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Photography As an Art orm
Opinions Are Free
tth Will Prevail"
torials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Y. PEBRUARY 21. 1960
NIGHT EDITOR: CAROL LEVENTEN
ilk iiYiVifa vaY w w
s PRAGMATIC as the notion may be, those
who are concerned with the problem of
eating must accept the idea that no amount
crusading will immediately alter the moral
bric of those who cheat. What serious and
oughtful people must do is work toward
.minating those factors conducive to cheating.
Blatantly obvious is the contribution of re-
ated exam questions to academic dishonesty.
. addition to implying a great deal of stagna-
in in the course material and laziness in
aching methods, exams which are repeated
rbatim or in slightly-ever so slightly-al-
red form make cheating highly tempting and
Exam files may well be, as one administrator
id, "an unexcusable academic device," but
.eir value to the weak or the malicious cheat-
is greatly minimized if professors do not re-
mt assignments. The problem of such courses
sQeology 12 is clear. Field reports must obvi-
isly be made on the same geographic area
ar after year. But why, many students ask,
ust Thoreau's "Walden" be the perennial sub-
et for English 23 papers?
N INTERESTING corollary to the repeated
assignment as an aid to cheating is the
uestion, "Are certain courses more conducive
academic dishonesty than others?" In short,
e the so-called "snap" courses invitations to
tellectual dishonesty and to cheating?
Widest reports of cheating appear to come
om such courses which, curiously enough, are
e same ones most frequently cited for re-
lated exams and paper topics.
It could well be that a course having pitifully
w standards of academic performance causes
aditional attitude of disrespect that makes
ieating easy to rationalize. Since the instruc-
r demands so little of the student intellec-
ially, why should he demand much ethically?
Lach courses should be reexamined by the
culty, at the request of students, to see if
zere is any place in the University for this
xality of instruction.
NOTHER WIDELY recognized inducement
to cheating is the emphasis on grades as
rntrasted with concentration on the indi-
.dual's mastery of information and evaluation
A false standard of student evaluation may
ltimately be the cause of cheating. But, like
he question of moral change, this problem
mnot immediately be attacked by the Uni-
ersity. It will take long and thorough study.
Nor should an alteration in the grading sys-
em be viewed solely in the light of eliminating
heating; the justifIcation for dropping or
hanging the grade system should be ap-
roached from the viewpoint of its positive
mtributions to the educational process.
MORE DIFFICULT is the question of the
exam climate as a contributor to cheating.
Does the assumption, implicit in the proctor
system, that the student-if provided with the
opportunity-is going to cheat make rationali-
zation of such action easier? Can the student
more readily say, "If I have the name, why not
play the game?"
In the engineering college administrators
say cooperation is better when assumption
that the student is essentially honest is adopted.
The percentage of discipline for cheating offi-
cially noted is 1/10 of 1 per cent. Student re-
ports are widely divergent. A senior may say
he has never seen cheating while a sophomore
reports watching old exams being passed up
and down the rows during the last final exam
Student Government Council debated - a
recommendation for an honor system in the
literary college for over anyear andfinally de-
feated it, primarily on grounds of ineffective-
ness of operation. Law School recently rejected
such a system. When a preparatory school for
a profession that depends on ethics for its livli-
hood prefers the proctor method, one may well
question its advisability as a panacea for cheat-
Honor systems, like the grade question, must
be considered primarily for their positive bene-
fits, not from their efficacy at combatting the
problem of cheating. But those interested in the
effects of "the climate of trust" on the rate of
cheating might well investikate this area.
DISHONESTY OR ITS opposite is a lonely
thing. The consequences for either course
of action ultimately effect only the individual.
Excuses can be made-emphasis on grades, the
national morality, the climate of mistrust-but
they only serve as rationalization to the in-
dividual for the conscious choice of dishonesty.
Those who are concerned with academic
dishonesty-and this should mean students as
much as faculty-must approach it from two
points of view: eliminating cheating because it
gives unearned advantage over the honest
student (a problem of equity); and helping
the person who is caught cheating to under-
stand its implications to himself and to the
Although the latter category is educationally
the most important, it is the one about which
the institution can do the least. To deal with
the first category, students and faculty must
take a long, hard look at the classroom and
the college to eliminate that which is conducive
to cheating, that which makes it easier for
the individual to be weak or lazy or habitually
W IXEN THE METAL sculpture
"Bird in Flight," by Brancusi,
was brought into the United
States, Customs authorities were
faced with the dubious task of
classifying it as a work of art
(duty free) or just a piece of metal
at market value. And so it is with
the sculptor as well as the photog-
rapher that aesthetic embarrass-
ments are suffered when rigid
traditional art criteria are im-
posed upon a revolutionary form.
Photographers have generally
exposed themselves to an unfavor-
able comparison with painters by
explicitly or implicitly accepting
the established notions of what
shall be art as developed by and
for the painter. In fact it is still
common to see photographic
works technically contrived to im-
itate the brush stroke and the
color separations of a painting.
"Painting is painting and pho-
tography is photography," grand
old master Edward Steichen ad-
vised a young photographer re-
cently. At the end of a four-hour
interview with Steichen, Cuartor
of Photography at the Museum
of Modern Art, this pronounce-
ment stood out as the insightful
summary of the session.
NOT ONLY must we recognize
photography as an artistic instu-
mentality with its own possibilities
and limitations, but also realize
that it forces the adoption of a
unique expansion of artistic judg-
ment and criteria; that is, if we
wish to admit photography to our
art culture at all.
Many photographers do not
claim an art product to be their
objective. This is frequently true
of the commercial photographers,
photo-journalists, and documen-
Oddly enough, this attitude may
be detected even in a few photog-
raphers who "shoot" with a poetic
eye. Here the original interaction
with the subject - mediated in
part by the camera-and the final
photographic statement combine
to yield an existential eperience
justifying itself quite apart from
the subsequent judgments or clas-
sifications by others.
"THE FAMILY OF MAN" ex-
hibit of photography, compiled by
Edward Steichen and Wayne Mil-
ler at the Museum of Modern Art
in 1955, was a 'superb example of
an awakening realization that
photography shows need not con-
form to the traditional "Salon
Photography" format in which all
prints are mounted on a standard
size board at prescribed eye-level.
Salon Photography exhibits, un-
iformly staged by camera clubs
throughout the world, maintain
"rules" for excellence.
Quality is quantified as a sum
of points earned by each print.
Adherence to a familiar composi-
tional structure, for example, earns
a relatively standardized number
of points while a violation of the
recognized compositions receive
fewer points, or none at all.
The prints of "The Family of
Man" varied from magazine size to
wall murals. Theirplacements was
a work of tasteful and exciting
PERHAPS the most important
elements of control in photography
is selection. Aside from equipment
and materials the photographer
must select his subject matter and
. . . . . . . . . .
This picture, taken by Fred Thompson, attempts to portray human nature through juxtaposition of motifs. It is a part of the photographic
exhibition now being held at Lane Hall.
--- - o
AT THE. MOVIES
By TOM BRIAN
THE LACK OF imagination displayed by the large number of stu-
dents who have nothing better to do on a weekend than go to a
movie appalls me no less than the same lack demonstrated by the
French director, Louis Malle. Exploring sex and love in the movies is
always tricky, but rather than degenerating into the usual sop, "The
Lovers" becomes quite laughable.
The movie currently at the Campus Theatre begins with a rather
usual situation, provincial hubby bores provincial wifey. So after a few
feeble last attempts to salvage her'marriage, she forays in Paris for
love and reassurance.
DURING A MIDNIGHT STROLL-in her sheerest lingerie-wife
meets arcaeologist, who turns out to be a poet and a gamekeeper on
the side. They traipse about fields and meadows, rivers and streams,
mill-ponds and water falls. Soon, Jean-Marc Bory has had enough
traipsing and he steers Madame down to a rowboat complete with
The acting is no worse than the directing. The dialogue is quite
amusing. At the height of intimacy, as they walk away from their
rowboat of bliss, she turns to him, and he says, "Yes . . . I know." A
few seconds later, he turns to her and she says, "Yes .. I know."
For potential viewers, if you thought Chatterly was a thrill, you'll get
the same fare here.
PEYTON PLACE thinly disguised as another New. England town, East
Dereham, euthanasia and adultery, are the main ingredients which
spice up the Michigan Theatre's offering, "The Bramble Bush."°
Judging from the first night's crowd, the film was a rousing suc-
cess-but as a creative work of either cinematography or acting, it was
not. The plot is more than vaguely familiar, an'd the actors do nothing
to rise above their stereotyped roles.
The essentials are: a young doctor (Richard Burton) returns to his
hometown to minister to his best friend, who is dying of an incurable
and painful disease. During his (Burton's) prolonged absence from
home, his old childhood friend has been to Europe to write the great
American novel and met another American in Paris (an artist) and wed
her: Thus he returns to New England happy and incurably ill.
From this improbable point, the film winds into the plot a dipso-
maniac who has some mysterious relationship to Burton's past, a young
nurse in the village hospital who is in love with Burton but can't make
him notice her and so releases her frustrations with a town lawyer (Jack
Carson), who in turn is out for the post of District Attorney and gets
his chance to score on the town's prosecuting attorney, his opponent
in the election, by conducting a sensational trial at the end of the
movie, the trial being caused by Burton's mercy killing of his friend. It's
all more complicated because his friend's wife (Barbara Rush) is carry-
ing Burton's child, and is constantly in a tearful state, due to such things
as almost-attempted abortion, guilt feelings, et al.
If you enjoyed "Young Dr. Malone," you'll enjoy this.
Rushing Can BeFun
WHY SHOULD RUSH - a comparatively
harmless sociological phenomenon-elicits
such a storm of propaganda?
To rush or not to rush shouldn't be an issue.
And the worst time to work out a philosophical
ground for or against affiliation is during rush;
all debate should have been throttled out be-
fore hand. Why all this trauma?
However one feels about the great Affilia-
tion Concept, rush can be fun-assuming, that
is, that the rushee is sound of heart and limb.
She meets all sorts of girls and glimpses a living
unit which represents a compromise between
the bare practicality of the dorm and the un-
adulterated "gracious living" of one's own
F ELINGS ARE NMIXED as to the nature and
value of the social contact rush provides. On
the whole, rushees and affiliates are probably
equally "genuine' in their approach to the
I don't think anybody expects rush to be a
representative slice of life situations. The mild
strain of rush parties is a popular topic of con-
versation on which sorority girl and rushee can
share a tolerant grin and shake of the head.
The disappointment a girl feels when a house
drops her is both unavoidable and deplorable.
To a large degree it arises from the embarrass-
ment of having been tried and found wanting
on a purely social scale. But unless her values
were misplaced to begin with, a girl could
hardly reap lasting damage from this experi-
ence. If not being pledged ever ruined a girl's
life, she was in trouble long before she rushed.
T HE RELATIONSHIP between affiliates and
independents, and between one sorority and
another, is in general friendly and cooperative
on this campus. After all, only a fraction of
the coed population can be accommodated in
the affiliate system.
Somewhere, an arbitrary line must be drawn,
and rush accomplishes this. I think rush opens
more doors than it closes.
Rush, after all, is just a bowl of cherries-
don't take it serious, it's too mysterious.
This picture is a study of nature through a portrayal of the
interrelationships of its forms. It was taken by William Maud.
its specific delineation with a view-
finder or ground glass.
Whether the photographer has
almost complete control of the
arrangement, as in a still-life, or
little control, as with most "can-
did" photos, he selects the moment
of exposure. Later he selects the
desired negatives, selects a crop-
ping, or portion of the original,
and finally selects what prints
will be shown,
One good print can be an acci-
dent; a consistent production of
tgood prints is no accident.
--Fredrick L. Thompson
BICKER AT PRINCETON:
Those Who Are Out-A Step Down
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
)RESIDENT EISENHOWER, referring to the
possibilities of Formosa as a show window
>r the advantages of economic development
nder free institutions, raised a delicate point
f particular moment to free Chinese.
The Chiang Kai-Shek regime at the height
f its power over all China was always accused
i some quarters of paying only lip service to
emocracy.. Under pressure of almost constant
ar, Chiang did act like a dictator. And demo-
atic institutions were frequently undermined
y administrative corruption and the ascend-
icy of special interests.
bTT' TNT 194R duringr the Chinesn civil war_
elected which in turn elected Chiang as Presi-
dent of China. The setup became effective in
December, 1947, not long before the Communist
victory and the Nationalist flight to Formosa.
Under great pressure in a situation where a
national election was impossible and where
procedures had to be carefully tuned to the
Nationalist claim as the only true government
of all China, an effort has been made by Na-
tionalist China to live up to this constitution.
But Chiang holds great emergency powers,
governs largely by decree, and many civil
liberties are suspended. This has happened in
some of the other emerging countries, too.
NOW A DELICATE situation has arisen in
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the sec-
ond and final article in a series deal-
ing with the "nicker" system at
Princeton for selection to eating clubs.
Originally printed in the Htarvard
Crimsoneunder the title, "The Search
at Princeton for the Cocktail Soul",
this section deals with the men who
fail to receive bids.
By JOHN F. McNESS
THOSE WHO do not join the top:
clubs must accept bids to lesser
clubs, and others still must go
through the agonizing process of
rushing from house to house, hop-
ing to be accepted from the sec-
ond list after all their more de-
sirable classmates have signed the
books. When at last these too are
in they drink still more freely and
shout more loudly-trying to for-
get, though they are in, how it was
they got there.
Finally there are the Others--
those who are "in trouble," as the
euphemism goes, who must some-
how be fitted in somewhere by
somebody so the clubs can again
point with pride to the precious
statistic of 100%-"100% of those
wishing to join a club did so"-the
.n- amrbyr.,hinh mira +tha enfnam
predicament (but actual tears will
be shed before many hours have
passed)-"I'd feel pretty bad if I
didn't see so many of my friends
here." Kind, soft-spoken Ivy men
take them aside and counsel them.
Join Prospect, they gently urge
(each adjusting his identical green
and yellow striped tie).
Join the poverty-stricken co-
operative where you'll take turns
waiting on your own tables and
mopping the floor and be looked
down upon for three years by the
members of the real clubs. Join
the wonk club, the club for left-
overs, and (ever so gently) hurry
up about it, so we can show 100
per cent and go back to the party.
Resistance is firm, but in many
cases gives way. Something in you
resists being classified a wonk,
but something 'deeper cries out
On the back porch of Ivy, the
stigmata, the brand, the taint, are
clearly seen: the error of wearing
white bucks for so solemn an
evening, the misdemeanor of a soft,
stammering voice, the felony of
nne ton lod ada end fre.the ifroit
run out of liquor and every door
on Prospect Street spews forth a
jubilant stream of staggering
sophomores, juniors, and seniors.
Leaning on each other, singing,
shouting, a few pausing at the
gutter to retch quietly for a mo-
ment, then loudly rejoining the
buoyant inebriated throng, they
totter off toward the campus or a
cafe where they can calm down
with a cup of coffee.
The unbroken tension of weeks
-of a year and a hallf for some,
has ended. Bicker is over at last,
* * *
BUT ON IVY'S back porch, for
42 remaining sophomores, the sus-
pense has reached its most pitiless
climax. Since almost everyone who
was inside has gone home now
and the porch has long been grow-
ing chilly, the one-hundred per-
centers are permitted to move into
the Ivy dining room.
They can see the silver candel-
abras now and the rows of empty
bottles. Prospect had electric lights
and beer toniglt.
Somehow the number dwindles
AT 2:10 in the morning, the
meeting in the library at last,
breaks up. and the decision de-
scends. The sophomores in Ivy's
dining room are hushed as they
hear the verdict: ". . . The ICC
will take no responsibility for those.
who have refused to take bids to
Prospect. They consider any rea-
sons for refusing as invali ."
And so tie sophistry ... is made
complete. Prospect held an open
Bicker. Therefore, in effect, every
sophomore wanting to join a club
could have gone to Prospect.
Therefore one hundred per cent,
A FEW HOURS pass and despite
going late to bed and the throb of
stubborn hangovers, hundreds of
undergraduates drag themselves
to chapel Sunday morning, signing
little white cards at the door in
order to get credit for having been
"The university is vitally con-
cerned with all aspects of Bicker"
-William D'O. Lippincott, Dean
of Citndentq. Prineeton TTniversity
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
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Michigan Daily assumes no edi-r
torial responsibility.Notices should
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Room 3519 Administration Build-
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publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 21,1960
VOL. LXX, NO. 104
General Undergraduate Scholarships:
Undergraduate students may obtain an
application for these scholarships by
reporting to the ~Scholarship Office,
2011 Student Activities Bldg. Finan-
cial need and an overall academic av-
erage of approximately B are basic re-
quirements for applicants. Applica-
tions must be returned by March 1.
Sociology 1 Makeup Final Exam will
be given on Wed., Feb. 24 from 2 to 5
p.m. Report to Mr. Lenski, Rm. 5634
Haven Hall at 2 p.m.
German Make-up Examinations will
be held Mon., Feb. 22, 3 to 5 pm..in
Rm. 3008 'Frieze Bldg. Please register
in the German Dept. office by Mon.