SEPTEMBER 24, 1935
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
On Mystic 'G,'
Italian Machine-Gunners Leave For Ethiopia
Psychologist Says 'General
Factor' Is Indefinible
A new form of public opinion sur-
vey, based on personal interviews on
a large scale, was outlined and dis-
cussed before the American Psycho-
logical Association's convention here
recently by Dr. Paul S. Achilles of
the Psychological Corporation, a non-
profit research organization with
headquarters in New York.
Already in use by the corporation
since February, 1933, the new tech-
nique has produced interesting re-
sults, of which the most outstanding
is the progressive study of the popu-
larity of NRA.
From 2,000 to 5,000 housewives in
the so-called upper-middle economc
group were interviewed by associated
psychologists in 40 to 50 cities
throughout the country on six dif-
ferent occasions, and were asked to
answer the question: E "From what,
you have seen of the NRA in your
neighborhood, do you believe it is
Begin Tests In 1933
In October, 1933, when the tests
were begun, a plurality of 47.6 per
cent answered "yes," 27.- per cent
answered "no," and 25.4 per cent
were doubtful. Other surveys with
the same question were made in No-
vember, 1933, January, April, and
September, 1934, and a final survey
in January, 1935.
The result showed a gradual trend
from the "yes" vote to the doubtful
followed by a second transfer fromI
the doubtful to the "no" vote, Dr.
Achilles said. The final survey re-
sulted in a vote of 38.2 per cent "yes,"
32.5 per cent "no," and 29.3 per cent
A geographical analysis of the
vote, tabulating sectional differences
in respect to NRA, made on the basis
of the January, 1934 vote, showed
strongest support of the measure in
the Southern states, which returned
a favorable majority of 70.4 per cent.
with 9.1 per cent opposed and 20.5
per cent doubtful.
New York state returned the
strongest opposition vote on this oc-
casion, with 43.8 per cent for, 27.9
per cent against, and 28.3 per cent
Consider Two Problems
"Two important problems must be
considered in evaluating the reliabil-
ity of results from studies of this
kind," Dr. Achilles pointed out. "The
first is the nature of the question
He then went on to cite a survey
undertaken by a large commercial re-
search organization, which asked a
question in respect to NRA of 40,000
housewives. The wording of the
question was not revealed, but the
report stated that 92 per cent of the
women thought NRA beneficial, while
the Psychological Corporation's sur-
vey at the same time (November,
1933) showed only 40.9 per cent in
favor of NRA among a similar but
smaller group of housewives.
The second element, Dr. Achilles
said, was the size, distribution, and
character of the group interviewed.
Pointing out that the standard de-
viations with either 4,000 or 40,000
interviews would vary only about one
per cent, and that both surveys were
nation-wide, only the character re-
mained as a variable element.
To demonstrate the homogeniety of
the group interviewed, on 10 surveys
the percentage of families owning
automobiles was determined, and
found to vary only from 64.5 to 69.7
Another approach to the reliabili-
ty of careless or general surveys was
given by Dr. Achilles in the following
results: On the question, "Do you
believe in the farm allotment plan?"
results of 22.6 per cent "yes" and
35.8 per cent "no" wereobtained.
Thus while 70.8 per cent did not
know the nature of the plan, 58.4 per
cent of the same people felt them-
selves capable of expressing an opin-
ion on it.'
Other surveys just begun by the
corporation, and waiting for back-
ing at present, will divide those in-
terviewed into such categories as cor-
poration presidents, college profes-
sors, teachers, trade union officials,
(Continued on Page 7)
AND HAT SHOP
Full Sole Half Sole
WORKMANSHIP and STOCK
HAT CLEANING and
-Associated Press Photo.
All the weapons of modern warfare were taken along when Italian troops embarked for East Africa from
Naples. Here is a contingent of machine-gunners waving their deadly weapons aloft just before boarding the
* * .. * .
Oalo-Ethiopian War mill Be Ii Duce's
Big Show'- To Build Up His Prestige
longed. "Sir Arthur Salter has in-
troduced a plan that sounds ex-
tremely reasonable," said Professor
Preuss. "Instead of not selling to a
belligerent, as the United States
neutrality measure suggests, it would
be simpler and equally effective not
to buy from a belligerent. In this
way, the regular customs officers
could be used, and the danger of
contact with warring countries would
be lessened. Furthermore it is easier
to tell the origin of goods than their
Ethiopia's natural defenses may
defeat Italy, in the opinion of Colonel
Miller, an internationally known au-
thority on ordinance and war prob-
lems. "The war zone constitutes a
distance equal to that from Washing-
ton to Detroit, a total land area over
five times the size of Michigan.
Starting at Washington, a modern
army would face a mountain range
more formidable than the Rockies,
not a single highway admitting
smooth movement, a rough plateau
scored across with impassable gorges,
vegetation so dense in places as lit-
erally to halt progress, no growing
foodstuffs and no supplies of drink-
"Only the natives, who know every
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inch of the terrain, could operate
rapidly in this nightmare field of
war," declared Colonel Miller. "The
invading force would have to chase
innumerable bodies of these nimble
native fighters all over the area, sub-
ject to sudden counter-attacks and
ambushes and the exhausting ef-
fects of disease, insect pests, heat
and unnatural living conditions.
Modern methods of warfare will
prove of scant aid under these condi-
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tions, faced by Italy, and the four
years assigned to the task by Mus-
solini may be too short, even provid-
ing that Italian national morale can
be kept at war pitch for so long."
W atches ... .
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213-215 West Liberty
(Continued from Page 1)
colonial empire, at the conclusion of
the World War. All that Italy has
gained thus far has been by way of a
rectification of the boundaries of her
three African colonies -Libya, Erit-
rea, and Italian Somaliland - con-
ceded on the basis of the promises
made to her by France and Great
Britain in the Secret Treaty of Lon-
don of 1915."
Fascist imperialism is also justified
in Italian circles by the conception
that boundaries should be not fixed
but subject to alteration inaccord-
ance with population, Professor Ehr-
Of Professor Preuss was asked the
question: "What do you think of
Mussolini's statement to the League
that it is 'monstrously unfair' of Great
Britain to interfere now after having
been so guilty of aggression herself?"
Mussolini Pledged To Pact
"Mussolini overlooks the fact that,
in joining the League of Nations,
Italy pledged not to resort to arms
for the settlement of a dispute with
any League member without having
first submitted the issue to a League
committee for arbitration," he re-
plied. "Furthermore he is pledged
through the Kellogg-Briand Peace
Pact against acts of armed aggres-
sion. Great Britain's conquests were
all made in the last century, when
territorial expansion was condoned
by public opinion.
"As Sir Samuel Hoare remarked
in his speech before the League, we
must not make the mistake of per-
sonifying the League in blaming it for
not stopping aggression. It is not a
personality, but a union of the various
governments, and can be no stronger
than its weakest link."
"Why is it," Professor Preuss was
asked, "that Great Britain has taken
such a firm stand in this incident
when it stood by so passively in the
case of Japanese aggression?"
Explains British Stand
"Two definite reasons may be seen
for Great Britain's unexpectedly
strong stand," he replied. "First, be-
cause the present incident falls with-
in a field of primary British interest,
whereas Manchuria is a field of sec-
ondary interest. Conversely, the
United States was interested in Man-
churia, a field of primary interest, but
not as strongly concerned about Af-
rica ,a field of American secondary
interest. Secondly, it has been a
British policy never to allow a pri-
mary power to break the line of
comunication between India and
England. The question is, to what
lengths will Great Britain go to
maintain this policy? Sir Samuel, in
the same speech, indcated that Great
Britain would opose all armed ag-
gression and will support the League
with arms, if necessary, in combat-
ing it. The statement is qualified
by the fact that the League can not
act without the unanimous approval
of its members, and Great Britain;
France, Italy In Accord
"Why has France not cooperated
with Great Britain and the League
in the peace efforts?" Professor
Preuss was asked next.
"First of all," he replied, "there
appears to be a certain amount of
justification for the suspicion that
France has given a free hand to Italy
in Ethiopia. We must appreciate
that France can not be blamed for
valuing Italian friendship. France is
aware of the very real danger of an
Anschluss between Germany and
Austria and is uncertain of British
support in opposing it, while she is
sure of Italian aid.
'It is not so much for economic
gain that Italy seeks these colonies,
but for the sake of internal and
foreign prestige," Professor Preuss
stated. Colonies do not pay. England
has found that out and is now en-
gaged on a policy of colonial devolu-
tion. Germany to before the War
found that her colonies were a heavy
drain on the Imperial treasury, and
could not get more than 25,000 Ger-
mans to live in the German colonies.
'On the whole, I regard this ag-
gression as the inevitable result of a
fascistic regime," Professor Preuss
stated. "ascism must result in war;
no other effect can be expected from
the mass inculcation of the military
spirit into a country when accom-
panied by deliberate efforts to create
a population surplus. I regard this
particular crisis as only one of many
that are sure to come bceause of the
spirit of fascist imperialism seen in
It is not at all unlikely, thinks
Professor Preuss, that Italy may be
defeated by the economic sanctions
against her. With the United States,
Great Britain, and even France
threatening not to sell to Italy, Mus-
solini may find himself in straitened
circumstances if the war is pro-
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