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January 12, 1961 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-01-12

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Opinionsw Are UNDER AUTHORTY OF Bomlr) m CONTROL OF STUDENT PuBLcATIONS
lth Will Prevail" -- --

LIPPMANN:
Quiet
Diplomacy
HERE HAVE BEEN, as every-
one knows, some feelers from
Moscow looking towards a resump-
tion of diplomatic intercourse. For
all practical purposes there has
been none since last May. Mr.
Khrushchev appears to want it to
be thought here that the break
after the U-2 affair was a personal
quarrel with President Eisenhow-
er; this quarrel would automat-
ically be laid aside with the in-
auguration of Mr. Kennedy.
The U-2 quarrel can be laid
aside. But it does not follow that
President Eisenhower's venture in
personal diplomacy can be resum-/
ed. The question now is not how
soon a personal meeting at the
summit can be brought about. The
fiasco last year, which ended in
Paris but did not begin there, has
taught us a lesson. If the kind of
understanding which the world so
badly needs is to become possible,
it cannot be had without far deep-
er study and preparation than
have as yet been given to the
problem. We know now that had
Eisenhower and Khrushchev met
at the summit in May, they would
have been grossly unprepared to
go beyond generalities.
* * *
THIS LABOR OF study and
preparation makesit necessary to
resort to quiet diplomacy and to
stay away from spectacular ac-
tions. Thus last week Mr. Kennedy
denied the report that he was
planning to send a special envoy,
presumably Mr. Averell Harriman,
to Moscow to talk with Mr.
Khrushchev. Obviously, he is quite
aware that this would have mess-
ed up everything. It would have
confirmed Mr. Khrushchev in his
predilection for abnormal' diplo-
matic procedure and in a most
spectacular way it would have
downgraded our Ambassador in
Moscow.
What the Kennedy administra-
tion needs if it is to have time
for study and preparation is to
upgrade the American ambassa-
dor in Moscow and the Soviet
Ambassador in Washiigton. It is
necessary to resume the diplo-
matic intercourse which was sus-
pended last May. But it is unde-
sirable and impossible to go back
to Eisenhower's summitry. It fol-
lows that the two countries must
cultivate the habit of talking to
each other through their Embas-
sies. These can, of course, he sup-
plemented by unofficial meetings
of experts like the ones held re-
cently at Dartmouth and in Mos-
cow.
THE GREAT TASK of quiet di-
plomacy is to work out ways and
means of keeping the critical ques-
tions-Laos; the Congo, Algeria,
Cuba-from reaching the point of
irreparable decision. In these
critical places we are particular-
ly involved in Laos and in Cuba,
and in both places our immediate
objective must be to avoid a sud-
den showdown.
It sounds brave and dashing to
say that we must take the lead
and act decisively to solve the
problems of Laos and of Cuba.
But the fact is that these prob-
lems are in the present state of
the world insoluble. There is no
conceivable way in which Laos,
which has two Communist states
on its frontiers, which is a coun-
try of trackless jungles, can be
made finally secure against infil-
tration and guerrilla fighting. We
cannot seal off Laos from the
Communist states which it touch-
es. And there is no conceivable
wayrin which we can deal with
Castro except to contain him

gradually with the growing col-
laboration of the other American
states. We cannot exorcise the
revolutionary spirit of Fidelism.
BY OPEN DIPLOMACY, which
only too often means loud-
mouthed diplomacy, we can do
little to assuage, indeed much to
exacerbate these crisis. For then
one side or the other has to back
down if there is to be any accom-
modation. But in quiet diplomacy,
there is no loss of face if a coun-
try backs away from an extreme
position which has proved to be
untenable.
For this reason, quiet diplomacy
is for the time being the hope of
the world.
(c) 1961 New York Herald Tribune, Inc.
Change
MANY A YOUNG southerner
who has attended segregated
schools all his life is apt to find
himself in a desegregated class-
room when he goes to college .. .
More than half the South's pub-
lic colleges have desegregated. By
contrast, just over one fourth of
the regions biracial school districts
have desegregated.
Of 199 predominantly white
public colleges, 116 are desegregat-
ed in practice or principle. Of 38
predominantly Negro colleges, 14
are desegregated. This makes 130
desegregated tax-supported col-
leges in a total of 237.
No exact figures are available

"In a Word, Yes"

Problem

Far

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Speaker Policy Draws Comment

To the Editor:
I HAVE been too interested in the
editorial controversy on free-
dom of speech for guest speakers
on the university campus to stand
on the sidelines. As a purely prac-
tical business, I favor letting any
organized and recognized student
group invite anyone to speak on
any subject. But I do not think
that this can be grounded on ab-
stract right. Freedom of speech
no more implies the right to speak
in a particular building, than free-
dom of the press means that a
particular newspaper is obliged to
print my letter. Freedom of speech
no more means the right to insti-
gate crime and violence than free-
dom of religion includes conduct.
ing rites of human sacrifice.
But what is the actual situa-
tion? Is there a "clear and present
danger" of revolution in the
United States? Not one American
in a thousand is a real Commun-
ist, and that small minority are
not distinguished by power,
wealth, intelligence, popularity, or
influence. Sabotage and espionage,
even by , a few, are real dangers.
But oratory is a danger only when
the masses are ready to follow the
agitator. Moreover, of all audi-
ences, the best one to hear an un-
scrupulous demagog is a critical
and educated one-such as a Uni-
versity group. One might almost
say that some agitators are so
false and subversive thatrthey
should be allowed to speak only
on a University campus, where
their assertions will be discounted
and can be refuted!
There are two other practical
reasons for erecting no barriers to
outside speakers. One is that re-
fusal gives the excluded person
more publicity than his actual
speech would do. I have attended
off-campus meetings several times
which attracted large crowds
inainly because the speaker had
not been allowed to speak on the
campus. The other is that student
sympathy is apt to go out to the
underdog. If a student is not al-
lowed to hear someone, he is apt
to ask himself "What is this doc-
trine that is so dangerous that we
must not hear it? Maybe that
Communist really has a case."
Liberty is the safest policy; in the
old proverb the wind could not
blow the man's overcoat away, but
the warm and genial sun induced
him to shed it of his own accord.
-Preston Slosson
Speech Control...
To the Editor:
AFTER READING Mike Gi-
man's editorial, I see why
speech is controlled at Soviet Uni-
versities:
1. Each student has a vested
interest In the Communist system
because he is being supported
either by the Soviet government
or by money made under the Com-
munist system.
2. Thus, they cannot allow ad-
vocates of overthrow to speak lest
a single individual be lost to the
Communist cause and the society
under which they thrive be weaker
to that degree.
While this attitude may be wor-
thy of a monolithic police state, it

before there was an opportunity
for rational consideration of con-
flict views in an attempt to dis-.
cover the right course of action.
Mr. Gillman should read Holmes'
dissent in the Gitlow case (arising
out of the Bolshevik scare of the
20's) in which he explained his
opinion in the Schenck case, from
which the theater example is
taken. He insisted that there must
be a clear and present danger of
violence before political views
could be punished or prevented.
* *. *
THE UNIVERSITY by-law does
not meet Holmes' test. It would re-
quire a low opinion of Michigan
students to believe that merely
hearing a Communist urging class
warfare would straightway cause
them to rise up in violence. A basic
presupposition of democratic gov-
ernment is that the people have
sense enough to govern them-
selves. If someone offers shoddy
merchandise oan the marketplace
of ideas, the people are more likely
to see its faults when measured
against competing ideas than is
any group acting to protect its
vested interests.
We have more to fear from cen-
sors than speakers.
-David Wise, '62L
Tennessee Campaign...
To the Editor:
T AST AUGUST Negroes in Hay-
wood and Fayette counties,
Tennessee, were permitted to re-
gister to vote for the first time.
Shortly afterwards the same Ne-
groes, largely farm tenants and
sharecroppers, were ordered to
vacate their homes. Landowners
insisted that the mass evacuation
of the Negro sharecroppers was a
result of mechanization. Negroes
argued that their two-year cam-
paign for the right to vote was
the direct cause of their eviction.
The displaced Negroes were moved
by the Fayette County Civic and
Welfare League to a tent city
called "Freedom Village," where
they received meager supplies in
the form of food and clothing.
Even since these Negroes have
been allowed to register, banks
have been making heavy loans to
white farmers who have declared
their intentions of mechanizing
their farms, As a result, many
Negroes are now in danger of
losing their jobs. Large landown-
ers have announced their plans to
convert their farms into cattle
ranches so as to further reduce
the need for Negro farm hands.
Since then local merchants have
refused to sell food, clothing, and
other basic commodities to these
Negroes. Other white merchants
have been ordered by various large
companies to curtail their business
with registered Negroes.
** *
SCATTERED STUDENT and
adult groups have initiated "aid
for Fayette" campaigns, but a
solution has been by no means
effected. Helpful as such pro-
visions have been for the growing
Negro community living in their
"Freedom Village," the future de-
mands and needs will continue
to be great. Only through a care-
fully structured campaign will the
necessary supplies be produced

Letters have been sent to cam-
puses and organizations all over
the country urging their support
for this vital issue. The work is
being done largely through stu-
dent governments, political parties
and clubs, church groups, and any
other interested organization.
* * S
We are now asking you, as mem-
ber of both the University and the
Ann Arbor communities, to give
your support to this campaign.
The need seems to be for clothing,'
food (perhaps of the non-perish-
able variety), money for expenses,
and utilities (such as stoves or
f'efrigerators). Large boxes for
contributions will soon be located
at strategic points on campus and
in town, and the supplies will then
be shipped to Tennessee via truck,
which seems to be effective as a
means of drawing attention to
the activity.
We believe that this drive is mo
tivated by a sense of value for
life and a desire to translate such
values into achievable social pro-
grams. Thus, we ask you as in-
dividuals and as organizations to
give your wholehearted support to
the "Tennessee Campaign." We
are hopeful, and even assured,
that you will.
-Carol Cohen, '64
-Roger Seasonwen,'61
Chairman, Tennessee
Campaign
Voice Political Party
HUA C Film...
To the Editor:
SEVERAL DAYS AGO a letter
appeared in The Daily con-
demning the House Committee on
Un-American Activities film of the
San Francisco student riots as be-
ing a fabrication of untruths and
edited so as to distort the events.
This letter, whether wittingly or
unwittingly contributed directly to
the Communist parties' hope of
discrediting a film which exposes
its aims and goals concerning the
students of America. It plans, of
course, to control the students of
America by identifying itself with
the liberals on campuses and then
influencing them. This is what
happened in San Francisco.
This letter played on the theme
that the police had been overly
brutal and stated that the peace-
ful students, had been forced to
leave city hall by policemen and
hose-wielding firemen. To show
that the students were acting in a
peaceful manner the letterquotes
a statement by the Sheriff of San
Francisco to the effect that the
students had been acting peace-
fully at all times.
* S
AS TO THE factualness of the
film itself concerning the Com-
munist domination of the riots,
known communists can be identi-
fied from the films which show'
them leading and inciting the
rioters. The official FBI report,
signedby J. Edgar Hoover, states
bluntly that they were communist
led and inspired. Gus Hall, head
of the communist party in Amer-
ica, states in an official party
document that students, because
of their search for knowledge' and
positions as emerging leaders, are
to be the main .point of attack.

By PRESTON GROVER
Associated Press writer
MOSCOW-An urgent program
to boost farm production to the
level where it can meet the Sov-
iet people's demands for more
and better food evidently will be
presented by Premier Khrushchev
at this week's meeting of the Corn-
muist Party Central Committee.
For the past week Pravda has
been hammering away at man-
agement failings on farm pro-.
jects. Khrushchev himself told
newsmen and diplomats that the
big virgin land operation inKaza-
khstan-scene of two successive
failures to meet crop goals-will
be whipped forward ' again this
year, come what may.
Grain and meat have been the
great Soviet shortages and this
condition was not bettered last
year.
IT IS becoming difficult to buy
some kinds of meat even in top-
level stores. Pravda said in a warn-
ing editorial that there are signs
the 1961 farm program is already
showing neglect.
The Party Central Committee
real management of the Soviet',;
600 members who represent the
Union, meets today to make de-
cisions that will be converted al-
most directly into governmental
decrees.
The main job of this meeting,
announced two months ago, will be
outlining a policy to put agricul-
tural production on the track.
The Soviet Union's industrial
production has maintained a mo-
mentum impressive even to doubt-
ing westerners. But the farm sit-
uation is just as much a headache
for the communist comissars as
it was for the Czars.
* * *
IN 1958, Khrushchev proclaimed
success for his virgin land pro-
ject, in which 50 million ares of
new land were brought under the.l
plow within five years.
But 1958 proved to be only one
fat year with good weather. The
following two years brought har-
vests that were unsatisfactory to
such a degree that Tass now re-
ports a 25-year plan to irrigate
the arid virgin farm lands in
Kazakhstan has been worked out
by Soviet specialists.
Although the Soviet Union is by
no means faced with anything like
famine, the situation has been
further complicated by a disas-
trous crop failure in Communist
China. The Peiping Radio said
the age-old specter of famine
threatens areas of China.
Thus, in a period of China's
greatest political intransigence and
greatest physical need, the Soviet
Union'came up with an unsatis-
factory crop of its own.
s * ,
JUST WHAT new dramatic step
is possible for Khrushchev is hard
to say, for many methods have
been tried.
Khrushchev banished Nikolai
Belyaev, one of his Presidium fa-
vorites, in 1959 for failing to have
a banner year in Kazakhstan
which is east of the Caspian Sea'
in Central Asia.
Again last year the management
there was sacked. Agriculture Min-
ister Vladimir Matskevitch, long
under fire for failures, was sent
to Kazakhstan on a do-or-die
mission to get 1961, production
rolling.
Last year was a repeat of 1959:
Thousands of machinesidle in the
fields for want of drivers or parts
and grain rotting in windrows on'
the ground or covered by snow.
THE VIRGIN land area is not
alone in weak management. Prav-
da cited instances in European
Russia, in the rich Ukraine itself,
where sugar beets and corn were
left unharvested, cattle went hun-
gry in the barns and some animals

died.
Still, this area has added vastly-
to production. The Russians now
claim the Soviet Union exceeds the
United States in milk output. The
fact remains, however, that agri-
culture in general has not kept up
with bigger appetites and more
mouths to feed.
DAILY
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumessno editorial
responsibility. "N o ti c e s should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m. two days preceding
pubication.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 12
General Notices
Academic Costume: Can be rented at
Moe Sport Shop, 711 North University
Ave., Ann Arbor. Orders for Midyear
Graduation Exercises should be placed
immediately.
Doctoral Foreign Language Examina-
tions: The last doctoral foreign lan-
guage reading examinations for this
,mesterwill be given on Ja. sn23.

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