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February 01, 1963 - Image 15

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-02-01

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No Relationship Found
Between Certain Lesions

Beadle Explores Genetics as Language

Hutchinson Views Causes
Of Union-Company Conflict


After three years of intensive
research, three University re-
searchers claim there is no clear
relationship b e t w e e n certain
speech disorders caused central
nervous system lesions and the
location of these lesions.
The findings challenge existing
medical opinions concerning the
use of a patient's speech patterns
to pin-point the spot where dam-
age has occurred.
The research, Prof. Ronald S.
Tikofsky of the speech depart-
ment declares, "may lead to a re-
vision of the neurologist's ways of
using speech to locate the lesion."
Prof. Tikofsky, his wife and Ilse
Lehiste of the Communications
Science Laboratory have concen-
trated on a condition called
"dysarthria," a type of disorder
which affects pronounciation and
voice production. It is often caused
by a lesion in the brain stem, but
it may also result from damage to
peripheral nerves or to the brain
The three conducted an exten-
sive analysis of the speech of 20
normal and dysarthric persons.
They made tape recordings of each
person reading a specially con-
structed list of test words and
sentences. The material was sub-
sequently charted on a "sound
spectrogram" for analysis.
In addition, more than 800 per-
sons audited the tapes to deter-
Conlin Balks
At Assuming
New Position
(Continued from Page 1)

mine how the average person in-
terpreted the speech of the pa-
One aspect of the work--ex-
pected to come to a head in the
next few months-is the creation
of a reliable list of words which
can serve as a diagnostic yard-
stick to measure the amount of
speech imparement and his pro-
gress under therapy.
"There are some works which
all patients with dysarthria have
trouble pronouncing," Prof. Tik-
ofsky. "Other words apparently
discriminate between severe and
mild forms of the disorder. When
we find the right list of words,
we will have a better tool for
measuring the effects of the dis-
Cites. Strides
In Medicine
Medical science has taken ma-
jor strides towards conquering a
group of diseases which cause men-
tal retardation in children, Prof.
George H. Lowrey of the Medical
School asserted recently.
Called "inborn errors of metabo-
lism," the diseases stem from an
absence of certain body enzymes-
delicate chemicals essential to
growth and body function.
Prof. Lowrey noted at least 40
different diseases so classified. He
described three of them recently
to show the urgency of prompt
diagnosis and early, preventative
treatment :
1) Phenlyketonuria or PKU. This
disease causes irreparable brain
damage once it gets a foothold, he
said. Normally, an enzyme converts
nl~nr -mnuY 4r~n Li n1 f1nLU UI111I(AJA

horse, has been unalterably oppos- which can be used by the body.
ed to an income tax. wihcnb sdb h oy
Income Tax Foe When this enzyme is missing,
The Eau Claire Republican's phyenylalanine builds up toxic,
spot was assumed by Folks, the brain-damaging concentration.
new chairman, also an income tax "If the diagnosis is made in the
foe, thavin thsoake-upcof tafirst few weeks of life, and treat-
foe, thus leaving the makge-up of ment is started, we can prevent
the taxation committee essential- the brain damage." The treatment
se unchanged as far as Income tax simply eliminates all phenlyalan-
Bursley's House Committee on ine containing foods, he explained.
Economic Development was made 2) Galactosemia, a disorder
a permanent unit also last week. which produces mental retarda-
The group had been a ,temporary tion, eye cataracts and cirrhosis
but continuing committee which of the liver. Here the missing en-
held hearings and conducted in- zyme would normally convert milk
vestigations in areas for economic sugar into products which the body
growth throughout the state and can use.
had concerned itself much with Modern tests, Prof. Lowrey said,
research at the University. now enable the physician to iden-
Rep. Henry M. Hogan (R-Birm- tify patients with galactosemia be-
ingham) reported to the House in fore the usual damaging results
favor of seating Rep.-elect Leon- set in. "The treatment is to elim-
ard S. Walton (D-Detroit), who inate all milk and milk substances
had been denied his seat earlier, from the diet. Early recognition
due to election irregularities pend- and adequate treatment can pre-
ing trial in Detroit. vent mental retardation, blindness
The election case, which has yet and liver damage"; and
to go to trial, involved only a 3) Cretinism, caused by absent
misdemeanor, and Hogan's inves- or deformed thyroid glands. When
tigating committee reported that blood tests discover the thyroid
the House could only deny seating hormone missing, doctors proscribe
inrthe matter of a felony. thyroid pills to correct the defi-
Proposed Deadline ciency, he said.
Both House and Senate subse- "None of these diseases is a
quently approved Gov. George W. common one," Prof. Lowrey em-
Romney's proposed April 26 dead- phasized, "but they are interesting
line for the regular session of the because they illustrate the break-
Legislature. During this time, they through in the treatment and pre-
will wind up all normal business vention of some causes of mental
of the year, including legislative retardation."
appropriations. Romney then pro-
poses to call the lawmakers back * 1 G*s
into special session in September
to consider "fiscal reform."
Meanwhile, in advance of the De a 'G a t
GOP State Convention in Grand
Rapids on Feb. 16, Gov. Romney
virtually committed the party to Prof. William I. Higuchi of the
all-out support of the proposed pharmacy college has been award-
new constitution, which goes on ed a research grant of $27,162 from
the April ballot. the National Institutes of Health
This promises to sit poorly with to study "The Quantitation of
outstate Republican leaders, who Enamel Demineralization Mechan-
have opposed the concept of a new isms" and investigation of tooth
constitution from the start, and decay. He has also received $4,500
the matter could develop into a from the graduate school for a
convention battle if it isn't pre- project titled, "A Quantitative
eluded by a hassle over who will Study of Particle-Particle Attrac-
succeed George M. Van Peursem tive Interactions in Dispersed Sys-
as state chairman. tems."


Developing t h e analogy of
genetics as a language, Dr. George
Y. Beadle, president of the Uni
versity of Chicago, delivered the
third Fagerburg Memorial Lecture
last week.
He described it as being com-
posed of four basic gene sub-'
units, each 0.0000001 of an inch
across. Each unit contains but
five types of atoms. These .mb-
units form the DNA (deoxy-ribo-
nucleic acid) molecule. As there
are many sub-unit combinations
in each DNA molecule, the num-
ber of combinations possible be-
comes infinite and there are no
two people, with the exception of
identical twins, who are genetic-
ally alike.
According to Dr. Beadle, the
DNA molecule is composed of
double parallel chains. It is this
molecule which, with proteins,
forms the chromosomes.
Copies Self
The language of genetics is the
only one capable of copying it-
self, Dr. Beadle said. The genetic
information stored in one cell
nucleus is comporabe to 1000
library volumes of 600 pages eacn.
The process becomes remarkable,
he added, when you note that for
every human system to send spe-
cifications on to the next genera-
tion this gene pattern must be
copied in from ten to thirty cell
The proof that DNA controls
the replications of genetic infor-
mation lies in a set of experi-
ments with virus and bacteria,
according to Dr. Beadle. It was
shown that after stripping cer-
tain of these organisms of every-
thing but the DNA, reproductions
would still take place as beore.
As virus and human genes are
similar in transmission, he con-
tinued, it has been concluded that
DNA controls human reproduc-
tion also.
DNA has been replicated and
the transformation processes from
DNA to RNA (ribo-ncelic acid)
to protein amino acids have all
been synthesized. This has aided
in the understanding and control
of certain genetic diseases Many
of these diseases are caused by
mutations (a lack, excess, or faul-
ty arrangement of one or more
genes). If caught early enough
some of these disease can be cor-
rected. One such disease, phenol-
ketenuria, can be compensated for
by supplying the missing protein
that a faulty gene was unable to
Geneticists can now interpret
Hastings Starts
Where Other
Schools Quit
By The Associated Press
ings College of Law is so content
with older workers that it won't
hire a teacher under 65 years old,
according to the Wall Street Jour-
The faculty's 17 members aver-
ages 73 years of age and 42 years'
experience teaching law.
Hastings, affiliated with the
University of California but run Jy
its own directors, was faced with
a shortage of professors during
World War II. So it began hiring
retired scholars. The oldsters did
so well that in 1948 the school set
65 as the minimum hiring age.
Hastings faculty members all
teach full schedules to the school's
861 students and draw handsome
salaries. Prof. Everett Fraser, 83-
year old former law school dean
at the University of Minnesota, is
the oldest teacher and receives
$19,000 a year. Other professors
include J. Warren Madden, for-
mer chairman of the National La-
bor Relations Board, and Judson
A. Crane, ex-law shool dean at

the University of Pittsburgh. I


these coded genetic messages of
the DNA molecule, Dr. Beadle
said, adding that the mutations
of genes are the basis of evolu-
tion and have given rise to all
types of life from simple to tie
most complex.
Going back in the evolutionary
process, Dr. Beadle continued, it
is thought that before the viruses
came replicating DNA molecules
which had developed from sim-

pler non-organic substances. The
ultimate return is to hyrogen,
the base element, from which sl
the other organic elements can
be formed by inter-nuclear reac-
The evolutionary sequence has
been by steps with inerceptible
intervals between, Dr. Beadle said.
Man has basically the same com-
ponents as lower forms of life but
at a higher level of develooment.

Thus, he concluded, "man is
quantitatively rather than qual-
itatively superior."
List Career
Dr. Beadle is primarly a ;enet-
icist. In 1958, while an Eastman
visiting Professor at Oxford Uni-
versity, he was awarded a Nobel
Laureate in Medicine.
With Dr. E. Tatum he demon-
strated, by use of the red bread-
mold, that genies exert a specific
control over enzymes.
Dr. Beadle received his doctorate
in genetics at Cornell University
where he subsequently taught. He
also served as assistant professor
of genetics at Harvard University,
and professor of biology at Stan-
ford University and the Califor-
nia Institute of Technology.
In 1956 he became President of
the American Association for the
Advancement of Science.


ANNIVERSARY-The Undergraduate Library celebrates its fifth
anniversary and continues to look forward to a long future of
providing students with a quiet, colorful and useful facilities
for University students.
UGLI Observes Fifth Year
Of Service to U Students

Regular $7.95 Quality

"One of the biggest causes of
conflict between companies and
unions for the next two or three
years will be conflicting judgment
over what comprises a fair day's
work," John Hutchinson told a
recent industrial relations seminar.
The Columbia University pro-
fessor pointed out that the auto-
mobile industry is especially apt
to be affected by "these differing
viewpoints on how much work an
employe should do in a day for his
Auto Role
"The automobile industry, as a
case in point, shows the vital part
this issue will play in industrial
relations in the future. Over a mil-
lion workers in the United States
make their living in this industry,
and it is germinal to many sup-
plier industries such as glass, tex-
tiles, leather, and rubber. The key

to labor peace in thi key indus-
try is to find a solution to the dis-
putes over the fair day's work.
"Four conditions exist in autos
which make sound work standards,
tight technical organization, and
tight discipline the core of suc-
cessful auto industry operation.
These conditions are the annual
model change; decentralized forms
of organization due to large size;
the strong position of the general
manager who must carry profit
responsibility for the firm; the
emphatic need for profits and
tight cost control.
Change Standards
"Every year auto firms change
the design of the car, and the
tools, and they must change their
work standards to suit. Such a dy-
namic work climate requires good
work standards.

The Undergraduate Library isv
"growing up,"
The UGLI was five years old on.
Jan. 16.
Over the five year period,
7,849,636 people h a v e come
through the turnstiles to use the
library's rich facilities.
Designed by Albert Kahn Asso-
ciates of-Detroit, the Undergrad-
uate Library offers students ac-
cess to a library of around 90,000
volumes, carefully selected to
meet their needs. The colorful
study area containing lounge
chairs, settees and study tables
for groups or individual students
is filled to capacity much of the
Other features of the library
are an audio room with 72 turn-
tables, each for use by two per-
sons with earphones and seven
individual listening booths with
speakers; and a multipurpose
room which seats 220 and is
equipped with film screen and
projectors and public addtess
"Use of the books has been
'spectacular,'" Mrs. Roberta Ken-
iston, chief librarian, says. "in
the five-year period, book use rose
from 414,756 the first year to
763,896 volumes this year."
Mrs. Keniston points out that
undergraduate enrollment has not
increased in proportion as the
use of the book collection has
Easy access to the collection and
the fact that the collection was
selected with the needs of the
To Hold Exhibition
of Youths' Books
The School of Education Cur-
ricul:m Material Center will spon-
sor an exhibit of new books for
children and youths published dur-
ing 1962 from Monday through
Feb. 20 at the University High
School library. The exhibit will be
open to the public from 3:45 to
5 p.m. on weekdays, from 7 to 9:30
p.m. on Wednesdays and from 10
to 2 p.m. on Feb. 9.

undergraduates in mind have en-
couraged greater use of the books.
"It is interesting to note that
book use in all the other libraries
has increased along with ours,"
Mrs. Keniston says. "Before this
library opened, there was some
speculation as to whether book
use in other campus libraries
might drop when this library
"Exactly the opposite happen-
ed. It has been a stimulating ex-
perience to have had a hand in
getting this library into operation
and to see it making a valuable
contribution to undergraduate

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will be held
FEBRUARY 14 & 15
See your placement office for details

Here is your opportunity to become An American Brother to an
International Student. You may build a lasting friendship while
helping him adjust to campus life. If you are interested, fill out
this form and send it to International Affairs Committee, Stu-
dent Offices, Michigan Union, Ann Arbor. For additional infor-
mation call the Michigan Union Student Offices.

Lockheed, Systems Manager for such projects as the

a Lockheed's Tuition Reimbursement Program remits

Navy POLARIS FBM and the AGENA vehicle in various seventy-five percent of the tuition for approved courses
Air Force Satellite programs, is also an important con- taken by professional and technical people who are
tributor to various NASA programs involving some of working full time.
the nation's most interesting and advanced concepts. u The Graduate Study Program permits selected engi-
As one of the largest organizations of its kind, the neers and scientists of outstanding scholarship and
Company provides the finest technical equipment avail- professional potential to obtain advanced degrees at
able; for example, the Sunnyvale facility houses one of company expense while on research assignments.
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technical staff to participate in the initiation of advanced investigate opportunities at Lockheed:
technological developments. Aeronautical Mathematics


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