THE MICHIGAN DAILY
.THUSDA, JAUAR 16.196
FORTEMCIGNDIYT1TR -..ANTR i ~
V ixr,:xar L11 uc l V171 1 1V 1.70 (
eports Buyer Confidence
By MARILYN KORAL
Consumer purchasing sentiment
improved from last August to No-
vember, the latest Survey Research
Center consumer attitudes report
The consumer survey was com-
piled by Prof. George Katona and
Prof. Eva Mueller, both program
directors at the SRC.
There was a particularly large'
increase in the number of people
who expect continuous good times
to prevail in the near future.
Only 20 per cent of the people
polled saw the likelihood of a re-
cession within the next two years.
Apparently, the assassination of
President John F. Kennedy failed
to "shake people's confidence in
the favorable trend of economic
development," the quarterly re-
Effects of Assassination
In answer to most questions the
pre- and post-assassination data
were identical. Only in reply to a
question about expected economic
conditions during the next year
was uncertainty expressed by a
greater proportion of respondents
after than before the assassina-
"Unemployment continues to
represent the major economic
problem seen by consumers," the
survey reported. Expectations of
reduced unemployment rates have
not been generated this year, and
Gies Notes Rising Economic Conditions
opinion concerning unemployment
Yet few people see any pros-
pects of a recession in the near
future. No more than 20 per cent
of all people questioned expressed
the belief that a recession would
occur in the next two years.
However, at the close of 1963
there was more optimism concern-
ing economic 'outlook for the next
five years than it was in May. Of
those responding, 35 per cent ex-
pected "good times" in the next
five years and 18 per cent "bad
times." This is in comparison to
May figures of 28 and 26 per cent
At both times nearly one-half
of all people had no definite ex-
The intention to buy cars, as an
index to economic confidence,
showed a favorable gain.
However, the increase in pros-
pective car purchases did not ex-
tend to buying plans for houses
and major appliances. "Intentions
to purchase one-family houses for
owner occupancy were relatively
low in November" the report stat-
Favor Tax Cut
The survey showed 66 per cent
of the respondents in favor of a
The effect of a tax cut on
business conditions will be favor-
able, 45 per cent answered. And
those favoring a tax cut to ener-
gize business rose to 57 per cent
among people with more than
$10,000 yearly income.
Another opinion was that the
tax cut would have no effect on
business conditions, and there al-
so were manw noncommittal an-
swers; relatively few people fore-
see unfavorable effects.
In November, 31 per cent of
respondents expressed the belief
that Congress would enact a law
reducing taxes, while 38 per cent
said that it probably would not do
so. The answers did not differ
greatly between income groups and
were the same before and imme-
diately after the assassination.
Opinions concerning the effects
of the international situation on
domestic business conditions "im-
PROF. GEORGE KATONA
proved substantially in the recent
past" and "remained favorable,"
according to the survey.
Some what fewer respondents
believe now than earlier this year
that prices of things they buy
will advance during the next year
or during the next five years. At
the same time, the proportion of
these who say that what prices
will do is "to the good" increased
somewhat, the report indicated.
The report stated that the data
received was "reassuring oompared
with 1962 as well as the spring of
1963, when many consumers ex-
pressed uneasiness because they
could not see any forces that
would sustain continuous good
It had been observed in the
past that after a span of economic
prosperity consumers become skep-
tical and postpone expenditures
because they believe good and bad
times tend to alternate.
"Rising incomes and awareness
of the strength the American
economy has exhibited this year
appear to have suppressed such
doubts. The anticipation of the
tax cut may have contributed to
the strengthening of confidence in
some instances," the report con-
GRAND RAPIDS-"This is the
first time in more than a decade cently reveE
that the United States has been outlays on l
able to sustain a peace-time ex- in 1964 ind
pansion over a three-year period," higher spen
Prof. Thomas Gies of the business Outlays I
administration school said re- ment in th
cently. the first d
Continued expansion, lack of in- more than
flation and lasting unemployment - S
characterize the present economic State and
situation. lays on the
Despite the duration of the ex- a small dec
pansion, "we have not experienced have been
the general upward pressure on second half
prices which has characterized jected spen
other postwar booms," he added. judged to t
Unemployment Problem added.
"We have found unemploy-
ment of a substantial order con-
tinuing in certain important areas Highi
of the economy, with over-all un-
employment hanging stubbornly America
above five per cent," Prof. Gies and secon
said. ing atteni
The state, in this area, has million st
fared better than the nation as United St
a whole, he pointed out. Income tion repor
in the state has increased about This re
25 per cent during the past three of 1.5 mi
years, compared with about 12 per 1962 total
cent for the United States, and It wasa
unemployment has dropped from numbers o
7 per cent in 1960 to 3.9 per cent ers in hi
"For those who are interested in than tho
numbers," Gies said, "it appears grades.
that Gross National Product in
1964 will total $612 billion, even
in the absence of tax legislation." This o
This increase, four to five per for this t
cent gain from 1963, would not be would bring
sufficient to make important in- total federa
roads on present levels of unem-- ongoods a
ployment, Gies pointed out. He "Detroit's
said the presence of a substantial oeenonen
amount of unemployed resources factors in
has served to dampen any upward
pressures on prices.
Prof. Gies discussed factors
which will set the tone of the Dies
economy for the coming year.
By contrast with the preceding
two years, when business invest= Prof. Em
ment was a minor feature in the of the ma
pattern of increase, plant and died of a b
equipment outlays have shown' Park, Fla.,
substantial gains in the period lion.
since midyear, he explained. Re- He came
aled plans for business
long-lived capital goods
icate that there is still
ading in the works.
by the federal govern-
he latest quarter show
decline in spending in
a year, Prof. Gies said.
local government out-
other hand, following
cline early in the year,
very strong during the
f of last year and pro-
ding for 1964 must be
be over $60 billion, he
an public elementary
ndary schools are be-
Led by a record 40.2
udents this year, the
ates Office of Educa-
presents an increase
illion pupils over the
also revealed that the
of students and teach-
gh schools were in-
at a more rapid rate
'se in the primary
ild be a record level
ype of spending and
g it close to the level of
al government spending
insolent .chariots' have
of the most important
maintaining the head-
eritus Louis P. Rouse
heart attack in Winter
during the interses-
to the University in
n instructor and was
o assistant professor in
served in the mathe-
artment in that rank
irement in 1947. j
way of the current expansion and,
incidentally, have shaken the
myth that the public would not
support two, successive seven mil-
lion car years," Prof. Gies com-
In discussing the possibility -of
the automobile industry having a
third successive strong year, Prof.
Gies said that "on the optimistic
side, it should be pointed out that
auto sales in 1962 and 1963 repre-
sented a return to the proportion
of the GNP recorded fpr a num-
ber of early post war year.
This interpretation suggests that
the failure of auto sales to ex-
pand with the economy after 1955
was a temporary departure from
the norm and that present levels
are not out of line.
Optimists who foresee the
economy moving toward eight-
million - car annual production
may be supported by recent con-
sumer surveys which show more
than eight per cent of consumers
planning new car purchases with-
in a year, and by underlying
trends toward increased use of
private instead of public trans-
portation, he stated.
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PROF. EVA MUELLER
HIT MASTER'S PROGRAM:
1913 as a
until his ret
Educators Analyze Graduate Education
WASHINGTON - The ills of
graduate schools were diagnosed
and discussed at a recent meet-
ing of the Council of Graduate
Schools in the United States.
Educators pointed to the de-
cline of significance of the mas-
ter's degree, the "isolation" and
specialization of graduate work
and the lack of opportunity for
deserving Negroes to attain grad-
uate degreesgas important prob-
lems facing graduate schools, the
Washington Post reported.
In many schools the master's
degree has become a mere conso-
lation prize for unsuccessful PhD
candidates or a means for teach-
ers to earn more money or even
an automatic award- for spending
a fifth year in college, according
to participants in a panel dis-
Although "distinguished schools"'
have down-graded the master's
degree, the number of college fac-
ulty holding such a degree is in-
creasing, Dean Robert P. Browder
'of the University of Colorado
"Whether we like it or not," he
said, "the master's degree holder
is meeting much of the mush-
rooming demand for college teach-
ers. This fact, in conjunction with
the present status of the degree,
offers some frightening prospects
for the future of higher educa-
tion," he declared.
The number of PhD holders in
college teaching has slacked off.
He said that about 40 per cent of
the college teachers held doctoral
degrees in 1953-54, but that only
26 per cent held them in 1960-61.
Browder also warned that in-
stitutions, often with out requsite
resources, are creating graduate
programs to meet the demand of
teachers, seeking their master's.'
Educators maintained that hap-
hazard graduate education was in-
effectual. They said that graduate
programs cannot exist as mere
collections of additional courses.
Also, educators warned about
part-time graduate students who
might not be able to devote suf-
ficient attention to intellectual
The narrow, insular approach
of many graduate programs came
under attack at the conference.
Graduate education must "trans-
cend the isolation in learning"
that stems from a multiplicity of
departments and schools dwelling
together in "unpeaceful coexist-
ence," President Louis W. Norris
of Albion College said.
He criticized the competition be-
tween graduate departments for
finances and prestige.
Norris and President Victor L.
Butterfield of Wesleyan Univer-
sity contended that graduate edu-
cation should concern itself with'
broad moral and social values
above narrow specialization.
Butterfield said that a phony
"scientificism" threatens to "turn
scholarly interest away from im-
portant areas of human and social
concern that call for all the ra-
tional understanding we can give
Another college president, How-
ard F. Lowry of the College of
Wooster condemned many gradu-
ate schools for not telling the
truth when they say they want
liberally educated students instead
"They expect the students they
accept to already know everything
about the subjects they have come
to learn," he said.
T h e Council of Graduate
Schools also committed itself to
improve graduate education for
A resolution adopted by the
group asked member schools to:
1) Compensate for "the inade-
quate and inferior preparation" of
Negro students by scheduling spe-
cial summer institutes for them.
2) Make special efforts to re-
cruit and give financial aid to
deserving Negro students.
3) Open lines of communication
between white institutions and
Negro schools so that more
Negroes can qualify for graduate
The council will establish a com-
mittee to seek financial backing
for the objectives.
Dean Leonard Beach of Vander-
bilt University pointed out that
only 1200 Negroes in the United
States have ever received doctoral
degrees. "At present there are only
500 Negroes enrolled in doctoral
programs," he added.
NON-CURRICULAR COURSES IN RELIGION
Offered at The University of Michigan
Seeing is Believing!
SAT. 8 P.M.
AA Hi School Auditorium
THE ANN ARBOR
a program of 10 dance works
in modern and ballet featuring
UM Dance Instructor
Dance Director of Interlochen
formerly with Jose Limon
Ann Arbor Dance Teacher
and 25 Ann Arbor dancers
ALL SEATS RESERVED
$1.50 and $2.00
STUDENT Tickets $1 in block
NEWMAN CLUB CLASS PROGRAM
Gabriel Richard Center,
331 Thompson St., 663-0557.
"The Fundamentals of the Catholic Faith"
Monday and Thursday, 10:00 a.m., 2,4,
and 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 20.
Msgr. John F. Bradley.
"The Foundations of Christianity"
Tuesdays, 2,4, and 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 21.
The Rev. Alex J. Brunett.
"Modern Theology and Christian Unity"
Thursdays, 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 23.
The Rev. James Torrens, S.J.
"The Writings and Theology of St. Paul"
Wednesdays, 4:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 22.
Prof. G. B. Harrison.
Sundays and Wednesdays, 8:00 p.m.,
beginning Feb. 16.
Msgr. John F. Bradley.
"Studies in Christian Worship"
Tuesdays, 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 21.
Mr. Robert Reiter.
"Studes in St: Augustine"
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 7:30 p.m.,
beginning Jan. 21. Mr. Leo Desjarlais.
"Introduction to Scholastic Philosophy"
Mondays, 4:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 20.
Mr. James Nee.
"Comparison of Thomistic Philosophy and
Mondays, 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 20.
Mr. Theodore Thompson.
"Studies in Rational Psychology"
Tuesdays, 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 21.
Mr. Patrick Lucas.
"History of the Early Christian Church"
Tuesdays, 1 :00 and 7:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 21.
Mr. Thomas Giles.
"GUILD HOUSE," 802 Monroe St., 662-5189
"Seminar on the Old Testament"
UNIVERSIT YLUTHERAN CHAPEL,
1511 Washtenaw Ave., 663-5560
"A Survey of Christian Doctrine"
Mondays, 8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 20.
The Rev. Alfred Scheips and Vicar John Koenig.
B'NAI B'RITH HILLEL FOUNDATION,
1429 Hill St., 663-4129
"Bible, Hebrew, Talmud"
"Hebrew for Beginners and Intermediates"
"Seminar in Basic Judaism"
"Lecture Series: 'The Jews and Jesus"'
(Call Hillel Office for details)
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, OFFICE OF
RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS, Ext. 2077
"Studies in New Testament Ethics"
12:00 p.m., Fridays, beginning Jan. 24.
Michigan League, Conf. Room I. Luncheon 50c.
Dr. N. Patrick Murray.
"Contemporary Issues in Protestant Theology"
(Repeat from First Semester)
4:10 p.m., Thursdays, beginning Jan. 23.
Room 528D, Student Activities Bldg.
Dr. N. Patrick Murray.
"The New Testament: an Historical View"
12:00 p.m., Wednesdays, beginning Jan. 29.
Michigan League, Conf. Room It. Luncheon 50c.
Elizabeth H. Sumner.
7-8:00 p.m., beginning Jan. 19.
J. Edgar Edwards.
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