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January 13, 1924 - Image 9

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The Michigan Daily, 1924-01-13

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41v 4r,










"If we can think and plan and will
a war, surely we can will and achieve
so simple a thing as peace."
Out of this belief the idea of the
American Peace Award, created by
Edward W. Bok, editor, student of the
times. Now the prize-winning plan
has been selected and placed before
the American people for their approv-
al; and at this time, while it is still
the subject for hot debate, Mr. Bok
discloses that he contemplates an-
other and even broader campaign to
make the peace plan effective. In a
remarkable interview he describes
what he feels has been accomplished
already by the discussion of the plan
and suggests what can be done for
the future. And what he has to say
is emphasized by the record of the
progress of the movement thus far.
Amazing, indeed, is the interest that
has been called forth from every part
of the country and from every walk
of life. There has been no parallel
to it in the history of popular appeals.
The number of plans submitted-22,-
165-is one indication of the interest
aroused. Another, and more import-
ant, is the cordial reception which is
being given the referendum.
For the referendum, now well
uiderway, is' the largest which has
ever been held on a public question.
Complete plans have been provided
for obtaining an expression of na-
tional opinion on the ' merit of the
winning peace program. Daily news-
papers, weekly papers, magazines and
scores of national organizations are1
co-operating in the undertaking. It
is expected that the vote cast will
approximate the vote for President of
the United States.
, r. Bok's Expect atoi s'
"Never before have the people of
America had such an opportunity to
raise the tribunal above the battle-
field. That is what the plan means,"
says Mr. Bok. "And when the Ameri-
can people have spoken, it will be
time for the other nations of the world
to register their opinion.
"Of the many impressions which'
stand out from this effort the most
vivid, I think, is the determination
to end war," said Mr. Bok. "In a
long contact with the American peo-
pie I have never seen them so reso-
lute. This decision runs through all
classes, from the highest to .the low-
est. We have perceived the light and
it is our national resolution to end
War. I am certain of it. And once
we have reached that milestone the
rest is not impossible. If we can
think and plan and will a war, surely
we can will and achieve so simple a
thing as peace.
"An interesting reflection in this
spirit is the widespread suggestion,
contained in a large percentage of
the peace plans, that the manufac-
ture of guns and ammunition be con-
trolled or prohibited. If we may take
the plans received as an indication.
of national thought-Land I believe
we can-it Is evident that a host of
people have reached the same con-'
clusion by Individual reasoning: that
the way to stop war is to cut off the
readiest source of war.
"Another element that entered
strongly into the striving for a peace
plan was the opportunity for self-
expression offered to the "inarticulate,
"Men and women everywere told
me that it was the. first chance that
they ever had to express their opin-
ions on this question," continued Mr.
Bok. "I asked sme of them, out of
curiosity, 'if they had not voted upon
it through . their representatives in
State and Nation. But most of them
gave me an emphatic 'No,' saying that
they had never had any real voice in
the making of war, and that what
they wanted was a clear road to
Washington, a chance to be heard with
their own voices expressing their own
Few men ever had a better oppor-


tunity to know the temper and men- Th I
tal processes of the American people
than Mr. Bok. As editor of a maga TE P L A
zicreaching eviery remote corner OL
the country, he should understand its
psychology. And this is the way he , ' I Promises Rope.
summed up the public attitude on war DEAN H. M. BATES, of the law
and peace. school: In considering the merits of
E rt athe winning plan proposed for the
"A man's opinion is like a snow- Bok Peace Prize, one should keep
flake," he.observed. "It may fall upon .. steadily in mind the exact purpose
oustcadilylinvminddthe eaactipurpose
our coat sleeve and we may lightly .: which the plan seeks to accomplish.
brush it away; but if it is a real t As stated in the offer of the prize by
snowall anyother flakes follow :. r;f
snowfall m ..............k.s......Mr. Bok, that purpose is "the best
until soon they cover our coat, the I 'rpractical plan by which the United
roads, the whole countryside; and States may co-operate with other na-
even the most powerful locomotive tions to achieve and preserye the
cannot burrow a way through. That peace of the world." Mr. Bok did
is what world opinion will do one X.' not call for political and legal pan-
of these days with the engine of war. aceas of any kind, nor for mere ideal-
I I hope that our plan is the first snow-a-istic programs. It is essentially a
flake, at least.", practical purpose and practical meth-
"How did you arrive at the idea of ods which the conditions of the prize
offering the peace award?" competition suggested.
"Well, the last election profoundly
impressed me," answered Mr. Bok. In the language of the ballot which
"I did not think that the people truly we are asked to send to the other
understood conditions or all of the committeein charge of this cmpeti-
things which have been going on in the tion, "I approve the plan in sub-
world. The political reaction suggest- I stance." One already hears some
ed a vain striving to get away from criticism to the effect that there is
the sad facts of life-facts made sad nothing original 'in the winning plan.
for Americans principally by the war. If by that is meant that no a priori
So I had a careful personal canvass Edward W. Bok creation, promising absolute world
made which brought the question be~ Mr. .Bok, the founder of the Ameri tpeasuch a seme dcriticisn i juh
fore several hundred thousands of can Peace Award, is now the center mantpschahemeyould n aclchi
Americans, to learn what they were Ifatn oh*t man probab(illpy hami no pilactuca!
thinking. And everywhere there was o attention both in this country and value whatever. Perhaps the chief
thining Andeveywhre terewasabroad, as a result of his vision inmrto h tnlisi h atta
much confusion about facts, but gen- Conceiving and executing his enter- merit of the plan lies in the fact that
eral agreement on one principle-- prie g itis a skillful combination of exist-
war must be ended. prise._ ing organizations, plans' and func-
"Right there the agreement disap- IItions, all tending toward international
peared. Nobody seemed to have "Practically the entire press of the co-operation and agreement and thus
plan, even an inkling of one, to bring country is assisting us in getting a against war. Unhappily, there is little
about this longed-for result. And Y public referendum on our plan. Vot- reason to believe that the last war
thought of all the millions of people ing coupons are being inserted in has been fought. It is improbable
throughout the world-especially over thousands of publications. We shall that a method of settling interna-'
there in Europe-who were thinking obtain the broadest referendum ever tional controversies, however irra-
the same thing. Why, if a man paused held on a public question. The vote tional, brutal and inexcusable it may
to listen he could almost hear the cry will run into millions. And when the be, which has persisted so long in
of humanity to end war. I listened ballots are counted we shall have an destroying the happiness of the hu-
intently and the cry was painful. expression of opinion that cannot be man race, can be eliminated by any
"But still there was no plan. Then denied- plan or any organization in the im-
I determined to enlist the best thought The next step should be the intro- mediate future. No experienced and
of the whole nation-which is the duction of a bill in Congress officially, wise supporter of the League of Na-
mind of its commonalty-on this one putting the peace plan before the na- tions believed that its adoption, even
vital subject of how we should go tion's legislators. I have been warned by all powers, would result in the
about ending war for all time. Mind that it never will get any farther, but immediate extermination of war;
you, I don't expect to do it at once. I have my own views about that. Our though unfortunately, some unwise
We cannot achieve a miracle. But legislators are just as much interested supporters have claimed that for it.
we can make 'a beginning. That is asthe rest of us in guarding the fu- and others have sometimes thought-
what I hope our plan will do." ture ceraiat theops ceeani lessly used language indicating a be-
Once this conception had fired Mr.w eeive lief to that effect. This has enabled
Bok with the resolution to undertake deserves. emotional opponents of the League to
a national competion he grappled with "I br ave in mind another and even set it up as a straw man, with claims
the details. It was a gigantic under- broader campaign to make the peace which its best friends have never
taking, and nothing of the sort had plan eetai s Naturally, catI made for it, and then proceed to
.ever been done before. As finally dics the tal at bectme, butI destroy it. Unfortunately, the utter-
worked out, th plan resembled a na- hope to have the plan become a basis ance of half-truth, of catch phrAses
tionl eecton, itha prty onvn-for international negotiation. My sec-'n
tional election, with a party conve- ond plan will carry an award larger andappeals to emotion, have enabled
tion thrown in, and none of the ma-thlanhwillarsCrtain yawdlare-enemies of the League to persuade
chinery to handle either. thant firsterutakin g wil e people that because it probably could
Mr. Bok selected a woman to run present a greater undertaking with a not actually prevent war therefore it
the competion, Miss Esther Everett world goal for its aim."was wholly bad
Lape, a writer, and she carried it out Is Time For Peace It is a merit of the Bok peace plan
in three little rooms of a Madison Mr. Bok was asked if he believed that neither its proposals nor its
Avenue office building. Through her, this a propitious time for a world ( phrasing subjects it to this kind of
fron nJulyn the contonsocoaward peace move. unfair criticism. It is avowedly mere-
plan on July 2, the conditions of com- "I cannot conceive of a more fa- I ly a plan by which we may co-oper-
petition have been supplied to 250,- vorable moment," he said. "Assured- ate with other nations in measures
000 applicants. ly the world needs peace more thati tending.to prevent war. This is the
Represent Nation's Thought any other one thing. A new war like only safe and promising kind of plan.!
When the plan was first announced, (Continued on Page Twelve) The plan, however, does not propose
the percentage of cranks who re-I

1such important moves as our joining foundations. We know equally well attempts to improve a dangerous situ-
the so-called World Court and co- that another world war must neces-ation.
operating in many international un- sarily be infinitely more ferocious, The argument that the plan pro-
dertakings for the betterment of man- more destructive and more compre- posed is but a method of getting us
kind and the settlement of differences hensive; and many of us feel that our into the League of Nations by a back
of opinion among nations. No experi-' civilization cannot stand the shock of order seems to me very weak and large-
enced observer, trained in the social such a war. Ily without merit. The plan as sub-
sciences, can doubt that the adoption ยข The proposed plan, in making use mitted clearly states that we do not
of the plan as proposed would tend of organizations, methods and func-: propose to enter the League as at
to prevent the rise of some contro-.' tions that have all been tried, prom- present constituted and suggests or
versies which wuld otherwise de- laes' at least some hope. That several implies that important changes would
velop and to settle some which, never- of the methods suggested may be have to be made before we should
theless, do arise. No one can doubt carried out has been shown, I think, consider complete participation it its
that in bringing representatives of the by Professor Manley 0. Hudson, 'who work. It is true that if such changes
nations of the world together in the has been working along the lines sug- were made, it would tend to trans-
effort to secure desirable ends, great- gested in this plan. form the League of Nations into an
er understanding, greater sympathy international debating society, but I
and greater desire to avert war will "We Waited." am not sure that such a society might
follow. If these things be true, then not be of great value. In general the
even though the plan does not prom- PROF. BRAND BLANSHARD, of behavior of nations is not so very df-
ise absolute peace from now on; even the philosophy department, secretary ferent form the behavior of indvidu-
though we may be fairly certain that of the League of Nations Non-Parti-
Ythat, o fNtosNnPri als, and I have observed that it is
unfortunately, wars may still arise; san Association: I am heartily in fa- much easier to quarrelwith people
it is a movement in the right direc- vor of Mr. Bok's plan and shall cer- we do not know than with people we
tion, certain to have beneficent re- tainly vote for it. are in the habit of dining with.
sults, to decrease the number and per- In the first place, it gives us a Given a reasonable desire to solve
haps the scope of future wars, and chance to rectify a great wrong. At a problem, conference willgerally
possibly finally to lead to their utter jthe last election the League of Na- fidbletho.eThis plan generally
eliminationi. tions was an issue, and it happened is in fact an attempt to substitute
Neurotic or emotional opponents of that the party supporting it was de- conference for making faces at eachI
any and all measures for world co- feated.t was at once noised about other. It is a step forward along a
by League opponents that the people difficult and unknown road. We shall
operation seem to assume, naively' had spoken clearly and that they had dfiutadukonra.W hl
that the world has the choice be- had toe n n eyad require faith, patience and courage-
1given their decision unequivocally alhoeyA rinvrts.Iop
tween going on with the type of wars all homely American virtues. Ihope
of the past, which, after all, have left' Tat ineratinali cogertin.!we may have a chance to display
civilizations still struggling on, or on Thgat was certainly false in logic, and them. I shall vote for the plan.
I thing it was false in fact. You can- ___
the other hand, some kind of world not argue that if a platform is re-
organization which shall attempt to Jected as a whole, every plank in it Forget r. Wson.
prevent them; and because they think is being separately condemned. And PROF. R. T CRANE, of the 'poi-
that ~~i preenioniga t stepafatelamconvimnedtAt
that prevention Is impossible, they tical science department: Both
urge our continuing the "safe and from the very beginning the people friends and oppenents of the League
sane way," originating in the ages of have been in favor, if not . of the of Nations have jumped to the con-
savagery and barbarism. It is tragic- League, then of something that will lusion that the Bok peace plan em-'
ally untrue that these choices aretk braces the entry of the United States
offered to us. We know that the late take its place in the sphere of inter- into the League. The plan does not
world war shook to national organs of finding out. Through immediately provide for such entry
this informal referendum we can get and does not necessarily lead to It. It
what there is no governmental ma- is quite true that the course of ac-
And The chinery to secure, a conclusive state- tion outlined seems tb lead lgicaly
The manner in which the Bok peace ment of popular opinion on a quite todultimate membership in the
plan is being taken in Washington is specific point. League; but so does every oter tea-
9 "is ein taeedi d~ahintonst In the second place, the plan is a sonable course of action -open to our
much as was predicted. The great gonvheseonrpacmheplnts.
majority of the senators, with the cx- step toward the only possible a- government.
ception of irreconciliables who are rangement which will effectively pre- Is the first place, the eplan siny
almost unanimously against it, hesi- vent war. Mr. Bok is quite right; sets forth the facts of the fsti
tate to give any opinion on the matter. "there are only two ways to settle situation. The League is a fact.reit
Political dopesters attribute this reti- a quarrel, to fight it out or to talk is a fact offarsdIt i eosn
cence to the fact that they don't know it over," and if nations are to. have in foreign affairs. It is the chosen
who wiote the plan and are afraid 'a chance to "talk it over," there must and successful agency of fiftyfour
of declaring themselves either for an be some international machinery for nations for the handling of many
enemy or against a friend. Here are so doing. Personally, I should go phases of international relations. The
several statements which indicate the much farther than this plan. I fa- only practicable method of reaching
general trend of the Senatorial mind vor the League with no reservations, understandings with other nations on
Senator Wadsworth, New York-I Iand with full power of arms and ththemany subjects is in conjunction with
have not read it and that probably in- economic boycott behind it, so that if League. The League is now a success
dicates my interest in it. a nation refuses to talk it over, it can Lithut the Led
be prevented from running amuck. without the United States. The United
Senator Moses, New Hampshire- But any co-operation is better than States desires international arrange-
The mountain labored and broughtn nyiments of various types of which co-
forth a mouse, and it is the same Thirdly, like many thousands of operation in regard to public health
mouse we trapped in 1920. ter I have personal reasons for and the white salve trade are but two
Senator Shipstead, Minnesota-This Iweloming this move, and so am per- examples. Fifty-four nations have es-
is a thinly veiled propaganda to get haps a prejudiced witness. The war ntablished a mode of getting together
the United States into the League. I cost three years of my life. Those on such questions and it is a mde
am surprised that grown men should! of us who watched from the ranks in that is of precisely thecharacter
attempt to obtain the peace of the France while 'the business in Paris (that of international conferencel
world with a money prize. was going on let our hopes soar. We that the United States desires except'
felt that, however much It had cost, that it bears the awful stigma of the
perhaps after all the new order would League!
be worth it. Te were young enough It is no longer possible to sanction
and naive enough to think that per-'the scrapping of this plan at the be-
est of Americans whose sole reasn
h inks haps we were making the world a for opposition is hatred for ex-Prei-
little safer for the next crop of can- dent Wilson. If the United States de-
non-fodder. There was a burst ofdntWsn.IteUiedtasd-
gnnde nTheres waths ay rt of sires to conduct many foreign rela-
genuine enthusiasm in those day thatwon .ions that are desirable if not essen-
'~ n~1~r~inW looked as if it might work wonders. I ,. tht .r.dsialei- -~ ssn
Mi--.--.,-'.--.'. n-- e se n -314,_4 --- 1

sponded was fairly high. But these
dropped out as the idea gained hold,~
and, there probably has never been a'
more representative group of Ameri- W h a
cans than the ultimate contestants for'
the award. As the competition drew
to a close interest heightened and-
fast minute entrants hurried their pa- Press comment, as compared with
pers into the hopper. Several were that which emanated from politicians, I
telegraphed, a few cabled from across especially in Washington, seemed
the ocean, and one plan came from much more favorable to the Bok peace
Denver by air in a special plane. That much Toe faorby o t Bosideace
wastherecrd id or he 100000plan. The majority of it considers
was the record bid for the $100,000 the plan at least a step in the right
and fame. drcin.
Many persons have asked: "What Following are excerpts from var-
will this award accomplish?" Mr. Bok ious newspapers throughout the coun- M
smiles when he answers this question.tr
"Just between ourselves," he said, Ity-
"the award already' has accomplished Nt w York World-If President,
part of its purpose. I do not believe Coolidge, Secretary Hughes and at
that the American public ever did so least two-thirds of the Senators were
much hard thinking before in the ready to stand for what they believe
cause of peace. Naturally we all want in their hearts, the plan would be
peace, but wanting it is not sufficient. adopted. For the plan is in agree-
We have got to think and talk peace, ment with everything that all those
reversing the psychology which made y Republicans and Democrats lve al-
us fear and talk war and prepare for ready voted for who are not members
it. No man or nation ever did any- of the Battalion of Death. Even Sena-
thing until the individual or the State for Lodge has in substance voted for
was convinced that it could be done. this plan.
And I have hopes that the peace award
will convince any remaining doubters 'New York Tribuine-The most ad-
that we can have peace if we make an mirable feature of the scheme is the
intelligent effort to get it. stress that it lays upon law and jus-

tthe Press T
S~. New York -SunndsGlobeih-There '

is little to be said except that it is thing that would bring 'much pra.c-
another variant of the League, a fact tical harm to America or candidly
which suggests an ingenious device much practical good to the world.
to revive a discussion most of us
thought had been closed. Indianapolis News-By sheer force
-_of international gravitation such co-
New York Evening Post--It stands operation becomes inevitable.
out as a sharp, clear statement of
American opinion. nt Detroit News-The plan is a good
Brooklyn Eagle-~It is a very potent one-if it works.
contribution to the cause of peace.,
Mr. Bok is right in asserting that his Detroit Free Press-It is not prac-
money has been well spent no matter tical because the administration will
what may happen to the plan. not accept it, the senate will not ac-
- cept it, and the people of the United
I Washington Post-Like all supreme States will not accept it.
achievements the peace plan of the
unnamed immortal is supremely sim- Mobile Register-It is the Wilson
ple, even to the point of foolishness. plan modified as actual changes in
It is based upon the assumption that the working of the nations make pos-.
the United States cannot originate sible and advisable.
I anything in thought or act, but must
I fall in with the blunders already so ' ansas City Star-If the winning
successfully launched in Europe. j plan was the best of them, then it
must follow that there were 22,164
Philadelphia Public Ledger-It re- which were worse. The plans that
fiects the very genuine desire of did not involve the United States were
Americans for participation in a not so good.
league of the world that shall work
by peaceful ways toward a world Portland Oregonian--The plan is
peace. admirable for simplicity and straight-

We waited. The League matter ton to our national welfare, our go'
went to the senate. Mr. Hitchcock ernment rests under the necessity c
moved to amend. Mr. Borah moved co-operating with the League. Ho
ovd to am'd. Mrr. orhad g absolute that necessity is, is show
to strike out. Mr. Johnson had grave;b h xeto hec-prto h
doubts on tihs, that and the other. b the e nt of the c-operation th
Mr. Lodge viewed it all with the deep- usvirta yen forced upon our r
est alarm. And so on for weeks andr .
months while we drifted slowly home The Bok plan hardly goes beyon
to be absorbed with our old enthusi- that. point. It proposes what is it
to e asoredwit ou od ethui-evitable-that co-operation of ti
asms into our respective Main Streets eitalea tabi-eperf th
and into the foreign policy of grand- kind already established be funth
mothers. For myself I felt futile and Iem nd. t h llan e madest t l
betrayed; I felt that we were being modifications shall be made in t
misrepresented politically, and na- e hav e eae byv oal I:
tionally disgraced. I feel so still. The have
greatest wave of international feeling terpretation or practice, the Unite
which ever swept this country was States should enter. The plan al:
allowed to lose itsglf in "the striking proposes that we enter the Wor:
out of line 2," in "amendments to CCourt which would involve no chant
section 3," and in wilderness of pe- whatever in our attitude towards tl
dantic pettifoggery. League unless we desire a vote c
There is a hope that through this the election of judges. Our relatioi
plan all such scholasticism may be to the League would not of necessi
brushed aside. We are asked if we have to be changed.
approve the plan in substance; and if
there is an overwhelming chorus that Will Focus Our Views
we do, even Washington can. hardly PROF. A. L. CROSS, of the histo
be deaf. All success to Bok and his department: In my opinion the Bi
scheme. I peace award project should pro
1 fruitful in good results-as the don
We Are on the Sidelines hoped-quite irrespective of the po
1 sible merits of the plan accepted 1
DEAN HUGH CABBOT , of the ; the committee. One of the most se
medical school: I thing the Bok peace ous defects of the American people
plan a reasonable and safe step in the lack of an informed public opi
the direction of co-operation by the ion on foreign affairs.' The Bok pri
United States' in affairs of mutual and has set folk to thinking and whatev
international importance. , It seems attitude our government adopts t
!111+0 n a a s h a+ tt nn n h !- _ .,., ,.. -..... .. :a _.. ,


From the Michigan Daily
Do you approve the winning plan
It substance?
(Put an X inside the proper box.)

Yes []
No CI]

New York Herald-The winner ofI
the $100,000 Bok prize for the best
I I"frAoir eneration with

plan for amercan conaptin tpareevet
other nations to preserve the peace


of the world will get easy money. - forwardness.
"This is a cinch," he said to himself, Baltimore Sun-How will the
looking over the Bok named .com- League itself view the suggestions
mittee. "Why, every one is an inter- made? Are they of such ' nature as Des Moines Register-The United
nationalist and a League of Nations! to answer all valid criticism raised States will nexer join in a world court
fan. It's a frame-what you call in in this country against American par- or enter any sort of association of
+i f l.nek, -d " I i nations until we elect officials who,

Please print.
Address...... .......................................



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