from-the-shoulder diplomacy of Ambassador
Grew.
Ism Catalog
Defining the various "isms" that dominate
the world's economies is no trouble for Edgar
Puryear, general PYA employment official. The
one-time New Mexico farm boy deals with them
in bovine terms, as follows:

The Bureau has also received an
announcement of an examination toi
be given by the United States Mari-I
time Commission for Deck Cadet and
Engineer Cadet in tire Merchant
Marine of the United States. Last]
date for filing application will ber
Dec. 21.
Complete announcements on file
at the University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupational Information,
201 Mason Hall, Office hours: 9-12
and 2-4.
University Bureau of Appointmentsi
and Occupational Information.
Registration: All candidates for po-
sitions who desire to register with the
University Bureau of Appointments
and Occupational Information during
this school year should .obtain regis-
tration blanks at the Bureau, 201 Ma-.
son Hall, on the following days: Wed-
nesdy, hursayFriday, Nov. 15-17,1
and Monday and Tuesday, Nov. 20-21.1
Hours 9-12 and 2-4. (Attention is
called to the fact that Saturday is
omitted, as Saturday is regularly re-
served for out of town people). Blanks
are to be returned within 1 days.
The Bureau -has two divisions::
Teaching and general. The general1
division registers npeople for positions:
of all kinds other than teaching. t
Both seniors and graduate students,
as well as staff members, are eligibleJ
to enroll. 'Only' one registration is-
held during the school year and every
one 'who will be available in February,j
June, August, or at any other time.
during the year, should enroll not.
There is no fee for enrolling, but be-
ginning Nov. 22, by order of the Board
of Regents, a late registration fee of
$1 will be charged.
University Bureau of Appointmenits
and Occupational Information,
R.O.T.C.: Uniforms will be issued
from headquarters today between the
hours 9 a.m. and 4:30 p.m.
Pre-Medical Students: The Medical
Aptitude Test of the Association of
American Medical Colleges will be giv-
en at the University of Michigan on
Tuesday, Nov. 28. Since the test is a
normal requirement to practically all
medical schools, all students who are
planning to enter a medical school
Py the fall of 1940 should take the ex-
amination. This will be the only time
that the test will be given before next
fall. It is not necessary that all pre-
medical requirements be completed at
the time the test is taken providing
the requirements will be completed in
time for entrance to medical schools
in ,the fall of 1940. Students whose
requirements will not be completed by
that time are asked to postpone the
examination until another year.
The Medical School of the Univer-
sity of Michigan especially, urges all
students planing to apply for anis-
sion in 1940 to write this examina-
tion.
More complete information may be
obtained in Room 4 -University Hall.
A fee of one dollar is charged each
student taking the examination,
which must be paid by Nov. 22 so
that the University will be able to
order the required number of tests.
IWatch this column for fuirtheran

give a recital in Hill Auditortu this
afternoon at 4:15 p.m. to which the
general public, with the exception of
s small children, is invited.
Exhibitions
One hundred original cartoon draw-
'ings from the Cartoonists' Group of
New York are being shown in the
Iwest exhibition gallery of the Rack-
ham Building, daily except Sunday,
2 p.m. to 5 p.m., from Nov. 7 to Nov.
20.
Architectural Building Exhibition:
An exhibit of wood sculpture by Mr.
Seth M. Velsey, of Dayton, Ohio, is
being shown in the ground floor case
of the Architectural Building. Open
daily 9 to 5 except Sunday until Nov.
19. The public is cordially invited.
Lectures
University Leture: Th ;]onorable
Lawrence M. Judd, former Governor
of H.awaii, wil lecture orn A"awaii,
Pivot of the Pacific" under the auspi-
ces of the Political Science Depart-
ment, on Monday, Nov. 20, at 4:15
p.m. in the Raqkham Amphritheatre.
The public is cordially invited
Universiy Lecture: Dr. E.LK. Gel-
ing, Professor and Chairman of the
Department of Pharnacology of the
University of Chicago, will lecture on
"The 'Comparative Anatomy and
Pharmgcology o f t h e Pituitary
Gland," under the auspices of the
Department of Biological Chepistry,
at 4:15 p.m. on Thursday, NYv. 30,
in the Rackham Lecture Hall. The
public is cordially invited.
Extraeurrcular 1M4 c1 l tehool
Lecture: A Medical Schgol Lecture
will be given this afternoqn at
4:15 p.m. in the Rackham Lecture
Hall. The speaker will be Dr. Le-
Moyne Snyder, State Police expert
on medical legal advice, and his sub-
ject will be "The Doctor and the
Law." All Medical School' classes
will be dismissed at 4 p.m. in order
that the students jmay attend. The
public is invited.
Dr. Nelson Glueck of Jerusalem will
lecture in the Rackham Auditorium
on Thursday, Nov. 16, at 4:15 p.m.
'Subject: "Archaeology Today." Ihe
public is cordially invited.
Lecture: Father Berry, of St. Mary's
Students Chapel, will give te sixth
lecture in thenseries on "I Believe,"
which is sponsored by the student
Religious Association in the Rackham
Amphitheatre today at 8 p.m.
Today's Events
American Chemical Soeity: Profes-
sor G. B. Kistiakowsky of Harvard
University will lecture on "Energetics
of Some Organic ompouns" in
room 303 lhemistry ui n at 4:15
p.m. today. The meeting is open to
the public.
Graduate Chemistry Receptin for
all graduate students and faculty
in pure and applied chemistry will
be held in the Horace H. Racham
Building this evening from 8 to 10
P-1m. Wives of faculty and students
are cordially invited. hibits and
novelties have been arranged. Re-
freshments.
Clengeal an d Metalkurgial En-
giueerig Seminar: Mr. R. C. Werner
will be the speaker at the Seminar
for graduate students in chemical and
metallurgical engineering today at 4 ,
p.m. in Room 3201 E. Eng. Bldg. His
subject is "The Phase Diagram and
Crystal Structure of Sodium-Lead
Alloys."
All Engineers are invited to attend
he A.S.M.E. meeting tonight at 7:30,
Michigan Union. The Socony-Vacuum
Oil Company's new sound movie, "The
Inside Story of the Fundamentals of

Correct 'Lubrication" will be shown,
followed by a discussion.
University Girls' Glee Club: No re-
hearsal tonight. Regular rehearsal
tomorrow evening at 7:15 in the
Game Room of the League. Atten-
dance' is compulsory, and all mem-
bers are urged to be prompt.
International Center, Music Hour:
Instead of the announced program,
the International Center will present
a program of modern Hungarian mu-
sic. Take advantage of the opportuni-
ty to hear a number of records which
have been loaned the. Center by a
friend in Detroit.
Mathematics Club will meet today
at 8 p.m., in the West Lecture Room
of the Rackham Building. Dr. Gre-
ville will speak on "Optional Stop-
ping."
Algebra Seminar will meet today
at 4 o'clockin 3201 A.H. Miss Wolf
'will continue her talk on "Evaluation
Theory."E
International Center Tea: Foreign
women and wives of foreign students
will be held today from 4 to 6 p.m.
Marriage Relations Seies n fl

with another play. At the moment I would
nominate Robert F. Sherwood as the finest
American dramatist and George S. Kaufman
as by all odds the most adroit of technicians.
And if I were a theatrical tycoon I am con-
fident that it would be no trouble at all to
contrive the great American drama. It could
be done by the simple process of mixing two
strains. The thing might be as easy as saying,
"Mr. Kaufman, I want you to meet William
Saroyan." '
Saroyan's present play, "The Time of Your
Life," seems to me just about the most exciting
thing which our theatre has to offer. -But both
his critical enemies and his idolators err when
they begin to debate the formlessness of his
dramatic venture. People who would throw
The Time of Your Life out of the window on
the ground that it has practically no plot are
silly.
And yet I think it is also a mistake to ap-
plaud Saroyan on the ground that he has very
small comprehension of structure. His gift is

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