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July 01, 1965 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1965-07-01

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Sev enty-Fifth Year

Cities Need Cabinet Representation



NEws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

U.S. Continues ToSupport
Reactionary Governments

THE RETURN of ex-President and for-
mer Trujillo front-man Joaquin Bala-
guer to the Dominican Republic yester-
day and the announcement -of his candi-
dacy for president of the provisional gov-
ernment is'merely another example of
American intervention in Latin America.
After the assassination of Trujillo,
Balaguer was strongly supported by the
United States (with one of Trujillo's sons)
as president of the new government.
However, a wave of rioting forced the
American government to support the
democratic seven-man Council instead.
Balaguer lived in exile in the U.S. until
his return yesterday.
HE RETURN to the Dominican Repub-
lic, as reported by The New York
Times, was loaded with the heavy drama
usually reserved for an episode of "The
Man from Uncle." Balaguer boarded a se-
cret flight leaving New York, was met at
the airport by an official black limousine
and driven to his house at speeds that
sometimes reached 100 miles per hour.
General Imbert of the military junta
had given the ex-president 72 hours in
the country to visit his dying mother, but
Balaguer obviously thought differently.,
He announced to newsmen that he would
stay for a few weeks and then announced
his candidacy. He may be there much
U.S. support of reactionary govern-
ments and revolutions in Latin America
has a long history. The present Domini-
can junta is one example. The classic
case, however, is the American supplied
and directed invasion of Guatemala in
1954, better known as the "CIA's banana
"The Invisible Government," the cele-
brated work on the .CIA by David Wise
JUDITH WARREN .......................... Co-Editor
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ise of all news dispatches credited to it or otherwise
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and Thomas Ross gives a full description
of the revolt: With prior approval of
President Eisenhower, a coup was orga-
nized against the regime of President Ja-
cobe Arbenz Guzman, which had in-
curred the wrath of the United Fruit
Company for its proposals to nationalize
and distribute land, and had been labelled
"Communist" by the U.S. government.
The revolt was led by Colonel Carlos
Castillo-Armas who had received mili-
tary training for two years at Fort Leav-
enworth, Kansas.
THE INVASION, staged from neighbor-
ing Honduras, was to have been a one-
day operation. Advance bombing of GuaL
temala City was done by CIA P-47's. To
the embarrassment of all concerned, Ar-
mas' troops settled down six miles over
the border from Honduras, and there fol-
lowed 12 uncomfortable days of cloak and
dagger maneuvering by the CIA and
American Ambassador Jack Puerifoy be-
fore Arbenz finally capitulated.
A new two-man junta of more accept-
able character was established, and the
CIA, the American government and Unit-
ed Fruit were satisfied-at least for a
The Dominican situation had all the
necessary components for another Ameri-
can, intervention. Since the exclusion of
Cuba from American sugar markets, the
cane plantations of the Dominican Re-
public had been used to produce the large
stockpiles of sugar, necessary to keep
prices stable and the politically powerful
sugar companies solvent.
The 1963 constitution of Juan Bosch's
democratic government would have sub-
divided these enormous plantations into
small farms for the nation's peasants.
Also in this case, the popular democratic
revolution against the military junta was
labelled "Communist" by the U.S. govern-
WITH A SAFE precedent in Guatemala,
the U.S. felt free again to fight the'
strange form of "war of liberation" that
we have developed in this hemisphere.
Its success has been obvious. Not only
is the Dominican situation clouded be-
yond recognition, but this confusion has
been of tremendous help to the party
most willing to take advantage of 'it-
the U.S.
Now that we have our man down there
in Santo Domingo, the U.S. will be pleased
for a while and may leave the Dominican
Republic alone for another five years.

EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
editorial is reprinted, in part, from
"The Saturday Review,"
ROBERT HERRICK said in the
seventeenth century that great
cities seldom rest; if there be
none to invade from afar, they
will find worse foes at home. We
know those foes today
They are slums, crime, a lack of
playgrounds and parks, overbur-
dened schools, inadequate trans-
portation crowding, lack of clean
air and inequality of opportunity.
It was only 45 years ago that
people in American cities first
began to outnumber people on our
farms. By 1960 only 11 states had
more rural than urban popula-
BUT MOST of these states will
not remain that way very long.
The urban population of North
Dakota, our "most rural" state in
1960, jumped 35 per cent in the
1950's. Alaska's urban population
increased 150 per cent, and three
other states-Arizona, Florida and
Nevada-more than doubled their
urban population.
By 1970 we can expect that
three-fourths of our people will
be living in towns, cities and
suburbs, compared to 70 per cent
in 1960.
Most of our people will be con-
centrated in metropolitan areas.
At the end of 1964, two-thirds of
our population lived in 219 such
areas, an increase from 59 per
cent in 1950. By 1980 that pro-
portion will increase to three-
fourths and by the year 2000 to
patterns of metropolitan growth.
One has been mass migration
from farm to city. One has been
mass migration of Negroes out of
the South-virtually all of it to
central cities.
Another has been mass migra-
tion of middle- and upper-income
people from the core city to the
suburb. And great growth has
come from a higher birthrate and
from longer life expectancy.
This growth has imposed new
and unprecedented burdens on
local government for schools,
housing, streets and highways,
commercial expansion, transit and
welfare programs.
IN THE past ten years, state
and local debt has more than
doubled, while the federal debt
has risen only 15 per cent.
Along with sharp rises in costs
of public services and facilities,
the growth of these urban areas
has also created explosive racial
and economic pressures
The picture is clear: There has
been a shift of middle and higher
income groups into the suburbs,
out of the taxing jurisdiction of
the inner city, while, too many of
the poor and disadvantaged have
remained behind or moved in from
the poorer rural areas.
ALTHOUGH the suburbs have
provided cheaper laypd and lower-
cost housing for many middle-
income families, as well as for
the more prosperous, they have
been populated largely by those
able to afford better housing.
Those at or near the poverty
level have remained concentrated
in the slums and poorer sections
of the central city. Faced with
deterioration and decay, thein-
ner city has found itself with
greater tasks to undertake and

with fewer ready sources of
At the same time, the suburban-
ites have had their hands full
creating public facilities and serv-
ices in communities that were
open grass fields a few years ago.
BEHIND the statistics and pop-
ulation patterns have been thou-
sands of personal -and community
tragedies, many of them created
by those of good intention.
There are the impersonal hous-
ing projects that in many cases
have displaced families and de-
stroyed the traditional fabric of
neighborhood life.
There are the freeways that
have torn through people's homes
and businesses, cut through park-
land, and done no more than add
to the noise in our streets and
poison our air.
There are the shortsighted zon-,
ing decisions that have blighted
neighborhoods and reduced prop-
erty values.
BECAUSE of these discouraging
experiences, it would be easy to
say that many of our metropoli-
tan problems stem from apathetic
or inept local government.
In a few places this is true. But
in most it is not.
One of the major difficulties is
that no one federal department or
agency has had either authority
or responsibility to work with
mayors and county officials in
areas where they need most help.
IN 1963 the advisory Commis-
sion on Intergovernmental Rela-
tions identified over 40 seperate
programs of aid for urban de-
velopment, administered by some
13 federal departments and agen-
Small wonder that the commit-
tee reported that "the effect of
inconsistencies is felt most keenly
in urban areas where programs of
all kinds at all levels of govern-
ment most frequently come to-
It cited particularly inconsis-
tency and conflict between poli-
cies, or lack of them, in relocating
people displaced by public activi-
WHILE a community plans for
the relocation of people displaced
from a renewal area, not infre-
quently still another public proj-
ect, undertaken with federal help,
displaces additional numbers with
no rehousing plan-and may even
eliminate some of the housing
urgently needed to meet the prob-
Jetairports may be announced
in residential growth areas, driv-



-Associated Press
WITH BOOMING URBAN POPULATIONS, problems, of equal economic opportunity, fair housing,
slum clearance and crime arise to plague citizens. Often the frustrations of urban inhabitants find out-

lets in pickets and riots, as shown a
ing down values of homes financed
with federal mortgage insurance
A right-of-way for a federally
aided highway may be purchased,
cutting through an area that an-
other agency is seeking to acquire
and preserve as public parkland.
One test.of democratic govern-
ment is its ability to respond
rapidly to changing conditions.
In 1953 the Department of
Health, Education and Welfare
was created to provide top-level
federal policy and direction in
meeting the human and social
needs of our citizens.
HEW TREATS, to a large de-
gree, the symptoms of urban dis-
But until recently there has
been no similar recognition of the
need for a top-level federal de-
partment to help meet the physi-
cal and environmental problems

of the metropolis-in many cases
the causes of urban disease.
The needs of our urban areas
have not diminished; they have
become more pressing President
Johnson's proposal for a Depart-
ment of Housing and Urban De-
velopment must be considered.
THE PRESIDENT seeks from
Congress the authority to bring
good management to federal re-
sponsibilities in our metropolitan
He asks for coordinated direc-
tion for these activities by a single
government department. And he
asked for a place at the Cabinet
table for the head of that de-
The bill itself says in part that
the Department of Housing and
Urban Development shall under-
take "maximum coordination of
the various federal activities which
have a major effect upon urban,

suburban or metropolitan develop-
ment," and "the solution of prob-
lems of housing ,and urban de-
velopment through state, county,
town village or other local and
private action, including promo-
tion of interstate, regional and
metropolitan cooperation."
ARE OUR metropolitan areas
important enough to merit top-
level consideration in the federal
The answer is certainly yes.
We have long since given Cab-
inet status to our national con-
cern for our natural resources, our
agriculture, our trade and com-
merce, our labor force and the
social health and educational
needs of our citizens.
SURELY our cities and metro-
politan areas-where three-q1ar-
ters of us live-are worthy of the
same attention.

UN Can't Keep Peace--wIt Never Existed

be reminded today of the high
hopes of f945 when the United
Nations was founded.
It is even more depressing to
listen to the self-righteousness of
the great powers, to hear their.
representatives talking as if they
alone were innocent and that the
whole blame for the failure should
be Put upon their rivals and ad-
Nothing discloses so sharply the
root of the trouble as does this
display ofself-righteousdnation-

Pgblihed dally Tiea4ay th'uugh PatUrday morning. -CHARLOTTE A. WOLTER


14 ~WAY

Three Cents Worth
Of Entertainment
At Lydia Menfelssohn Theatre
BERTOLD BRECHT and Kurt Weill intended "The Threepenny
Opera" to be a travesty on middle class ethics, professional and
economic. Wednesday evening's performance of the "Opera" by the
University Players was a travesty on middle class theatrics, especially
in the areas of staging and acting.
Brecht preferred to remind his audience that they were in a
theatre. In his non-musical endeavors he accomplished this "aliena-
tion" effect with flat characterizations, moralizing monologues, and
obvious theatrics. But plays with singing, dancing, overtures and
entra'acts need none of these effects to awaken their viewers from' a
"deep involvement" in the reality of a playwright's fantasy. The
musical's fantasy is acceptable and admitted.
Although some of the "alienation" effects contained in the orig-
inal version of the opera were, thankfully, missing last night, some
annoying attempts at obvious, alienation were retained. Their only
effect was to alienate the audience. Clumsy blocking caused craning
of necks; scenery, combining theworst of half a dozen styles, wearied
the eyes and cause embarrassment when twelve actors were caught on
a staircase, lined up, one behind the other in a clumsy entrance.
THE AMATEUR ACTING was weakly led by Roger Wertenberger
as Mack the Knife. Instead of walking with the stealth of a cat burgler,
Wertenberger slid about as if he had ball-bearings on the bottom of
his feet and was not quite in control of their direction. It was impos-
sible to believe for three minutes that this innocuous Mack could be
a full-time Don Juan and part-time arsonist, rapist, second-story man
and murderer.

not be blamed for the disorder
which the great powers have fail-
ed to prevent, which indeed the
great powers by their unilateral
action have provoked.
What happened 20 years ago
was like a big wedding celebra-
tion in which solemn vows were
exchanged and everyone felt that
the bride and groom would live
happily ever after.
Now, 20 years later, while they
have not murdered each other or
evengbeen divorced, they are not
living happily together. Is that
the fault of the institution of
marriage, or is it the fault of the
man and the fault of the woman?,
SO IT IS with the institution
of the United Nations which is a
covenant of the nations that they
will turn over a new leaf and be-
have better than they are accus-
tomed to behave. The old Adam
has prevailed.
They have not turned over a
new leaf in Budapest and Suez, in
Korea and Kahsmir, in Viet Nam
and Santo Domingo.
In such places as these' the
world order has been shaken, as
U Thant put it in his noble ad-
dress last Saturday, by "power
politics, whether as the instru-
ment of nationalism or of ideo-
logical extremism."
THE SPECIFIC failure of the
United Nations has been in those
conflicts where the great powers,
particularly the great nuclear
powers, have opposed each other.
This would not have surprised
the authors of thehcharter, par-
ticularly those among them who
have learned the lessons of the
old League of Nations.
They did not want to burden
the new organization with the
making of the peace, and they
wrote into the charter(Article
106) the reservation that prob-
lems arising from the second
world war were outside the juris-
diction of the United Nations and
were reserved for the four allied
THE REASON why the United

tain, the Netherlands and France.
THERE HAS been until recent-
ly significant progress in building
the foundations of a settled order
in Europe.
During the last year of John
Kennedy's life there began a
"precarious detente," as U Thant
said, "between East and West."
This detente is threatened by
the war in Viet Nam and the
threat of a still larger and more
savage war in which the belliger-
ents are no longer able to measure
and limit their violence.
powerful interest in bringing the
Vietnamese war to an end. But it
cannot act decisively.

cannot act decisively. (c) 1965, The Washington Post Qo.


For the issue of that war lies
between China, which is excluded
from the United Nations, and the
United States, which has worked
undefatigably and successfully to
exclude China.
The paramount task of the
United Nations is to survive the
conflict which it could not pre-
vent and cannot settle.
Somehow and in some way,
which none of us can now foresee,
the Vietnamese war will stop
short of its becoming the third
world war.
AND WHEN that happens, the
United Nations will be needed to
bind up the wounds of the
(c)1965, The Washington.Post Co

Beauty, Suspense
Brighten Double Bill
At the Campus Theatre
"PURPLE NOON" IS as exciting and exasperating a mystery as it
is a well-done film.
This Rene Clement thriller belongs generically to the Alfred Hitch-
cock brand of cliffhanger which just about destroys the audience.
You know the type I mean-the perfectly executed crime early in
the film, the incredible complications and many narrow escapes from
ALAIN DELON with his wonderfully sensitive, expressive face
carries the bulk of the acting in the film. He's a versatile performer
(and I simply must interject an irrelevant, non-critic type opinion-
he's probably the most attractive man ever seen in the movies)
According to The Daily ad for the second feature on this double
bill it is "the season's most argued about film." "Mondo Cane" is def-
initely this. I've been arguing about it since it first came to Ann Arbor
over a year ago.
IT IS ONE of the worse movies I've ever seen. It shows blood, vio-
lence, hate, ugliness, and man's inhumanity to man and beast. And
these things are on screen for no purpose.
Freedom of expression for movie makers is justified on the premise
that art needs liberty in order to make its point. But, as always liberty
does not mean license. Trashy sex films are prohibited because they
exploit people's sexual drives for the purpose of making money.
But, the academic community, intellectuals, and serious moviegoers
wxill aAlla,, fto..a ha.innaAPC n fih. fr1 .fr.Ptn cnary.+i w an'n rw





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