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January 16, 1964 - Image 13

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-01-16

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... ..

Rep ort Calls

Cigarette Smoking




4 < >

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-A long-await-
ed federal report has shaken the
$8 billion United States tobacco
industry by terming cigarette
smoking "a health hazard of suf-
ficient importance ... to warrant
appropriate remedial action."
In a statement released Sat-
urday, the Advisory Committee on
Smoking and Health, a 10-mem-
ber team of scientists and physi-
States surgeon general that "the
mortality ratio of cigarette smok-
ers over nonsmokers (is) particu-
larly high for a number of dis-
eases," including five different
types of cancer.
Yet the report noted that "no
simple cause-and-effect relation-
ship is likely to exist between a
complex product like tobacco
smoke and a specific disease in
the variable human organism . .
Often the coexistence of several
factors is required for the oc-
currence of a disease and one of'
the factors may play a determi-
nant role."
Three Evidence Sources
The committee analyzed and
evaluated three main kinds of
scientific evidence in reaching
their conclusions:
1) Experiments were conduct-
ed in which animals were exposed
to tobacco smoke and tars and to
various chemical compounds pres-'
ent in them. Seven of these com-
pounds, chemically labelled as
polycyclic aromatic compounds,
were found to be carcinogenic
(cancer-producing). Others pro-
mote cancer production or lower
the threshold to a known cancer-
producing agent without being
carcinogenic themselves.
2) Clinical and autopsy studies
of thousands of smokers and non-
smokers revealed that the former
are more likely to encounter fre-
quent and severe kinds of dam-
age to body functions and to
organs, cells and tissues.
3) Population studies, compar-
ing the smoking histories of per-
sons with a certain disease with
those of control groups without
the disease, showed that numer-
ous danger signs occurred more
frequently among smokers. Symp-'
toms such as chronic coughing,
chest illness, sputum production
and decreased lung function were
far more prevalent a m o n g
Male Mortality Higher
Evaluation of these and other
sources of evidence indicated that
cigarette smoking "is associated
with a, 70 per cent increase' in the
age-specific death rates of males,
and to a lesser extent with in-
creased death rates of females.

"The total number of deaths
causally related to cigarette
smoking in the Unitel States
smoking in the United States
population cannot , be accurately
estimated, (but) it is the judg-
ment of the committee that cig-
arette smoking contributes sub-
stantially to mortality from cer-
tain diseases and to the over-all
death rate," the report noted.
The committee added that the
mortality rates for pipe smokers
were "little if at all higher than
for nonsmokers," while "for men
smoking less than five cigars
daily, death rates are slightly
higher (than for nonsmokers).
Mortality Ratios
"The mortality ratio of cig-
arette smokers over nonsmokers
was particularly high for a num-
ber of diseases: cancer of the
lung (10.8); bronchitis and em-
physema (a lung disease) (6.1),,

cancer, causal relationships were
established in the case of cancer
of the lip (linked to pipe smok-
ing), and cancer of the larynx.
Other Points
Causal relationships were sug-
gested (but not established) for
cancer of the esophagus and of
the urinary bladder, while no re-
lationship was suggested between
smoking and stomach cancer.
Smoking was found to be more
important as a cause of chronic
broncho -pulmonary disease than
either atmospheric polution or oc-
cupational exposure.
An association between smok-
ing and disease was not sub-
stantiated for asthma, influenze
or pneumonia.
Breathless Smokers
It was further discovered that
"cigarette smoking is associated
with a reduction in ventilatory
function. Among males, cigarette
smokers have a greater prevalence
of breathlessness than non-
Among other ailments which
appear to have a relationship
-not necessarily cause-and-effect
-with smoking are cirrhosis of
the- liver and amblyopia (dimness
of vision unexplained by any body
The study showed that women
who smoke during pregnancy'
tend to have babies of lower-
than-usual birth weight. But "it
is not known whether this de-
crease in birth weight has any in-
fluence on the biological fitness
of the newborn."
Psychologically Determined
{ The report concluded that
smoking is "to a large extent psy-
chologically and socially deter-
mined." It noted that in general,
the earlier a person begins to
smoke, the longer he stays at it.
And the more cigarettes he
smokes per day, the higher the
death rate.
The smoking report was in-
itiated by the late President John
F. Kennedy to aid the govern-
ment in deciding what steps, if
any, should be taken in control-
ling smoking. The committee was
formed by Dr. Luther L. Terry,
surgeon general of the Public
Health Service. Its work began
in the summer of 1962 and con-
sisted entirely of evaluating and
reprocessing earlier studies, with
no new research being conducted.
Dr. Terry noted that the "re-
medial action" called for in the
report may include such things as
control and a campaign to edu-
cate and inform the American
public concerning the perils of

HEALTH HAZARD?-A United States Public Health Service
committee calls cigarette smoking dangerous, linking it to varied
cancers. But, this smoker, and many others, continue, discounting
the document.
Wynder Urges More Study'
Of Cancer-Causing Factors

By The Associated Press
stands divided on the question of
whether or not the "remedial ac-
tion" against smoking called for
in a recently released federal re-
port should be initiated.
This smoking controversy could
turn out to be ansignificant issue
of the new session, with one group
of legislators calling for immediate
action and another (largely made
up of legislatorsrfrom tobacco-
growing states in the South) call-
ing for more research into the
matter first.
Although no legislator has yet
suggested a federal decree abolish-
ing smoking-since the govern-
ment's inability to enforce a sim-
ilar law against drinking, the 18th
Amendment, convinced most
people that such decisions are per-
sonal matters-many are in favor
of giving the public moreinforma-
tion on which to base its choice.
Neuberger's Bills
Sen. Maurine B. Neuberger (D-
Ore) has already announced her
intention to introduce two bills
dealing with smoking. One would
give the Federal Trade Commis-
sion power to regulate cigarette
advertising and labelling. The
other would provide for additional
federal funds for education and
research on smoking.
Her first bill might not be ne-
cessary, however, if the FTC issues
a decree declaring it an unfair
trade practice for manufacturers
not to include a health hazard
warning on cigarette packages and
advertisements, as it is expected
to do.
More Research Urged
Meanwhile Rep. Harold D.
Cooley (D-NC), chairman of the
House Agricultural Committee, has
announced his plans to call for
an accelerated $5 million federal
research program "to accomplish
maximum assurances of health in
the smoking and enjoyment of
His state would be hardest hit

if smokers decide to cut down or
quit as a result of the report.
North Carolina- produces about
two-thirds of this country's flue-
cured tobacco and accounts for
more than half of the cigarettes
But Cooley said nothing about
the loss in revenue his constituents
would incur, concentrating instead
on the fact that the government
should cooperate with the tobac-
co industry "to dispel all the dis-
quiet about smoking and associate
good health with the enjoyment
of tobacco."
Campaign Issue?
In a recent statement, GOP
National Chairman William E.
Miller indicated that the Repub-
lican Party platform this year
would include a plank on smoking
and health. A proposal for legis-
lation in this field "might be in-
dicated," he said. A comparable
statement has not as yet come
from the,'Democrats.
The tobacco industry has served
word that it will cooperate toward
resolving the tobacco-health re-
lationship question. The scientific
director of the Tobacco Industry
Research Committee, ' Clarence
Cook Little, President of the Uni-
versity from 1925-29, has said
that his organization will "co-
operate as rapidly and effectively
as possible on the needed research
Nevertheless, it appears that to-
bacco companies plan no reduction
in their television advertising and
may even step up advertising in an
attempt to offset the effects of the
federal report.
'Social Disgrace'
In Michigan, State Health Com-
missioner Albert E. Heustis has
recommended a campaign to make
smoking a "social disgrace."
Heustis called for a four-point
state program against cigarettes,
in which cigarettes would be made
less available to minors, possibly
through banning cigarette ma-
chines; strict controls would be

imposed on television commercials
advertising cigarettes; programs
for persons wishing to drop the
smoking habit might be admin-
istered at the local level; and a
law requiring all cigarettes to be
labelled "dangerous to health"
would be passed.
Also, Rep. Joseph Snyder (D-
St. Clair Shores) has filed for
introduction a bill to require cig-
arette companies to stamp a
health warning on every pack sold
in Michigan. The message would
read, "Warning: Excessive use of
cigarettes is dangerous to health."
The bill would thus call for ac-
tion similar to that proposed by
the FTC. However, if passed, the
bill would control the smoking
hazard in this state even if the
FTC should issue no similar order
to apply nationally.
Wishes to announce that they
are sorry that they are not
stocking or selling course text-
books this semester, but are
featuring a sale beginning Mon.,
Jan. 20.
At that time all books will be'
10%0OFF list price. Folkway
records at $2.25 and $3.00. Vox
classicals at about half price.
OPEN 9:00-6:00
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cancer of the larynx (5.4), oral
cancet (4.1), cancer of the esoph-
agus (3.4), peptic ulcer (2.8) and
the group of other circulatory
diseases (2.6)."
The report added that "for cor-
onary heart disease (the leading
cause of death in this country),
the mortality ratio was 1.7." In
other words, the death rate is 70
per cent higher for smokers. In
addition, diseases of the heart
and blood vessels other than cor-
onary heart disease cause 14 per
cent of the excess deaths among
cigarette smokers.
T h e committee investigated
several forms of cancer and found
at least a suggested association
between smoking and illness in
five of them. In addition to lung

Associated Press Science Reporter
WASHINGTON (;')-A noted
pioneer in smoking research said
recently that ultimate develop-
ment of less harmful cigarettes is
feasible. He urged that the gov-
ernment, the tobacco industry and
private researchers expand their
studies with full speed to achieve
that goal.
At the same time, Ernest L.
Wynder had a good word for some
filtered cigarettes now available,
saying in an interview that "some
elements of the tobacco industry
have already made good progress"
in producing a safer cigarette.
Dr. Wynder, of the Sloan-
Kettering Institute for Cancer Re-
search, New York, said he consid-
ers some of the filter cigarettes
now available are relatively effec-
tive in reducing the hazard of lung
cancer. He declined to name the
Meanwhile, Assistant Surgeon
General James M. Hundley quali-
fied to some extent remarks he
made about filtered cigarettes at
a news conference last Saturday.
Following issuance of a blue-
ribbon panel's report indicting
heavy cigarette smoking in a num-
ber of health fields, Hundley had

said that the panel, in its survey
of world scientific literature deal-
ing with the question of possible
hazards from smoking, had found
"no evidence that will establish
the fact that filters have had any
effect in reducing the dangers."
But Tuesday he added it's also
true that no evidence was found
that they have not had such an
effect. That is, he said, there is
not enough evidence yet to make
a judgment, one way or another,
as to the effect of filters.
Wynder is one of the scientists
who first produced skin cancer in
mice by the application of cigar-
ette-smoke concentrates, or "tars"
to the animals' backs.
In research, Wynder said, the
problem is two-fold:
1) To reduce tobacco smoke's
content of "ciliatoxic agents"-
that is, chemicals which he said
can destroy the tiny whip-like
cilia which line the lungs and help
remove unwanted materials.
2) To reduce the quantity of
tumor-causing chemicals he said
exist in tobacco smoke.
Wynder said animal experiments
indicate that at least some of the
ciliatoxic agents can be selectively
reduced by special filters. He add-
ed that further research might un-
veil ways to reduce others.

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University research into the
smoking-health association may be
accentuated as a result of a re-
-cently-released federal report link-
ing smoking to several types of
disease, Prof. Maurice H. Seevers,
chairman of the pharmacology de-
partment of the Medical school
and a member of . the advisary
committee that submitted the re-
port, said recently.
Prof. Seevers cited one current
project in which the direct effects
of the tobacco component nico-
tine on an animal's central ner-
vous system are tested. "We want
to see whether nicotine has a
stimulating or a depressing effect
upon the central nervous system,"
he explained.
He added that in all probability
both effects are possible, depend-
ing upon the size of the dose ad-
ministered: a low dose would act
as a stimulant, while a high dose
would be a depressant.
Purely Subjective
"In actual smoking, there are
other factors which have a secon-
dary effect upon the central ner-
vous system. It is difficult to eval-
uate the subjective response of
one individual or another, since
some claim to feel . stimulated
through smoking-especially when
they inhale-and others claim to
feel depressed.
"Evidence indicates that most
smokers get a tranquilizing effect
from nicotine, varying with the
amount of smoking and the meth-
od of smoking as well as with
thousands of other factors," Prof.
Seevers continued.
In other current smoking re-
search here, a colony of rhesus
monkeys is aiding researchers
study the self-administration of
drugs. Every six hours each mon-
key is allotted a pill of some type
of narcotic (now including nico-
tine). "We have found that these
monkeys will continue to self-
administer other drugs; now we
want to know if the same thing
is true of nicotine," Prof. Seevers
What Happens?
These experiments are being
conducted to ascertain what hap-

pens in the central nervous system
when narcotics are taken and what
happens when the narcotics are
then withdrawn. The monkeys
develop withdrawal symptoms in-
dicating that they have become
habituated to the drug they have
been given.
"In the future, we contemplate
studies involving a small portable
machine which would administer
nicotine intravenously and at ran-
dom intervals when stimulated by
a battery or by radio control.
Since the person involved would
not know when to expect an in-
jection this should overcome the
psychological effect of using a
needle," he said.
Prof. Seevers explained that
studies have shown the direct in-
jection of nicotine to be sufficient
to satisfy a smoker. In either case,
he might be subject to minor toxic
effects such as nausea, brought on
by the nicotine.
More Money Available
"This field of research has be-
come of increasing scientific in-
terest in recent years, especially
since more funds have been made
available for experimental pro-
jects across the country," Prof.
Seevers noted.
He explained that the experi-
ments being conducted here to
test the effects of nicotine upon
the central nervous system have
been financed by grants from the
Tobacco Industry Research Com-
mittee, whose director, Clarence
Cook Little, was formerly Presi-
dent of the University.
In addition to these research
projects, the respective tobacco
companies sponsor research into
the chemistry involved in smok-
ing, Prof. Seevers went on. At-
tempts to isolate the chemical sub-
stances present in tobacco and
those which are released in smoke
during the burning process have
uncovered between 500 and 1000
such components thus far.
One's Like Another
"I find it fundamentally amus-
ing that many people have given
much serious thought to substi-
tutes for tobacco. Papaya leaves
and catalpa leaves have been sug-

gested as substitutes; but burning
any plant material will produce
similar crude end products.
"How can we be sure the sub-
stances produced during the burn-
ing of such a substitute be proven

Prof. Seevers noted that much
research is still needed to find out
why some people who smoke never
get lung cancer, while some people
who get lung cancer never smoke.
"It suggests that there might be
some inherited factor which smok-
ing only triggers," he said.
There is a substantial statistical
difference in incidence of many
diseases between smokers as a
class and nonsmokers, he added.
This difference cannot be explain-
ed fully through direct contact
with tobacco smoke.
Smokers More Susceptible?
"This suggests either that some-
thing in smoke is absorbed direct-
ly into the body and affects many
organ systems, or else smokers are
just more susceptible to systemic
differences in general, geneticaily
or otherwise," Prof. Seevers said.
"Perhaps the smoker is physio-
logically or psychologically dif-
ferent from the nonsmoker, but
nobody has found any one factor
to distinguish the one class from
the other," he added.
Prof. Seevers explained that the
beginning smoker has no way of
telling how susceptible he is to
nicotine habituation. A group of
five individuals might shelter a
wide range of susceptibility which
can't be assayed in advance.
Many Won't Quit
Despite the fact that the federal
report pointed out many clear
dangers involved in smoking cigar-
ettes (beside which the hazards
of pipe and cigar smoking are
insignificant), many people have
said that they will continue to
smoke anyway.
"I'm not surprised that many
people are still complacent about
smoking, since the report offered

nothing that hasn't already been
suggested. The probability of dy-
ing from lung cancer is about the
same as that of being killed in
an automobile accident," so that
many people will continue to take
the risk despite the danger involv-
ed, Prof. Seevers said.
What recommendations does
Prof. Seevers have for those who
wish to take the risk anyway? "If
one must smoke a cigarette, he
should refrain from inhaling and
smoke only intermittently. But on
an actual statistical basis, he
would be safer smoking a cigar or
a pipe if at all," he concluded.

innocuous when we haven't even
established such a proof with
many tobacco components yet?"
Prof. Seveers queried.
Among the most publicized com-
ponents of tobacco smoke are the
tars, a name which Prof. Seevers
explained referred to the con-
sistency of the substances. "Many
substances in pine tar are also in
tobacco tars," he pointed out.
Exact Carcinogen Unknown
The carcinogenic (cancer-pro-
ducing) agent in tobacco is known
to be among the tars, although the
exact chemical constituent involv-
ed is as yet unknown.


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