THE MICHIGAN DAILY PA
Merchant Begins Confabs
CINCINNATI (P)-Secretary of
State Dean Rusk said last night
the United States will press for
peaceful agreements with Moscow
because "we believe that the lead-
ers of the Soviet Union-if not of
Communist China"-want to avoid
"a nuclear holocaust."
"We believe that, objectively
considered, they have a common
interest with other nations in put-
ting a ceiling upon the arms race
and;'In finding ways to turn that
dangerous spiral downward," he
In an address before a con-
ference on international affairs,
Rusk said the United States seeks
victory in the Cold War but added
"We do not mean the victory of
one nation or one people over
aother, but a victory for freedom."
He described the cold war as
"'a sustained and cynical effort
by the Communist world to des-
troy the world of the United Na-
tions charter and to substitute
their own world revolution in its
Rusk called the United Nations
vital to the achievement of peace
and world order.
The United Nations can be im-
proved, Rusk said, and he advocat-
ed greater use of quiet diplomacy
in an effort to settle issues with-
out bitter public debate. He said
the United States also believes
that when decisions are made in
the United Nations "the matter
of cost should be a part of the
decision . .. and cost should be
shared equitably among all the
Rusk opened his speech with a
message of greeting from Presi-
dent Kennedy who told the con-
ference that its discussion on how
to define and achieve victory in
the cold war deals with the topic
of "central importance to us all."
By The Associated Press
VIENNA - African diplomats
yesterday were pressing Bulgarian
Communist authorities to clear the
way for African students wanting
to leave Bulgaria. The students
say they were subjected to racial
is seeking to make the length of
i active duty service by men who en-
list under the National Guard and
reserve programs more flexible to
fit the skills required of individ-
* * S
AL MARJ, Libya-United States
planes began an airlift yesterday
to stricken Libyan farm areas
nearly destroyed by earthquakes
that left hundreds dead and thou-
sands without homes.
ANAHEIM-A wide-open battle
over the John Birch, Society broke
out yesterday in a convention-eve
skirmish control of the California
f Republican Assembly. Fred W.
Hall, Long Beach, outgoing CRA
president, challenged what he
termed a .move by the ultra-right
wing society to take over the vol-
unteer party organization.
* * *
NEW YORK-Mayor Robert F.
Wagner was under pressure yes-
terday to fill a role, outlined by
President John F. Kennedy, as im-
partial umpire in the 77-day New
York newspaper blackout. Through
an aide, Wagner promised a deci-
sion within 24 hours.
DOUBTS-Sen. George D. Aiken (R-Vt) (left) expressed ap-
prehension at the possibility of a NATO nuclear force after
hearing the testimony of career diplomat Livingston Merchant
before the Senate-House Atomic Energy Committee.
Labor Leaders .Decide
o Chide Kennedy Aim
MIAMI BEACH (P)-AFL-CIO leaders have decided to carry to
President John F. Kennedy personally a strong complaint on' the
administration's handling of domestic economic problems.
Union chiefs were reported to have reached agreement at winter
meetings that Kennedy's solutions to economic problems are too
mild and that the President is failing to sell the public and Congress
on the gravity of the situation. It was agreed that federation presi-
On Surf ace
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-A special rep-
resentative of President John F.
Kennedy went to Europe yester-
day to explore the possibilities for
a NATO nuclear force-a force
viewed warily by some Congress
Livingston T. Merchant, a long-
time United States diplomat, was
called out of retirement to help
seek an answer to a problem that
was tough enough to start with
and has been compounded by
French refusal to participate in
a multination atomic force.
Merchant is now in Paris and
then will visit other NATO capi-
tals to sound out sentiment on
use of surface ships, as well as
submarines, for mounting Polaris
United States Navy studies in-
dicate NATO nations could save
up to half the cost and a year in
construction time by using con-
verted merchant ships instead of
submarines as Polaris missile
The United States, in a policy
change, is moving toward the idea
of surface ships instead of. subs
for a multination seaborne nu-
clear force, at least initially. It
hopes to sell the idea to the
NATO countries to speed the crea-
tion of such a force.
Polaris experts have calculated
it would cost about $76 million to
adapt a hull like that of a World
War II victory ship for use as a
Polaris platform. By contrast, a
Polaris submarine costs about $120
Beyond the broad principal ofI
multination participation and the
use of Polaris missiles, the NATO
nuclear force idea still is largely
embryonic. But whatever emerges
is certain to undergo the closest
kind of scrutiny in Congress.
This was made clear today ir
comment from members of the
Senate - House Atomic Energy
Committee which was briefed in
secret by Merchant earlier thh
The joint committee has wide
powers under the law to contro
use of United States atomic de-
vices and some members indicatec
it remains dubious about the ,rac-
ticality and desirability of a NATC
Sen. George D. Aiken (R-Vt)
noted to a newsman that "the
joint committee has indicated it:
feelings against" such a plan or
several occasions. Other member
SAIGON -P)-The United States
is considering ordering the with-
drawal of American air force 2om-
bat elements from South Viet
Nam, it was reported yesterday.
At the same time, United States
army helicopter crews may re-
ceive orders in the next few days
liberalizing rules under which
they may shoot at Communist
guerrillas. The helicopters would
thus take over part of the role
played by conventional fighter
Air force pilots are flying many
of the operational strafing and
bombing missions conducted by
Vietnamese air force planes. Dur-
ing the past month, more than 35
per cent of enemy casualties
claimed by the Saigon government
and American command were in-
flicted by air force strikes.
American pilots technically are
in Viet Nam in purely advisory
or supporting capacities, training
the Vietnamese Air Force. In prac-
tice, a critical shortage of Viet-
namese pilots has led to American
piloting of many planes.
. Lately, however, civilian :as-
ualties have been attributed to
strikes by T28 and B26 planes
piloted by Americans. Officials,
both Vietnamese and American,
have raised doubts whether the
effectiveness of air strikes against
the guerrillas is outweighed by the
harmful psychological effect on
civilians hurt by accidental straf-
ing, bombing and dropping of fare
Communist agents are telling
village people that the "rain of
death" from the skies is Amer-
ica's special contribution to the
war here. American servicemen
are being portrayed in village pos-
ters as looters and rapists. Posters
depicting the dead and wounded
during an air strike emphasize
planes with United States mark-
Cutler on Board
By The Associated Press
LANSING-Gov. George Rom-
ney has named Prof Kenneth R.
Magee of the neurology depart-
ment of the Medical School to
succeed Prof. Richard A. Cutler
of the psychology department on
the State Mental Health Commis-
Offers To Reduce Inspections
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON - The United
States disclosed last night it has
told the Soviet Union it might ac-
cept seven on-site inspections to
police an atomic test ban if the
Russians agree to "meaningful"
The United States has been in-
sisting on eight to ten on-site in-
spections while the Soviet Union
has agreed to two or three.
An official United States state-
ment voiced disappointment at
Soviet unwillingness to go ahead
with three-nation talks on a test-
ban treaty. But it said United
States disarmament chief William
C. Foster will return to Geneva
this weekend in another effort to
reach an effective agreement to
outlaw nuclear explosions.
In Geneva the
fused again to
stand that two
Soviet Union re-
budge from its
or three on-site
Soviet soil are
WASHINGTON (IP)--The White
House is setting up a meeting
which it apparently hopes will
clear the air of charges of "man-
aged news" in the Kennedy ad-
Representatives of news-gath-
ering media are being invited to
meet with government informa-
tion officials at a private retreat
near Warrenton, Va., April 5-6.
The session promises to be a
lively one, with both sides ex-
changing complaints and crit-
icisms that have been building
up over the months. No plans are
being made for regular news cov-
erage of the event, however.
The decision to seek a frank
airing of views, it was learned, was
largely prompted by several as-
sociations representing news me-
dia have adopted formal resolu-
tions criticizing federal informa-
tion practices and the feeling by
President John F. Kennedy that
portions of various news media
sometimes are unfair to the ad-
On the question of opening the
discussion to news coverage, or e
administration aide commented
"You might just as well sit down
and listen to a set of prepared
speeches-just like the Supreme
enough in a treaty for a nuclear'
It threatened to drop the whole
idea of inspections against nu-
Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister
Vasily V. Kuznetsov's position at
the 17-nation disarmament con-
ference tightened the deadlock in
He accused the United States
and its allies of double :ealiig
and bad faith. He said former
United States delegate Arthur H.
Dean told the Russians in private
talks last October that two to
four annual inspections might be
acceptable to Washington.
United States sources said they
could find no record that Dean
made any such statement to the
Russians. Dean resigned Jan. 4,
saying personal reasons forced him
to give up his post as disarmament
The inspections would be carried
out on seismic detection devices,
called black boxes, placed within
the borders of a nuclear power
The Russians claim the black,
boxes are unnecesary because the
major powers have their own de-
tection devices which are capable
of recording a nuclear explosion
An apparently misunderstood
remark by Canada's Gen. E. L. M.
Burns set off a report that the
United States was willing to i e-
duce its figure for on-site in-
spections to seven. Burns said
later, however, he was talking of
the number of black boxes that
the West believed \should be the
minimum placed on the soil of a
Kuznetsov said he would not
commit the Soviet side to discus-
sions, such as the United States
wants, on the composition and
size of inspection teams, the type
of event which would trigger a
check or the time an inspection
could take and the area it could
Kuznetsov said these were only
secondary issues. "If we can't get
an understanding on the main
issues, the discussion of secondary
matters will prolong the reaching
of an agreement."
By The Associated Press
LANSING-Ten Republican leg-
islators have introduced an alter-
native House apportionment plan
in case the proposed new con-
stitution is not approved in the
April 1 elections.
The new plan would reduce the
House from 110 to 109 members.
Wayne county would lose four of
its 38 seats, and the Upper Penin-
sula, Northern Peninsula, and
Thumb area would lose one each.
Oakland County would gain
three seats for a total of nine,
Macomb two for a total of five,
and Genessee one for a total of
Republicans backing the bill ex-
plained that it would meet the
present constitutional require-
ments stipulating that the House
must be reapportioned this year
to allow for population changes
between 1950 and 1960.
The proposed new constitution
calls for setting up a special com-
mission to reapportion the House.
This is one of the most contro-
versial sections of the document.
dent George Meany, and Walter
Reuther, chairman of the federa-
tion's economic policy committee,
will seek an early White House
appointment to tell Kennedy as
much face to face.
The union leaders feel Ken-
nedy's tax cutting plan and other
programs are inadequate to in-
crease lagging production suffi-
ciently to supply the job openings
needed for the rapidly expanding
work force and for workers being
steadily displaced by technology.
The labor leaders, althoigh
staunch political supporters of the
President, have decided to try to
prod him into making more fre-
quent speeches and statements to
develop pressure for economic aid
A number of policy statements
being issued during sessions of The
AFL-CIO Executive Council mildly
warn the President his programs
are too modest. Reuther wanted to
include some sharply-worded crit-
Meany said a meeting had not
been arranged and that published
reports that he and Reuther will
see the President were mere guess-
es. Meany noted, however, he
never had trouble getting a White
Reuther told a reporter he ex-
pects to see the President soon.
"I think he'll want to talk to us,"
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