Russell Says Grout
West Discusses Disarmament Plan
WASHINGTON, mP)--Allied of-
ficials were reported near agree-
ment yesterday on a new three-
stage disarmament plan for ne-
gotiation with Russia.
But France may block a final
Diplomats said the heavy in-
volvement of French military
forces in Algeria and France's de-
termination to develop atomic
weapons make it difficult for
President Charles de Gaulle to ac-
cept now disarmament proposals
that are agreeable to his allies.
The tentative Western plan is
designed to halt the arms race and
achieve cutbacks in both conven-
tional and nuclear weapons while
preserving at each stage the "bal-
ance of deterrents" between the
United States and the Soviet Un-
To Open Talks
The United States, Britain,
France, Canada and Italy will
open negotiations with Russia and
four other Communist countries
at Geneva on March 15.
Western disarmament experts
have been meeting here for more
than a month to develop propo-
sals for the session. Early this
week they hope to know whether
these proposals will go into a
single Western plan or whether
they will have to come up with a
Western position statement and
let each country propose whatever
plan it wishes in line with the
generally agreed policy.
The planning efforts, which may
shift to Paris within a week or so,
have been plagued with difficul-
ties. Many of these difficulties
have originated in the Eisenhow-
Last summer President Dwight
17. Eisenhower and Secretary of
State Christian A. Herter turned
over to Charles A. Coolidge, Bos-
ton lawyer, the task of reviewing
disarmament problems and com-
ing up with recommendations for
the next round with Russia.
Instead, it is reported on excel-
lent authority that the Coolidge
group failed to produce a program.
In fact, the state department
found the top secret Coolidge re-
port "negative" on the whole dis-
armament problem and much more
concerned with security. It raised
many questions about long-estab-
lished United States disarmament
policy and left the United States
without a plan of action.
Agree on Policy
What Washington did lose by
fumbling was the opportunity to
lead Western planning. The lead-
ership role fell instead to the Brit-
ish government which entered the
talks here with a well developed
Broadly, the three stages would
provide first for careful East-West
planning of controls coupled with
such preliminary steps as a halt
in nuclear weapons testing.
Second, for initial measures of
actual disarmament such as re-
ductions in conventional military
forces and in nuclear weapons
Third, for final elimination of
mass destruction weapons and
powerful national forces with the
world police Job passing to an in-
ternational military force.
Rg ht Bill
As Partisan to Nixon
WASHINGTON, (A'--Sen. Rich-
ard B. Russell (D-Ga) said yes-
terday efforts are being made to
spark race riots in the South ih
hopes of winning support for pas-
sage of civil rights legislation.
He also called one part of the
administration's civil rights meas-
ure "a salute to Nixon section-an
effort to promote the Vice Presi-
dent of the United States."
Russell ripped into the legisla-
tion after Sen. Jacob K. Javits
(R-NY) held the floor for more
than three hours in the first full-
dress move by civil rights advo-
cates to present their case since
the debate started two weeks ago.
The Saturday session brought
forth the liveliest debate yet.
Russell, quarterbacking for Dix-
ie senators opposed to the legis-
lation, said direction for recent
Negro demonstrations at lunch
counters and other traditionally
segregated public services in the
South came from New York City.
Russell shouted that a group
known as the Congress for Racial
Equality advocated mass efforts
by young Negroes to get into seg-
"They fostered, planned and in-
cited these incidents that could
lead to a great tragedy in some
cities," Russell told the Senate.
"It demonstrates to me that
they were anxious to start a race
riot of terrible proportions .. .
"This is no time to be going
down there and trying to promote
a race riot. Gentlemen, you are
playing with powder and I hope
the match won't catch fire to set
off a disaster."
Senate leaders have fixed Mon-
day for the start of around-the-
clock sessions to try to break the
filibuster tactics which Russell and
other Southern Democrats have
been waging against the adminis-
tration bill to help guarantee Ne-
gro voting rights.
If that fails, an attempt may be
made to use the Senate's cloture
rule which permits further debate
to be choked off by the votes of a
Second Front Page
Sunday, February 28, 1960 Page 3
ARTS AND LETTERS:
Prof. Reider Defines
Photography as 'Art'
By STEPHANIE ROUMELL
"Is photography an art? That's
according to how art is defined,"
Prof. David Reider of the archi-
tecture and design school, who
teaches several courses in photog-
"Photography is an art only in
the hands of an artist, Just as a
piano produces good music only
in the hands of a real musician."
Photography is a combination
of physics, engineering, and chem-
istry, he pointed out. Painting is
part chemistry too.
"But photography is a baby in
the art field. And it is only in the
last few years that museums have
opened their doors to this medium
in terms of permanent positions.
"It's true that photography
doesn't have the long tradition
that other arts do. But if we rely
wholly on tradition we would nev-
er have anything new," he said.
"The camera is mechanical, but
so is the acetylene torch in sculp-
ture. And you must work within
the limitations of any medium.
"Science has produced, through
physics, chemistry, and engineer-
ing the 'glass eye,' which has much
more potential than any human
"It can see quickly or slowly,
near, or far, or both at the same
time, sharply, dully, or microscop-
There are many combinations,
he added, all in relation to the
"Photography is the strongest
possible medium of visual commu-
nication in the world. It is a lan-
guage that transcends the spoken
word. It is. therefore, universal.
"I don't particularly care if
photography is considered an art;
all we do here is develop artists.
It is a medium of great reality,
Prof. Reider said. "Most people
believe a picture.
Detracts from Concept
"And this detracts from the
concept of photography as an art
in the same way that illustrating
detracts from painting as an art.
"And, too, the camera is a popu-
lar medium-everyone has one.
And in a sense everyone can call
themselves photographers. But this
isn't true in the professional
Part of the teaching problem,
Prof. Reider noted, is to make the
camera express what it sees, not
merely to record it.
"You have certain controls with
the camera which allow one to
express beyond mere recording.
And whatever field the photog-
rapher is in, he can be creative."
An important thing about pho-
tography is the mass of informa-
tion it has added to the field of
education, he continued.
"There are pictures available
about everything, which adds to
the information about what the
world really looks like.
"Suppose all the photographs
were to be taken out of books," he
suggested. "The amount lost would
"Photographyhas universal ac-
ceptance. It might be called the
art of the masses; it gives every-
one a chance to express them-
"Everyone takes pictures, but
with different motivations. First
one simply records for the family
album. Then one finds that he
wants to express himself with a
camera, and photography becomes
a hobby. That's why we have so
many amateur photographers.
many amateur photographers."
Data on Russia
WASHINGTON (P) - Republi-
can Sen. Clifford P. Case of New
Jersey said yesterday there is no
basis whatever for any suggestion
that intelligence data on Soviet
missiles has been withheld from
United States military leaders.
Case mentioned no names but
his statement obviously was in
reply to questions raised by Senate
Democratic Leader Lyndon B.
Johnson of Texas.
to serve in an experiment
for 1 7/2 hours. Pay $2.00.
Please call Mrs. Strong
or send postcard with
name, address, phone and
hours available to her at
6627 Haven Hall.
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