TUESDAY JANUARY 24, 1967
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TUESDAY JANUARY 24, 1967 THE MICHIGAN DAILY Y~ A a'. ~
EDITOR'S NOTE: What is going
on in China and what is the out-
look? William L. Ryan, an AP spe-
cialist on Communist affairs, seeks
to answer these and other ques-
tions in ta series of five articles
this week, of 'which this is the
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
AP Special Correspondent
The 400-year-old ghost of Hai
Jui returned to haunt Mao Tse-
tung and frightened him into
launching the gigantic struggle
that grips Communist China to-
The confusing and dangerous
upheaval is traced by Chinese in
the West to June 1959, and the
publication of an essay called
"Hal Jui's Scolding of the Em-
peror," made into a play two years
later with the title of "Hai Jui's
When the essay and play ap-
peared, says Dr. C. Y. Cheng, head
of the University's Department of
Trouble Traced to SymbolicAnti-IaoPlay
Chinese Studies, every Chinese in-"
tellectual and many nonintellec-
tuals immediately recognized the
Hai Jui, in the Chinese Mind,
stands for righteousness and just-
ice. In this case, he stood for Peng
Teh-huai, whom Mao dismissed as
defense minister because Peng op-
posed the "great leap forward"
launched in March 1958.
The "leap" was supposed to
transform China within three
years into a mighty economic
power-by regimenting the half-
billion peasants in "people's com-
munes" and by putting urban
workers into military of red
smelters. The "leap" was headed
for debacle even in its early
The work was a protest against
Mao. Even as far back as 1958,
the big struggle had begun. Mao's
position had been considerably
weakened late that year by op-
position to his policies. His op-
ponents included his old comrade-
in-arms, long an heir apparent,
It now develops, from what is
being disclosed in the internal
propaganda war in Peking, that
Mao was shoved aside as chair-
man of government, the equiva-
lent of president, and retained
only his party chairmanship. Liu
took the presidency. Today's Red
Guards wall newspapers claim
Mao left the job against his will.
Dr. Chetig says that probably is
This is not the first power
struggle in China, nor by any
means the first big purge. There
have been purges every few years.
The first important convulsion
camse in 1954: the Kao-Jao purge.
Kao Kang was a powerful man.
Party secretary and boss of in-
dustrial Manchuria, he had vaul-
ting ambitions. With his ally, Jao
Shu-shih, he built a political ma-
chine and began to make demands.
He had his' eye on nothing less
than party secretary-general or
else Chou Enlai's premiership.
Chou, Liu and General Secre-
tary Teng Hsiao-ping ganged up
on Kao. They had him named
chairman of a state planning com-
mission and his ally. Jao, a func-
tioary in the Central Committee.
This separated the two and broke
up the combine.
Mao-as he would several times
in deep crisis later on- disappear-
ed from view in Peking and there
was speculation abroad that he
was ill. He wasn't. He was hiding
out in Shanghai, waiting for the
dust to clear in Peking. Mean-
while, his supporters in the Cen-
tral Committee accused Kao and
Jao of activities against the Com-
munist party, and expelled them.'
Kao committed suicide. Jao went
Mao's-worries about his leader-
ship led him in 1957 to the "hun-
dred flowers" experiment.
"Let a hundred flowers bloom,
let a thousand schools of thought
contend," he proclaimed, suggest-
ing that criticism was welcome.
The alleged "rightists" who had
from intellectuals who spoke up
against Mao's policies. The flow-
ers didn't bloom for long,
The opposition had thrust out
its neck. Mao suddenly announced
a new "rectification" campaign.
The aleged "rightists" who had
been discontent found themselves
purged and out of jobs.
China now was entering a crit-
ical period in its relations with
the Soviet Union. Khrushchev, in
October 1957, had promised Mao
a prototype sample of the atom,
bomb and data on how to manu-
facture it. But he dragged his feet.
In November 1957, Mao and
Marshal Peng, his defense min-
ister, traveled to Moscow to prod
Khurshchev. It became clear the
Soviet chief had changed his
mind. Mao was furious.
Defense Minister Peng, who had
loyally supported Mao at critical
moments, evidently opposed the
idea of getting into a verbal Don-
nybrook with the Russians. As a
professional soldier, he saw the
U.S.S.R. as the only source of
wherewithal for China's ascent
to the status of major world
As Hai Jui had challenged the
emperor 400 years before, now
Peng challenged the master of the
party. Mao, despite other differ-
ences with members of his Polit-
buro, still had plenty of authority.
He turned for help to the satur-
nine military strategist, Marshal
Lin Piao. In April 1959, 'Mao fired
Peng as defense minister and ap-
pointed Lin in his place. Lin even-
tually would become Mao's favor-
ite, the chief evangelist of "Mao
But a new phase, which began
in 1961, was even more serious.
Now two camps were forming, and
the republication of the essay as
a drama was, in effect, a demand
that Marshal Peng be reinstated
as defense minister.
Essayist Wu Han, with the pro-
tection of his chief, Peng Chen,
and the Peking city -party com-
mittee, produced the play which
presented Hal Jui-and thus Peng
Teh-huai-as the one who "re-
dressed the grievances of the peo-
Implicitly, the play was an in-
dictment of Mao and praise for
those purged for opposing him. By
now, it seemed likely that Pres-
ident Liu and Peking's Mayor
Peng Chen were allies. They
seemed to have firm control of the
party apparatus, the party-dom-
inated trade unions of which Liu
had been an architect, and the
eight-million-strong Young Com-
munist League, which Peng had
built and directed over the years.
A rival group appeared to be
headed by Premier Chou, Chen Yi,
vice premier and foreign min-
ister, and their government ap-
paratus. From all appearances, the
party general secretary, Teng
Hsiao-ping, tried to stay neutral.
At this stage, Lin Piao appeared
a balancing force in the middle.
For two years, there seemed to
be an uneasy truce between the
two contending camps.
Then the dam broke.
Next: A look backward.
Rusk Asks SPECIAL MESSAGE:
Approval of Johnson Proposes Increase
New Treaty In Social Security Payments
Seizes Control of Suburb
Chinese Wall Posters
Say Rebels Gathering
Forces. in Manchuria
,,TOKYO (m) - Chairman Mao
Tse-tung's leadership was report-
ed yesterday to have- called the
army into action for the first time
to stamp out growing rebellion. As
a first act, soldiers were said to
have seized control of Fangshan,
a rebellious suburb of Peking.
But Japanese press reports said
wall posters told of- "reactionaries"
assembling 60,000 in Manchuria to
fight pro-Mao forces converging
on the Manchurian industrial city
of Changchun; These accounts
sgid 40 Maoists were injured in
clashes with workers and students
Chinese arriving in Hong Kong
from Canton said Mao's opponents
were collecting weapons and form-
ing an army of peasants and work-
ers in Kwangtung Province, fol-
lowing reports of the success of
a similar army in neighboring
Wall posters said clashes oc-
curred in Fangshan over the week-
end and in Tientsin, 100 miles
southeast of Peking, and Paoting,
80 miles southwest of the Red
In an effort to divest President
Liu Shao-chi and his anti-Mao
backers of any semblance of con-
trol in Peking, other wall posters
announced creation of a govern-
ment of workers, peasants, sol-
diers, students and teachers in the
Japanese correspondents said
wall posters announced that Pre-
mier Chou En-lai in an address
at a rally announced the calling
up. of the, army to suppress op-
position to Mao's proletarian cul-
tural revolution, as the current
purge in Red China's power strug-
gle is called.
"The people's liberation army is
the most important tool of the
dictatorship of the' proletariat,"
Chou said. "It will resolutely sup-
press the handful of counter-revo-
lutionary elements who are trying
to destroy the great proletarian
Bulletins by the militant teen-
age Red Guards said soldiers then
moved into Fangshan and seized
control of the Communist party's
county headquarters and the sec-
14A handful of counterrevolu-
tionary elements clinging to the
bourgeois reactionary line arrested
several hundred revolutionaries
and subjected themto Fascist tor-
ture," the wall poster said.
China watchers in Hong Kong
said, however, that the "army"
supposedly being formed against
Mao in the southern province of
Kwangtung probably was no more
than a group armed with clubs
and weapons fashioned from farm
and factory tools.
MEET WITH THOMPSON
Soviets Say Viet War Blocks
Improved Relations with U.S.
MOSCOW (W)-President Nikolai
V. Podgorny told the new U.S.
ambassador, Llewellyn E. Thomp-
son, yesterday that Vietnam
stands -in the way of improving
It was Thompson's first meeting
with the Soviet leader since his
arrival here Jan. 11. He presented
his credentials as successor to Foy
D. Kohler, who returned to Wash-
ington to become the No. 4 man
in the State Department.
'The new ambassador said Pres-
ident Johnson had instructed him
to tell the Soviet president that
Johnson is ready to cooperate
on problems facing the two na-
Depends on U.S.
"It depends upon the policy
of the United States whether this
proves possible," Podgorny re-
The Soviet president accused
the United States of causing a
"serious deterioration of the inter-
national situation" with its in-
volvement in Vietnam.
He said this involvement rep-
resents a "flouting" of what he
called the "indivisibility of peace"
Baker Testifies Johnson
and disrespect for the sovereign
rights of a people.
"The speediest ending of the
war in Vietnam, the granting to
the Vietnamese people of a pos-
sibility to determine its i destiny
without foreign interference, would
greatly facilitate the improvement
of the international atmosphere,"
Podgorny told Thompson.
Thompson, 61, served as ambas-
sador in Moscow from 1957 to
1962. His reappointment has been
widely regarded as an attempt by
Johnson to start a thaw in U.S.-
Soviet relations chilled by Viet-
The U.S. ambassador did not
mention Vietnam in his speech at
the Kremlin ceremony but made an
offer to cooperation with the
Soviet Union in solving some ur-
gent world problems.
An American spokesman said
Podgorny and Thompson had a
"substantive" exchange after the
credentials presentation during an
hour-long meeting. But details,
such as whether Vietnam was
discussed, were not disclosed.
Thompson did not give Podgor-
ny the message he brought here
from President Johnson. This in-
dicated it is meant for Premier
Alexei N. Kosygin, who is expected
to receive the ambassador later.
Thompson did go over some
points in Johnson's message, a
U.S. spokesman said. It is under-
stood to be aimed mainly at stop-
ping a Soviet-American race in
building antiballistic missile de-
Hoover Agrees To
Soviet Consul Here:
New Spies No Peril
WASHINGTON (A)-FBI Direc-
tor J. Edgar Hoover told a Sen-
ate committee yesterday that
Soviet consulates in this country
diplomatic missions. But he said
Soviet consulats in this country
would present no problem his men
are incapable of handling.
Secretary of State Dean Rusk
agreed the FBI "can cope with
a few more" Communist diplo-
matic missions even if espionage
agents are assigned to a consulate
that might be opened in the Unit-
More to the point, Rusk told the
Senate Foreign Relations Commit-
tee, a long-pending consular
treaty should be approved because
it would provide new protection
for Americans now traveling in
the Soviet Union at the rate of
Specifically, he said, added U.S.
consular representation in the
Soviet Union would "permit the
United States promptly to protect
and assist its citizens when they
are arrested and detained in the
"I do not see how this consular
convention can add significantly
to the risk of espionage," Rusk
And Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-
R.I.), said espionage is a two-
way street and the Central Intel-
ligence Agency's work might be
made easier by added consular
representation in the Soviet
In the spying business, "What's
food for the goose is food for the
gander," Pell said.
Hoover declined to testify in
person at the committee's hearing
on the convention approved in
1964 and first submitted to the
Senate in 1965. But he made his
views available in a letter Sen.
Karl E. Mundt (R-S.D.), gave to
the committee and used as a basis
for opposing the pact.
Hoover insisted he isnot trying
to block Senate approval of the
treaty that would open the way
for an exchange of consulates by
the United States and the Soviet
He said he is taking no position
on whether the Senate should
ratify the treaty but his words
were seized as ammunition by foes
of theilong-shelved agreement.
In his letter to Mundt, Hoover
said he never has implied that
the consular agreement "would
impose any additional burden of
responsibility upon the FBI that
we are incapable of handling."
But Hoover did say it would make
his agency's security work harder."
WASHINGTON (P) - President
Johnson proposed yesterday the
biggest increase' in Spcial Security
benefits in 30 years. He said it
would take 1.4 million older Amer-
icans out of poverty this year.
But the President's proposals
sent to Congress in a special
message, include increases in So-
cial Security taxes that would
Dies After 24 Hours
double by 1974 the amount de-
ducted from paychecks.
The scope of the proposed bene-
fit increases, ranging from at least
15. per cent for all recipients to
59 per cent for the 2.5 million re-
ceiving minimum benefits, was
outlined earlier in Johnson's Jan.
10 State of the Union message.
Yesterday, he spelled out the
WASHINGTON (AP) - Bobby
Baker testified yesterday he was'
"reprimanded and cautioned" by
then Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson in
1960 not to practice law while in
his government position.
"I was in essence moonlighting
or sundowning, whatever you call
it," Baker told U.S. District Court
jury, He added "I was doing it
contrary to instructions" from
Baker then was secretary to the
Senate Democratic majority and
Johnson, now President, was a
Democratic senator from Texas
and majority leader of the Senate.
Baker did not use Johnson's name,
saying only "the majority leader
On the stand for the third day
in his trial on charges of income
tax evasion, fraud and conspiracy,
Baker told of arrangements to as-
sociate himself with another man,
a member of the District of Co-
lumbia bar, "in my transactions."
The government's charges in-
volve the alleged payment of fees
by various firms to Baker through
checks made to Wayne L. Brom-
ley, a former close friend and as-
sociate to Baker.
The government charges also
that Baker kept about $80,000 of
some $100,000 raised by California
savings and loan executives for
political campaigns in 1962.
Baker testified last week that
he transferred the money, in cash
in brown manila envelopes, to the
late Sen. Robert S. Kerr (D-Okla.)
on three separate occasions.
Government prosecutor William
0. Bittman asked Baker yesterday
if no one else was present on those
occasions. Baker said that was
"And the only one alive today
to tell that story is you, yourself,"
"That is correct," Baker replied.
Kerr died Jap. 1, 1963, after
suffering a heart attack.
The arrangement with Bromley
involved some $24,500 in fees paid
by five firms in 1963-64. The
checks were sent to Bromley, a
member of the District of Colum-
bia bar. Baker said he was not
licensed to practice in the district
and "I always associated myself,
with a member of the district bar
in my transactions."
Before Bromley, Baker said he
had associated with attorney Er-
nest C. Tucker in transactions.
Baker said he reported the 1963-
1964 fees on his income tax re-
turns, and so did Bromley.
Baker said he did not willfully
attempt 'to evade any taxes in
price which would be paid both
by extending the amount of in-
come on which Social Security
taxes are levied and by raising
the tax rate.
Currently, Social Security taxes,
including medicare, amount to
4.4. per cent of icome up to
$6.600 a year, for an annual total
of $290.40 for an individual re-
ceiving that much pay.
Johnson proposes that the tax-
able base be raised next year to
$7,800, which would lift the maxi-
mum tax to $343.20. The tax rate,
which had been scheduled to climb
to 4.9 per centin 1969, would go
instead to 5 per cent, for a maxi-
mum of $390,000.
Increase Tax Base
The President's message calls
also for further increases in the
taxable base to $9,000 in 1971 and
$10,800 in 1974, and for an in-
crease in the rate to 5.55 per cent ,
Estimates are, however, that the
increase in the taxable base would
affect only about 22 per cent of
those paying Social Security taxes
next year, and about 13, per cent
when the 1974 increase is made.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua (A) -
After a night of rioting, political
foes of the Somoza machine bar-
ricaded themselves inside the Gran
Hotel yesterday and seized 20
North American guests as host-
age, the government reported.
A State Department spokesman
said in answer to the reports that
Americans were being held that
that the United States has no
intention of becoming involved in
the internal affairs of Nicaragua.
"The maintenance of law and
order there and the conductof
free and democratic elections are
the responsibility of the Nicara-
guan government," the spokesman
Two tanks that had opened up
at the hotel earlier withheld their
fire while negotiations went on
between the opposition and the
government through an interme-
diary. Troops surrounded the
hotel, which covers a city block.
A U.S. Embassy employe was
allowed to pass through the bar-
ricade of beds and mattresses
placed in the main hotel entrance.
He reported that all the Amer-
icans are well. He said they are
tourists and businessmen.
Gunfire swept the streets most
of the night and into the morning.
Red Cross units reported picking
up 12 bodies and more than 30
wounded. The government said
three soldiers were among the
dead and 13 were wounded.
The trouble began Sunday night,
at adpolitical rally conducted .by
Fernando Aguero, the Conserv-
ative party candidate who opposes
Gen. Anastasio Somoza Jr., an
heir to Latin America's oldest
political dynasty, Somoza is a
presidential candidate of the rul-
ing Nationalist Liberal party.
Aguero called fora general strike
to "demand electoral guarantees"
for the voting Feb. 5. After the
rally, street fighting broke out
between Aguero's supporters and
Aguero called for a general strike
dinator, Pedro Joaquin Chamorro,
took refuge in the hotel along with
what one source said were about
Early in the day, troops called
on the rebels in the hotel to give
up, guaranteeing they would get
fair treatment. The government
said Aguero would be guaranteed
safety to talk with President Lor-
enzo Guerrero. It added that
Aguero had rejected the offer.
Seek To Prove Racial Bias
In Negro RapeConvictions
LITTLE ROCK, Ark. (AP)-At-
torney George Howard Jr. said
yesterday the record will prove
the Arkansas death penalty is ad-
ministered disproportionately to
Negroes convicted of raping white
"We thought we proved this in
the U.S. District Court," Howard
said. "But the judge didn't agree."
Howard, attorney for William L.
Maxwell Jr., a Negro under death
sentence for rape, will get another
chance to prove his case, this time
before the 8th Circuit Court of
Appeals at St, Louis.
The U.S. Supreme Court Mon-
day ordered the St. Louis court'
to hear Howard's appeal from the
District Court decision.
"It's good news," Howard said
when he was advised of the Su-
preme Court ruling. "As far as I
know this will be the first time
an appeals court has dealt with
Atty. Gen. Joe Purcell, whose
office will handle the state's case
on the appeal, said he would not
comment until he has seen the
Supreme Court decision.
Purcell, who took office Jan.
10, is new to the Maxwell case.
Appeals until now have been
handled by the staff of former
Atty. Gen. Bruce Bennett,
Howard, a Negro retained in
Maxwell's behalf by the legal de-
fense and educational fund of
the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People,
said that the record of rape cases
in Arkansas "clearly shows that
the death penalty has been given
to Negroes with disproportionate
frequency when you consider other
rape charges involving white men
charged with raping white or
Negro women, or, Negro men
charged with raping .N e g r o
The Supreme Court ruling could
affect four other Negroes, who
with Maxwell are on death ror
as the result of rape convictions.
Eleven of the 12 men condemned
in Arkansas are Negroes. The
other six are under sentence for
murder, as is the one white man.
world News Roundup
By The Associated Press
CHRISTCHURCH, New Zealand
-Premier Nguyen Cao Ky of
South Vietnam ran into a rash of
demonstrations on his arrival in
New Zealand yesterday but re-
mained unruffled, except once, at
an airport news conference.
A reporter asked the premier to
comment on a statement by Sen.
J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark) that the
United States should replace Ky
if he refuses to negotiate with the
"I am no puppet of the United
States or anyone else," Ky replied
angrily. "That is my answer to
Mr. Fulbright. He is a colonialist."
After the news conference, Ky
went outside and began shaking
hands with a crowd of about 700
persons, mostly, women and chil-
dren. Then his motorcade moved
off to Town Hall, ignoring about
150 airport demonstrators waving
placards saying "Ky not welcome
here" and "We condemn bombing
of Hanoi and Haiphong."
RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil-The
death toll passed 100 Monday
night in disastrous floods around
Rio de Janeiro. Hundreds of
others were reported missing, and
one police estimates said as many
as 500 might have.perished.
TUESDAY, January 24, 12:00 Noon
U.M. International Center
f' k ftL:
UAC union league
"WHAT IS THE UNIVERSITY
SPEAKER: MR. HENRY BUCHER
Field Staff Representative, University Christian Movement
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Ecumenical Campus Center
Maynard Klein Conductor
U of M CENTRAL CAMPUS CHOIR
Now in rehearsal for performance of:
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Interested singers who would like to be a part of these major
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I HOUR CREDIT-MALE SINGERS ESPECIALLY WELCOME!