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April 20, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-04-20

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The Revolution Goes On

Seventy-First Year
ials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staf writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Khrushchev Se


In U.S. Foreign Policy
EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second in a series of three articles on an
exclusive interview with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.)
I REMINDED Mr. Khrushchev that we had last seen him in October
1958, nearly a year before his visit to the United States. Much has
happened in these two-and-a-half years and would he tell me what
seemed to him the most important events for good and evil?
After a moment or two of hesitation, he replied that during this
period the two main forces in the world-the capitalist and the social-
ist-have concluded that it was useless to "test" one another by mili-
tary means. I took him to mean by "test" the backing of their political
aims by the threat of war.
In contrast with 1953, when he professed to believe that the United

APRIL 20, 1961


University Still Needs
Freshiman. English


[JNIVERSITY IS finally realizing that
Johnnys know how to write when they
o Michigan. Competition for admission
sed entrance requirements considerably,
e resulting higher quality freshman, it
Led, naturally are more able writers.
igh schools too, startled and challenged
nilk, have presented them with a more
s and stimulating education.
hted, the University begins to consider
olition of English 23 and 24 and to
w ways to use the facilities now devoted
e courses. Equally delighted, students:
rward to a time when they do not have
er with a course they do not need, to
when they can schedule courses more
with their interests.
when the opinion that required English,
are no longer needed is inspected, it
s clear that the premises on which the
tion is based .are only partially correct.
FIRST PREMISE-that higher quality
ntering students makes freshman writ-
irses unnecessary-implies that there
rect correlation between a person's in-
al prowess and his writing ability. Cer-
Y' MONTHS ago, Prof. Newcomb and his
w from the social sciences predicted, in
e, that there would be a panty raid
there was no raid, but:
ao rebels staged a raid of their own,
asiatic .treachery to defeat the frank,
it boys of Boun Oum.
ubans hotheadedly traded Russian and
an ammunition with one another, dem-
ing their childlike curiosity about the
ons of the white man, and
eylonese mobilized their armies to con-
peacefully disobedient minority of the,
f their ways.
in all, another demonstration of the
y and potency of the social sciences.
is hope the physicists keep their predic-
o themselves..

tainly this tends to be true. But no matter
how high his intelligence quotient or how
outstanding his high school record, a student
who has had little writing experience or, worse
yet, faulty instruction, can not be expected to
write well.
THE SECOND PREMISE is that since Sput-
nik, high schools have been jarred into pro-
viding students with a better education. Yet
public concern cannot in itself create a more
rigorous high school English program-that
must be done by the teacher. And should the
instructor be untalented, ill-trained, or dis-
interested, the ~English courses are doomed to
ineffectiveness. As the pressure for better
secondary schools continues, measures will be
taken to improve the quality of instruction,
but this process takes time and money.
One may conclude then that an increasing
number of freshmen know how to write when
they come to the University but that a sizable
number ┬░'of them still do not. Consequently,
English 23 and 24' are becoming more unneces-
sary, yet a considerable number of freshman
still need such a course.
ONE' SOLUTION TO this dilemma would be
to give every entering student an. oppor-
tunity to be exempt from freshman English.
To determine fairly whether or not a student
needs additional training, several samples of his
writing would have to be evaluated. Obviously
i$ would be administratively impossible to take
these samples during orientation and evaluate
them rapidly enough for the student'to know
before registration whether or not to include
English 23 in his schedule.
Perhaps instead the student could send in
samples of his writing with his application
for admission. Or high school counselors could
administer and send in tests of the student's
writing ability, much as college board results
are given to the University. Or the college
board's English test could be used as the means
of evaluation if it proves to be an accurate
reflection of writing ability.
Somehow these ,administrative difficulties
should be worked out. It is unfair to require
students to take a course that only 'wastes their
4ime. It is equally unfair not to offer a basic
course that some students need.

Cuban Policy Hinders Corps



How To Choo-ose'a Diean

RAL WEEKS AGO :at Michigan State
.versity a three part motion was intro-
into the Student Government which,
have set a revolutionary precedent in
pals of student-administration relations.
motion recommended :that the MSU
nt establish an ad hoc committee of
s and faculty to study the organization
ivities of the office of Dean of Men and
recommendations for its future struc-
id functions.
committee would be consulted prior to
ection of the next dean, as representa-
the student and faculty bodies, and
offer suggestions and comments on the
d men to the president in an attempt tof
n in his final choice.
final point is that the man be a facul-
nber who-is, in the motion's words, "a
fully in sympathy with the educational


ER CONCLUDING that the arguments
ainst the immediate establishment of a
corps outweigh those in favor of such
the University of Detroit Political Union
ts a panacea which one member hopes
lve all youth foreign service problems.
ommittee report summarizes' America's
"The fact that in our judgment the
ent of the United States cannot with com-
confidence call on any average or above
e young American to competently pre-
he American viewpoint is, it seems to us,
ictment of American education."
s the solution is to transform student
corps enthusiasm into a demand for
tion in the classroom. In this way, Amer-
ild produce high school and college grad-
with "original, provocative, and challeng-
als" and greater knowledge of American
Communist dialectics and foreign cul-
REPORT SUGGESTS that if this de-
and for the "pursuit of excellence for
n sake" is made, "the supply (of excel-
will be found." When the supply equals
mand, "then it will be time for a peace
le the clearly needed reform of many
s of American education would unques-
ly improve the quality of peace corps,
.pants, this is not a valid reason for post-
its establishment until our education
hieved this vaguelv defined "excellence."

functions of the university." King, the pres-
ent and retiring Dean, is not and has never
been a faculty member at MSU.
MEMBERS OF THE student government felt
that the .motion alone wouldn't carry suf-
ficient weight and began circulating a petition
among the students. Simultaneously, and with-
out connection, another petition was being
passed around among the faculty. Both were
to be attached to the motion and given to
President Hannah when he returned from a
trip through Asia, following spring vacation.
The student petition alone had several thou-
sand 'signatures before the vacation, but when
the final push by the petitioners came after
the vacation the issue fell totally apart. Neither
petition was handed in and the motion in
council was indefinitely postponed.
Any number of reasons can be given for why
the idea failed, iut the looming question is
whether or not it should have.
The initial point of the motion which calls
for the establishment of a body to study of-
fice operations and make suggestions on
streamlining its methods seems clear and rea-
sonable. Such an organization would undoubt-
edlyremove much red tape and find ways to
shorten procedures. This is not only practical
but desirable.
E SECOND item is more controversial.
Should students and faculty, just because
they will be directly and immediately influenced
by every directive that comes from that office,.
be allowed to voice an opinion on a fnan pro-,
posed for the position of Dean of Men? This
brings to mind the traditional thought that
legislation without representation is not un-
fair but unjust.
It would be ridiculous to state that students
and/or faculty should have complete sway
over naming the succeeding Dean; there would
be immediate dissentions and indecisions that
might never' be resolved. But a small' body of
elected representatives for these two interests
who would have powers of advice and recom-
mendation can surely save the president a
great deal of trouble ahead of time if the man
he would have chosen is objectionable to
these groups.
THE THIRD POINT too is debatable. Should
the dean always be a former MSU faculty
member? The faculty thought so, for apparent
reasons. It is true that a faculty man would be
more aware of the pressing problems and needs
of the university. but too he would be very in-

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Alan Guskin,
Grad, is chairman of the executive
committee of Americans Committed
to World Responsibility.)
Daily Guest Writer
HE ANTI-CUBAN forces re-
siding in the United States and
their recent invasions of the Cu-
ban mainland pose one of the most
serious .threats to the Kennedy
administration's statement that it
would respect the right of all
countries to follow their own be-
While we may say that Ken-
nedy's hands are tied on a great
many issues due to the policies of
the previous administration, we
cannot state in any way that the
Kennedy administration has given
Cuba and Castro a fair chance to
exist as a sovereign country, and
have a stable relationship with
the people and government of the
United States.
This writer is not committed to
Castro or his policies. Some of the
reforms that Castro has instituted
are noteworthy, some of his for-
eign policy is suspect from the
point of view of a citizen of the
United States, and his actions
towards defectors have at times'
been, extremely disturbing. Never-
theless, he is the leader of the
sovereign state of Cuba and as
such he must be given the rights
of such a leader.
he felt the new Administration
would be more understanding than
the previous one, President Ken-
nedy seemed to completely dis-
regard this attempt at reconcilia-
tion. He called Castro a dictator
and a leader who oppresses his
people. He was asked to rid his
country of the "tyrrany" which
he had cast over it. At no time
was he asked for the reasons and
justifications of his actions; at
no time was he given a feeling
that the U. S. was concerned with
#him or the Cuban people.
With this' in mind, one may a, k
iow Castro views treatment given
him by the United States govern-
ment. He sees a Kennedy adminis-
ration cooperating with Spain and
its dictator, Franco; he sees the
United States government co-
operating with Salazar , and Por-
tugal; he sees the United States

government backing those dicta-
tors it scan use and calling those
whom it cannot use "Communists."
He sees on the shores of the,
United States a great many of his
Cuban enemies being armed with
guns and planes. He asks himself,
even if these are not supported by
the money of the United States
government, are they not taking
place on United States territory
without any attempt to stop.
He asks himself why, when Is-
rael was fighting for its indepen-
dence against British domination,
the United States had a strict em-
bargo on the shipment of arms
abroad, yet when a group of anti-
Castro Cubans arm themselves;
when these Cuban exiles are out-
spoken about their desire to over-
throw the sovereign nation of
Cuba, when these Cubans seem-
ingly take off and return to United
States soil after having fought
against Castro, the United States
government stands idly by.
ment states that it stands behind
the policy of "sympathy" for re-
volutionary attempts at, freedom.
One hears the pathetic words of
Adlai Stevenson, stating the the
U. S. sympathizes with the coun-
ter-revolutionaries in Cuba. What
interpretation could an objective
persqn have?
First, on the policy of aiding
revolutionary governments:
Was not and is not Castro's
government still a revolutionary
government? Why didn't we back
it? Is it because it is socialistic?
Is it because it disagreed with
someof the capitalistic'beliefs of'
the United States?
If this be the case, then we are'
hypocrites, for all we are saying
is that we will back only those
movements which will benefit us.
What Kennedy is then stating is
no different from the policies of'
Russia, is no different from those
policies of Eisenhower which he
condemned, and is completely an-
tagonistic to his stated beliefs
about the United States' role on
the international scene.
* *
are basically untrue. Senator Eur
gene McCarthy of Minnesota sum-
med this up by stating that the

Admistration's hands-off policy
toward the build-up of Cuban
exile forces in Florida could be
interpreted as a United States
attempt to advance their cause.
If Stevenson does not see this,
he is growing dull. If he does see
this he is speaking half-truths. We
are obviously aiding the Cuban
exiles, we are obviously taking an
active role, merely by our lack
of action, in attempting to destroy
a sovereign government. We are
interfering in the domestic poli-
cies of another country, we are
denying our statements that we
believe all countries have the right
to self-determination.
We can and should disagree with
the policies of some countries but
we: should not foster violent action
against another nation merely be-
cause of this.
* * *
WE MUST reappraise our Pres-
ident's words and reappraise his
statements regarding foreign pol-
icy. One cannot believe in free-
dom-in the right of one man
to choose what he desires-and
then deny- another his freedom,
no matter what manifestations
this freedom leads to. certainly,
this liberty justifies the right of
people to-revolt, but this must be
their own effort and not that of
an outside power.
Finally, we must reappraise our
President's statement about a pro-
posed Peace Corps. Is a Peace
Corps going to follow the policy
that rules United States action
towards Cuba? Does the Peace
Corps have as its main goal the
development of a country because
it has requested our-help and be-
cause we have the skills to per-
form the job? Or Is the Peace
Corps going to be used merely as
an instrument of the cold war?
- - *
Latin America need the help of
a Peace Corps,- but they will re-
fuse it. They will ask, what hap-
pens if their commonly held pro-
gressive attitudes cause them to
disagree with the desires of
American Capitalism. Will they
also come under the force of
United States retaliation? Will the
Peace Corps work against their
effort to rid themselves of their
dictatorships and then attempt to
establish a government similar to
Castro's original dream? Will the
Peace Corps be an extension of the
United Fruit Company policy or
American oil interests?
*. o *
HAVE WE SHOWN these people
by our actions that the United
States can be trusted? Have we
by our action shown Latin Amer-
icans that we believe in their right
to believe what they think is right?
Have we shown these people that
the Peace Corps will be any dif-
ferent from an American pro-
paganda mission? The answer is
clearly in the negative.
Unless the United States govern-
ment changes its current polcy,
the Peace Corps will fail. Unless
the United States government
realizes that the Peace Corps must
be backed up with economic aid,
and a foreign policy which follows
the principles of helping others
because they need and desire help
and he,.iise "it i. right" thn

States and Germany might attack
because of the growing strength
of the Communist orbit, the threat
of war from our side was dying
down. As a result, the United
States was abandoning the "Dulles
doctrine" that the neutrality of
small states is "immoral." He him-
self welcomed President Kennedy's
proposals for a neutral Laos.
* * *
YOU THINK then, I asked him,
that there has been a change in
United States Policy? To this he
replied that while there were some
signs of a change, as for example
in Laos, it was not a "radical"
change, as could be seen in the
United States attitude towards dis-
armament. What, I asked him, is
wrong with the United States at-
We cannot see, he replied, that
any change is iminent when the
subject of disarmnament is put in
the hands of such a believer in
armaments as Mr. McCloy. We
think well of Mr. McCloy and dur-
ing his time in Germany we had
good relations with him. But ask-
ing him to deal with disarmament
is a case of asking the goat to look
after the cabbage patch.
THEN WE GOT onto the sub-
ject of nuclear testing. He said
that the Western powers were not
ready to conclude ai" agreement,
and that this ,was shown, among
other things, by the demand for
21 or perhaps 19 inspections a
year. He had been led personally
to believe that the West would be
satisfied with about thlee "sym-
bolic" inspections. Nirieteen in-
spections, our present demand,
were nothing but a demand for the
right to conduct conplete recon-
naisance of the Soviet Union.
I asked him about his attitude
towards underground testing. He
replied that the U.S.S.R. has nev-
er done any underground testing
and never will.
THEN HE WENT on to say that
the second reason why he had no
great hopes of an agreement was
that the French are now testing
and are unlikely to sign the agree-
To which, I said, and the Chi-
nese will do the testing for you.
He paused and then said that this
was a fair remark. But, he added,
while China is moving in the di-
rection where she will be able to
make tests, she is not yet able to
make them. When the time comes
that she can, there will be a new
problem. We would like all states
to sign a nuclear agreement.
Finally, he came to his third
reason why an agreement may. not
be possible. It turns on the prob-
lem of the administrator of the
agreement. Here, he' was vehe-
ment and unqualified. He would
never accept a single neutral ad-
* *~ *
WHY? BECAUSE, he said, while
there are neutral countries, there
are no neutral men. You would not
accept a Communist administrator
and I cannot accept a non-Com-
munist administrator. I will never
entrust the security of the Soviet
Union to any foreigner. We can-
not have another Hammarskjold,
no matter where he comes from
among the neutral countries.
I found this enlightening. It
was plain to me that here is a
new dogma, that there are no
neutral men. After all the Soviet
Union had accepted Trygvie Lie
and Hammarskjold. The Soviet
government has now come to the
conclusion that there can be no
'such thing as an impartial civil
servant in this deeply divided
world and that the kind of politi-
, cal celibacy which the British
theory of the civil service calls for
is in international affairs a fiction.

This new dogma has long conse-
quences. It means that there can
be international cooperation only
if, in the administration as well as
in the policymaking, the Soviet
Union has a veto.
(c) 1961 New York Herald Tribune. Inc.

him, he spoke with confidence that
Associated Press News Analyst
friends are willing or able to
come to the rescue, Cuba's Com-
munist-tinged leaders probably are
nervous about their ability to fend
for themselves in any drawn-out
civil war. They have 'some hard
There are no signs yet that the
anti-Castro invasion represents
any formidable force. But there 1is
always the chance that swarms of
other rebels are waiting to storm
ashore at times and places of their
own choosing.
The big question before the re-
gime is this: is its Soviet ally
willing to risk a major war to
save it from an uncomfortable
situation? In view of President
Kennedy's blunt warnings, Premier
Khrushchev, noted as' a realist.
may well hesitate before attmpt-
ing to help solve the ┬░Cuban're-
gime's big problems of supply.
Another big question: what has
happened to Fidel Castro? The.
"maximum leader"has not been
one to avoid the microphoneein
the past but he has been strangely
silent through this crisis.,
Communiques up to yesterday
had been signed in Fidel's name.
The latest big announcement
however, was isued in the armed
forces' name. This will encour-
age new specilatiin that the Com-
munists may. have managedto
push Fidel . aside because .his
blundering has made him an ex-
pensive luxury.
- BUT FIDEL HAS been the sym-
bol of the revolution to many, and
if he is too long silent it will be
bound to cause trouble.
Another question: how can the
Cuban regime guarantee itself
against wholesale army, navy and
militia defections in any long-
drawn war? Apart from problems
of supply' and deployment of de-
fending forces, this probably Is
the" bigest worry.
It seems likely that to insure
against desertions,' the regime is-
sued its original general mobiliza-
tion order to the militia.
Cuban radios 'Beard -in Mimi
have carried scores of requests of
individual militia members for
supplies and clothinig from their.
homes, indicating they were not
permitted to return home in per-
son to equip themselves. The re-
gime: probably was all, too aware
of the possibilities if militia mem-
bers were allowed too far out of
geared for years to that of the
United States, and this now is
having its effect in a time of na-
tional crisis.
Just one example: the army
command in Southern Las Villas
Province, where invaders struck
over the weekend, asked the pub-
lics works department of Carta-
gena, about 25 miles away, to rush
whatever flatbed trailers it had
on hand. The trailers are used
to transport heavy equipment, like
The department replied it had
three, but one had no tires, one
had no brakes and the other was
a wreck.
There is a growing conviction,
too, in informed quarters in
Miami, that Cuba's air force is in
poor shape to defend against in-

vaders, apart from the defection
of many pilots and untrustworth-
iness of many others. Havana
claimed yesterday to have shot
down nine enemy planes, but
there is little reason to accept
this as the truth

' '

Leave the Union Alone!

To the Editor:
THE CURRENT controversy
about the use of the Michigan
Union cafeteria facilities, it seems
to' me, boils down to this: shall the
Union cafeteria become a place
where food is to be consumed and,
upon completion of that process,
visitors are to withdraw from the
premises? Or is it to remain what
it has been for so many years, a
place where views are exchanged
over a leisurely cup of coffee,
where current issues and future
vistas are considered in long dig-
cussions, a meeting place for stu-
dents and faculty?;
T-n.nrf , T "A+,M M n nn . f

of wishing to play chess in the
morning, instead of the afternoon.
I have watched the use of the
Union cafeteria being increasingly
restricted over the past several
years. For four decades, the Mich-
igan Union was an 4 integral part'
of the life of this university.
Surely, there must be a place in
this institution where an indivi-
dual can read, talk, play chess as
long as he has purchased some
item of food or drink, and the
place he occupied was not other-
wise in'demand.
No one will question the pro-
priety of the Union management's
n_-av.in, ++hat mantim renot.



(Continued from Page 2).

vicinity--Asst.Editor-grad with tech-
nical, background, some physics, math
or engrg., (not necessarily a major).
Copy Editor-Man or WOMAN with BA,
some exper. in Engl. or Journ; less
technical position.
Please contact Bureau of Appts., 4021
Admin., Ext. 3371 for further informa-

Students desiring miscellaneous jobs
should consult the bulletin board 1n
Rm. 1020 daily.
1-Book cleaner, full-time temporary.
1-Dishwasher, evening hours.
3-Meal jobs.
1-Tutor, for basic electricity -. In-
dustrial circuitry (machine tool),
mechanical relays, transformers,

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