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March 08, 1967 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1967-03-08

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Plag ues




EDITOR'S NOTE: Thirty-one Af-
rican nations have wno independ-
ence in the last 10 years, but in the
words of one leader, "Africa is a
mess." The new countries are plag-
ued by coups, financial ills, blood-
shed, high birth rates and slow
growth. Still, Africa inches forward.
ACCRA, Ghana (MP)-The scene
was fresh 10 years ago, but it has
become familiar through repeti-
In the flare of a spotlight, the
Union Jack hung limply in the
African night air. Precisely at
midnight, the light went out.
Down came the British flag in
darkness. The spotlight snapped
on, and atop the pole was a red,
yellow and green tricolor with a
single black star.
Ghana was free.
The' West African country,
achieved independence March 6,
1957,'a decade ago Monday. Ghana

was the first country south of the
Sahara to win independence since
Liberia proclaimed itself to an
indifferent world in 1847. The
Ghanaian flag fluttered in what
British Prime Minister Harold
Macmillan later called the "wind
of change."
The new Ghanian prime min-
ister, Kwame Nkrumah, first of his
race among British Common-
wealth heads of state, that mid-
night told the happy new Gha-
'There is a new African in the
world . . . ready to fight his own
battle and show that, after all, the
black man is capable of managing
his own affairs."
A decade later, African leaders
are less sanguine.
"Africa is a mess," Tanzanian
President Julius Nyerere said last
November after a meeting of the

Organization of African Unity. "A
devil is loose in Africa."
Since Ghana's independence,
colonial flags have. fluttered down
in 31 African countries. The con-
tinent now is a troubled jigsaw of
39 independencies. It has been
plagued by military coups and fi-
nancial exhaustion.
No one could agree more with
Nyegere than Nkrumah Ghana's
first prime minister and later its
first president. He sits in uneasy
exile in Conakry, Guinea. His
former subjects in Ghana spent
more time and money Feb. 24 cele-
brating the first anniversary of his
downfall than they will in marking
the first decade of their independ-
ence Monday.
That decade has produced in-
dependent nations unsure of both
independence and nationality. In
Nigeria, the country with the

largest population in Africa, ap-
peals of Ibo, Hausa and Yoruba
tribesmen seem stronger than that
of Nigerian nationality. Nigeria
struggles fitfully to keep its six-
year-old country intact.
The Congo, independent politi-
cally of Belgium since June 30,
1960, has had six bloodied years
of fighting.
Most countries complain of the
same problems. Col. A. A. Africa,
one of the officers who ousted the
Nkrumah regime, said that after
10 years of independence 85 per
cent of Ghana's distributive trade
was in the hands of foreigners.
Liberia is planning restrictive
measures against Lebanese traders
in an effort to get Liberians into
But both countries are deeply in
debt, and their economies are
being carefully controlled by out-

side forces, such as the Interna-
tional Monetary Fund or the for-
mer colonial master.
Dahomey has been independent
since 1960. In exchange for
French support of its currency, it
is allowed to spend just $7 mil-
lion for hard currency purchases
outside the franc zone.
Education is considered a chan-
nel to great independence. But
secondary schoolboys in Nigeria
and Kenya still study more about
the British constitution than they
do about the structure of their
own government.
Ministers of education in former
French colonies still are trying to
figure out ways to insert more
knowledge of Africa in school sys-
tems that are geared to the re-
quirements of metropolitan France.
African scholars in Lome, capital
of Togo, or Bangui, main city of

the Central African Republic, must
take courses of study identical to
those youngsters study in Paris.
The U.S. mission in Dahomey
received from a top secondary
school in the ancient town of
Porto Novo a request for tape rec-
orders as English language train-
ing aids. The mission agreed to
supply them if spoken English be-
came part of the regular curri-
culum on which students were
tested. The request did not con-
form to the French-supplied syl-
labus. The offer was refused.
Some evidence shows Africa
actually falling behind during the
60s, which United Nations Secre-
tary-General U Thant has pro-
claimed the "decade of develop-
In the first five year of the dec-
ade, the real gross national pro-
duct of emerging African coun-

tries rose an annual average of 4
per cent. The rise in developed
countries was nearly 5 per cent.
Widening the gap further was
the difference in birth rates in
Africa, the annual population in-
crease over the same period was
a little more than 2 per cent. In
developed countries it was 1 per
Africa's population is growing
twice as fast as the developed;
world's; at the same time, its eco-
nomy is trailing.
Prime Minister Dauda K. Ja-
wara of the tiny country of Gam-
bia has suggested that coups and
other signs of instability should
bring increased aid to Africa from
Western donors. There are signs,
however, that the world is grow-
ing slightly bored with African
The United States, Britain,

France, West Germany, even the
Soviet Union, are cutting back aid
programs in Africa. The Western
nations speak of the need for more
aid on a regional basis, through
international organizations-in a
sense, aid cartels designed to re-
duce competition among donors.
In the United States, men of
such varied political complexion
as Sen. J. William Fulbright, (D-
Ark), and Senate minority leader
Everett Dirksen of Illinois, are
questioning U.S. bilateral help to
Before he became West Ger-
many's foreign minister, Willy
Brandt, noticed that restlessness
of the German voter about aid to
African countries. If he were the
head of a radical party trying to
catch votes, he said, campaigning
against foreign aid would head his

.Auto Factory
Stage Strike
Mansfield Walkout
U authorized; UAW
Demands Explanation
MANSFIELD, Ohio (P) -Auto
workers whose walkout last month
led to shutdowns and layoffs at
86 General Motors plants left their
jobs again yesterday at a strategic
body parts plant.
Less than a third of the 900-
man second shift was believed to
have reported to the plant that
was idled when first-shift workers
refused to cross early morning
picket lines.
Officials and shop committee
members of United Auto Workers
Local 549 were ordered to Detroit
to tell national union leaders why
they didn't obey UAW orders to
end the walkout.
Limited production was restored
inside the plant, which makes
fenders, floors and other parts for
90 per cent of GM autos, with
abut 250 men at work after pickets
were removed.
Both Robert Hall, president of
Local 549,: and company officials
said yesterday's walkout was un-
authorized. Hall had planned three
meetings with members Wednes-
day, to discuss progress of talks
since the February walkout but
these were canceled after the call
to Detroit.
In Detroit, the United Auto
Workers called an emergency
meeting- of its National General
Motors Council for 2 p.m. tomor-
row to discuss the new dispute,
which was apparently triggered
by rumors that five men suspend-
ed in the last walkout were to be
Company and union officials in
Detroit and Mansfield were saying
little about the central issue of
"farming out" work to other
plants. The issue is expected to be
a major matter in the next round
of GM contract talks.
Pickets left their posts yester-
day morning after keeping some
night workers and the morning
shift from entering the plant.
February Walkout
The February walkout was the
most serious in the plant's 10-year
history and the first work stop-
page here not linked to national
contract talks.
The strike, was triggered when
two workers refused to load dies
bound for Pontiac, Mich., and
were suspended.
Within a week, 86 plants were
closed for lack of parts. Some re-
main below full production.

Prison Tern,, Chou En-lai's Efforts Cause
Vows Retrial' Temporary Halt to Party Strife

--Associated Press
Secretary of State Dean Rusk, left, and U.N. Ambassador Arthur Goldberg, right, appeared yesterday
before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to discuss the outer space treaty. Goldberg, return-
ing from a far eastern trip Monday night, also commented on the Vietnam war saying the road to
peace appears "rocky and difficult."
Propo sed'Income TaxRise
Depends on Bsiness Activity

Plans To Keep Post
As Teamster Boss;
Will Give Up Salary
WASHINGTON (P)-Defiant but
shaken, Teamsters Union Presi-
dent James R. Hoffa was taken
to federal prison yesterday to start
serving his eight-year sentence
for jury tampering.
Later, squeezed between twoI
U.S. marshals in the back of a
car, the 54-year-old labor leader
made a spitting gesture toward
some newsmen as he was sped off.
He took a long, hard, neckcraning
look as the car passed the big
Teamsters headquarters- where he
ruled the roost for 10 years.
International Union
"I say to my members, 1.8-mil-}
lion strong, that this international
union will never, never be a weak
international union," said Hoffa,
who will retain his union offices
but will give up his $100-000-a-
year salary. An old Detroit asso-
ciate, General Vice President
Frank Ftzsimmons, will run
things for him.
"I appeal to each and every
member who belongs to all of or-
ganized labor, remember this-
none of the courts, none of the
legislators understand ' your prob-
lems," Hoffa said. "Only you who
work for a living by your hands,
have to maintain a living by the
sweat of your brow and the pay-
check which you take home, un-
derstand this."
Aims for New Trial
In the brief interview on the
steps of the U.S. courthouse be-
fore surrendering, Hoffa said he
still believed his attorneys even-
tually will win him a new trial on
his 1964 conviction in Chatta-
nooga, Tenn.
"My attorneys will carry on all
the necessary steps while I am in
jail," he said.
He could be eligible for parole
in two years and nine months,
long before his term as Teamsters
president runs out in 1971.
"All the motions I filed stated
that the government wiretapped,
room-bugged, surveiled and did
everything unconstitutional they
could do in trying to place me in
jail as they have temporarily been
sable to do," he said.

TOKYO (W) - Mao Tse-tung's
struggle for power has slowed down
and taken a deep breath. The
Communist party chairman may
be trying to regroup on new lines.
Evidence of this turn of events
in Mao's conflict with supporters
of President Liu Shao-chi has ac-
cumulated out of Red China in
the past ten days. "Mr. Fixit," Pre-
mier Chou En-lat, is the man to
keep an eye on in this new stage,
Everything new suggests that
Chou has a heavy thumb in all
three of the most important Chi-
nese pies-party, administrative
and army.
The latest indication that Mao's
revolution has rounded a corner
appeared in a New China News
Agency dispatch from the Shan-
tung port city of Tsingtao--acity
and a province Maoists say they
have seized but where trouble still
The agency said the Tsingtao
Revolutionary Committee, which
took over Jan. 22, has called for
To Oppose
Adam Powmel
NEW YORK (') - James Mere-
dith, who broke the color line at
the University of Mississippi, was
I named by the Republicans yester-
day to oppose Adam Clayton Pow-
ell in a special Harlem congres-
sional election next month. Mere-
dith said he would accept.
"No one has an automatic
right to a seat in Congress," said
Meredith, in accepting designa-
tion by the GOP executive com-
mittee. Confirmation is expected
from committeemen in the 18th
Congressional District.
Meredith, who said he was op-
posed to Powell's ouster from Con-
gress, said he was aware that in
opposing the Negro Democrat he
might lay himself open to "the
fear and the scorn from fellow
Powell's lawyers said he will
make no attempt to block the spe-
cial election April 11.

a new kind of alliance of Maoists,
one based on various fields, trades,
units and departments.
T h e Tsingtao Revolutionary
Committeekdescribes the present
as "this key moment when the
current great cultural revolution
is going deeper." There have been
other assertions in the past week
that the Mao purge has entered'a
critical stage and that the next
two months will be decisive.
The man presumably behind
most of this is Chou.

Space Pact May Further
U.S.-Sovijet Cooperation

He is credited with having or-
dered the army into the fields,
with approval of the party Central
Committee, to help in the spring
There has been a pei'ceptible
halt in the past two weeks in the
violence of the Mao purge, thanks
--it is said in Peking-to Chou
who lost his temper over the way
Maoists were harassing his min-

WASHINGTON (P) - Secretary
of State Dean Rusk told senators
yesterday the outer space treaty
"augurs well for the possibility of
finding areas of common interest
and agreement with the Soviet
Union on other significant issues."
He assured the Senate Foreign
Relations.Committee, in urging ra-
tification of the pact, that the
United States could detect any
military use of space.
Common Interests.
"We have no doubt that we can
monitor effectively a weapons sys-
tem in outer space," Rusk said.
He said the treaty, like the ant-
arctic treaty and the limited test
ban Treaty, is another example
"of a congruence of common in-
terests among the United States,
the Soviet Union and many other
It was negotiated in the United
Nations. Rusk and U.N. Ambassa-
dor Arthur J. Goldberg testified
for it at the committee's first
public hearing on the measure de-
signed to preserve space for peace-
ful purposes.
Rusk said it may not be inevi-
table, but it is possible and "our
earnest desire" to "continue to ex-
plore with the Soviet Union and
others additional ways-of reducing
the danger of conflict and pro-

moting 'stability and security in
the world."
Vietnam was not mentioned ex-
cept at the end when committee
Chairman J. W. ' Fulbright, D-
Ark., asked Rusk about reported
discussion of the use of Latin-
American troops in Vietnam.
Rusk said he knew of no such
discussions and felt it "unlikely"
there are any plans to send troops
from Latin America.
But as for treaties, Rusk said
the United States is "working
hard" on one to prevent the fur-
ther spread of nuclear weapons
and "should like co make progress"
on an agreement with the Soviet
Union "to limit the prospective
race in offensive and defensive
Fulbright said the administra-
tion had requested Secretary of
Defense Robert S. McNamara,
Joint Chiefs of -Staff Chairman
Earle G. Wheeler, and National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration head James E. Webb to
testify on the outer space treaty
next week.
Sen. Bourke B. Hickenlooper, R-
Iowa, questioned Rusk and Gold-
berg about military launchings.
The treaty would provide for
inspection of facilities on the
moon,, but not vehicles in orbit.

that President Johnson might
drop his proposal for a raise in
income taxes if business doesn't
perk up brought quick concur-
rence from Congress yesterday,
that the boost is certainly not a'
sure thing.
That was the way the situation
was described by Chairman Arthurj
D. Mills, D-Ark., of the House'
Ways and Means Committee. All
tax legislation must originate with
this group and Mills said it has
not even set a date for hearings.
No Legislation
Mills observed that Johnson
proposed a temporary 6 per cent
surcharge, effective July 1, but
that the President has never sent
up the specific legislation.
"It would be premature for the
committee to put this proposal on
its agenda," Mills said, adding
that even if an administration bill
were before it, the tax panel
would want to study the economy
at length before deciding it.
There appeared no prospect that
hearings, if held at all, would be-
gin before June, practically rul-

ing out enactment by July 1, al-
though the tax could be made re-
Economic Pickup
Policy advisers within the ad-
ministration, while sticking by the
forecast that a tax rise apparently
will be needed to hold down defi-
cits and ward off inflation, said
the proposal might be withdrawn
or modified if the expected econo-
mic pickup is not in sight by April
or May.
A possible modification could be
a later effective date-Sept. 1, or
even next Jan. 1, instead of July 1.
Republicans, who have insisted
it would be better to reduce defi-
cits by spending cuts than by tax

increases, tended to take the ad-
ministration sources' assessment
as strengthening their position.
Context of Doubt
"The whole matter of tax in-
crease was put out in a context of
doubt by the President originally,"
said Rep. W. Byrnes of Wisconsin,
senior Republican member of the
Ways and Means Committee.
"Now it appears that the doubt
has greatly increased."
Another Republican committee-
man, Rep. Thomas B. Curtis of
Missouri, remarked, "some of the
economic indicators are really bad.
There have been economists who
suggested a recession has already
begun, and they may be right."

U.S. First Cavalry Battles
Viet Cong Near Binh Dinh


WorldNews Roundup

SAIGON (P)-A company of the
U.S. 1st Cavalry, Airmobile Divi-
sion, reacting to heavy automatic
weapons fire, battled all day yes-,
terday against a Viet Cong force
estimated to be of similar size,
about 180 men.
Hammered by Jet planes and
artillery, the enemy broke away
at nightfall. A preliminary report
from the battle site, near the cen-
tral coast in Binh Dinh Province
260 miles northeast of Saigon,
said seven Amtricans and 50 Viet
Cong were killed. Seventeen Amer-,
icans were wounded.
Farther north U.S. Marines I

rounded out their second year in
Vietnam with counterfire against
Communists who are still trying to
knock out with mortars the long-
range 175mm American guns at
Camp Carrol that shell North
Vietnamese targets across the de-
militarized zone.
A U.S. spokesman said 500 ene-
my shells, lobbed over in three at-
tacks, killed six Marines and
wounded 15, but did not damage
the guns. The counterfire was re-
ported to have set off a secondary
explosion, perhaps from ammu-
nition, in the hills from which the
Communists were firing.

208 W. Huron
Must be 21 years of age

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON - Senate and
House conferees reached a com-
promise yesterday on a bill that
would authorize $4.5 billion for
more aircraft, missiles and related
activities for fighting forces in
House conferees accepted a Se-
nate rider urging a negotiated set-
tlement with minor modifications
in its language.
Senate conferees agreed to a
House addition of $81 million for
more EA6A Grumman Intruder
aircraft used in Vietnam.
The final total is $4,548,200,000,
slightly more than a third of the
$12.2 billion President Johnson re-

quested for the current fiscal year.
JAIPUR, India - Army units
were alerted and a battalion of
armed police from neighboring
Madhya Pradesh state rushed into
this desert city yesterday as poli-
tical rioting and arson erupted for
the third straight day.
The rioting and disorders have
grown out of opposition political
parties' protests against a call by
the Rajasthan state governor for
the Congress party to form a new
state government. Congress lost
its majority in last month's eleo-
tion, but remained the, largest
single party in the state assembly.


~ .
Admittance will be denied to all under 18 years of age.
EVES.- 8:30 P. M. $5.50 i
MAT.-w. .o, NAMF
2:30 P M. $4.00 ADEI
Send cheeck o oe re aal othINARwt tmel
i sett-addressd env~ope.I
L.--------------- - -. .





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The Poet & Judge-in-residence
1416 Ann A .kn. :.I.m Cscfi

Don Gilhls Quartet

Screenings at 7 and 9





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