Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

July 22, 1967 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1967-07-22

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.


$l' aiMirzpan Daily

Books: Social Science
And the Businessman

Where Opinions Are Free,
Truth Will Prevail 4 AYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.

NEws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials Printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



Black Power
And White Moderates

RADICALS IN THE professions hold a
conference in Ann Arbor to discuss.
ways of organizing. Black power advo-
cates meet in Newark to mull over their
conceptions of their causes and their or-
ganizational problems. There is more than
just a correlation of similar activities.
There is a common enemy and common,
or at least non-conflicting, causes.
While there are Negroes whose con-
cept of black power is the gun and the
riot, they are far from the majority. The
main stream of black power sentiment
wants "self-help," Negro leadership and
Negro-directed organization-the actual
practice of what civil rights workers have
been preaching. The problem comes when
the feeling becomes too racist, when black
supremacy creeps in and all whites get
the treatment that some have been giv-
ing the Negroes, regardless of who or
what that white person is or believes.
There is, of course, an. imamediate con-
tradiction when a white sympathetic to
the Negro cause is confronted with a Ne-
gro who offers, if not a "go to hell," at
least a strong "stay away." The Negro
has been warned that he must be most
careful in dealing with the moderates;
they are charged with being his worst
enemy. But the moderate in that case is
not a true believer in civil rights and
equality-it is the one who uses modera-
tion as a cover-,up for stalling. There are
many others, moderate in their own ac-
tivities, but real believers in equality,
whorare moderate only because of their
other involvements.
IT IS THESE WHITES that the Negro
should avoid hurting. If they do not
fight violently for civil rights, that is be-
cause they are human;. they cannot
fight for every cause, but they are the
ones who willingly accept the Negro when
he comes.

As black power develops, it will no long-
er need Cheneys and Goodmans. One
member of the Newark conference made
comment to the effect that "all we want
from 'whitey' is his money," and so it
should be. As the movement grows, and
the Negro does his own work, the white
has two obligations--give financial and
material aid when necessary, and avoid
discrimination is his immediate milieu.
The whites described above, sympathet-
ic to the cause though not inclined to
work in it themselves, are often ones who
comprise the New Left. Their primary
concern has been white society and its
flaws, and while sometimes active as in-
dividuals in the civil rights movement,
there has not been a great deal of inter-
change lately. Partially, it is the whites
in the civil rights movement five years
ago are now in the peace movement.
There is. however, the possibility of a
BOTH WANT MORE responsibility to be
placed on the individual, with protec-
tionr, not inhibition, from the large cen-
tral government. The New Left wants it
in political and economic realities.
Black power wants economic independ-
ence for the Negro and political autonomy
at home. The New Left is for the time
being, forced to be obsessed with foreign
policy, but they too look, forward to more
local autonomy where possible. It is on
these common grounds that they can,
and must, combine. The rise of such
leaders as Martin Luther King is a good
sign. The New Left can, and no doubt is
willing, to help the Negro in what ways
the Negro may request it, and the Negro
can, and should, eventually join the New
Left for the principles involved.


aAd Tri,.,e synate ..,L' ~ ~ AA

_ _. _. I _" ._... A Ir1r1 1114 r Y I MIi"IYI OI I IA I Yiq III

Social science research is rare-
ly palatable to the non-social sci-
entist. It is generally received with
an air of skepticism usually re-
served for campaigning politi-
cians and magicians.
This skepticism is primarily en-
gendered by the particular lan-
guage of social scientists and ex-
hibits itself in fear and distrust
of their work. As Mr. McLuhan
said, it's not really what you're
saying, it's how you say it, that
irritates me."
When the goal of the social
scientist is explained in layman's
terms it seems less prestidigital.
What they're really doing Joe. is
watching people and correlating
the results in some organized fash-
ion conducive to intelligent appli-
cation-the whys and wherefores
of society. That definition cannot
possibly offend even the most sen-
sitive feelings of fellow anti-in-
Research (ISR) is the largest of
such organizations in the United
States. It houses a prestigous col-
lection of eminent social research-,
ers and is headed by Dr. Rensis
Likert, professor of psychology and
sociology at the University. Draw-
ing heavily on the collective re-
search of this organization, Dr.
Likert has published a new book
to be the guide and mentor of
the modern businessman, "The
Human Organization, Its Man-
agement and Value."
The purpose of the book is to
aid businessmen in organizing
their people, not their things. It
is described in moderate social sci-
ence prose as being for, "all those
who are interested in applying
the results of quantitative research
to improve the management of
the human resources of their en-
terprises." Dr. Likert states that
it's not really efficient anymore
to rely on people's decisions (man-
agers), now that systematic ob-
servations (by social scientists)
are available. One wonders if one
group of men's opinions are not
merely being replaced by another
group of men's opinions in the
prose guise of social research.
Management systems are divid-
ed into four groups on a ques-
tionnaire that was presented to
several hundred managers. The
systems vary from one which has
no trust in employes and motivates
them through threats and punish-
ment with no upward communica-"
tion and no cooperative teamwork,
to one in which democratic prin-
ciples, group participation, wide-
spread responsibility and economic
rewards are predominant. The re-.
suits of the questionnaire, which
is the impetus for the book, indi-
cate that management systems
which use democratic principles
in the handling of their employes
are more successful. In this case

"The Human Organization,
It's Management and Value," by
Rensis Likert, McGraw Hill,
the goal of efficiency and success
is concomitant with the one you
learned at your mother's knee,
Joe, treat your employes good and
take an interest in them and
they'll respond better.
MY OBJECTION is that the
book is written in such a fashion
reeking of the classroom and the
computer, that the businessman
won't touch it with a 10-foot pole.
It would be interesting to do a
brief survey of who buys the book.
ISR is concerned with the dis-
semination of their research as
well as its accumulation, it seems
they could have done a better job
with this body of important in-
Other objections to the partidi-
pative management theory speak
from a more expert viewpoint
within the realm of social science.
Clare Graves of Union College in
Schenectady, N.Y., contends from
his research that "as many as half
the people in the northeastern U.S.
and a larger proportion nation-
wide, are not and many never will
be the eager-beaver workers . .
and "only some variation of old-
style authoritarian management
will meet their psychological
The questionnaire was para-
phrased in the May, 1967, issue of
Fortune Magazine by Robert C.
Albrook with the approval of Dr.
Likert. The changes are interest-
ing in that they substantially af-
fected the responses given by the
same managers running through
both questionnaires. Thelanguage
of the original questionnaire is
classic social science-ese and I
contend that it inhibits responses
not favorable to the subject's or-
ganization if the subject has a
personal ego investment in that
organization. This would exclude
lower level employes and the sta-
tistics bear out the observation.
Lower level employes consistently
rated an organization more to-
ward the authoritarian end of the
scale than managers.
THE FORTUNE questionnaire is
pared down considerably and the
responses were weighted more fre-
quently toward the non-compli-
mentary end of the scale.
This semantic difference is im-
portant beyond this specific study.
It is vital that the inherently
broad and fuzzy concepts of social
science be communicated with pre-
cision. Fritz J. Roethlisberger of
the Harvard Business 'School
points out, "It's time we stopped
building rival dictionaries and
learned to make some sentences
that really say something."

"Americans should go to lied every night afraid Reagan
might become President."
What Cost Higher Education?


Riotous Bill

the fundamental problems which lie
at the root of our more massive disturb-
ances have reached an all-time peak for
legislative escapism.
The recent convulsion in Newark seems
to have particularly inspired Represen-
tative Willial C. Cramer (R-Fla). It is his
thesis that "the pattern these riots follow
is too similar in many instances to be,
wholly spontaneous or incidental." And
he expects the bill which he lias just pro-
posed to "strike at the seedbed of. an evil
force that now roams uncontrolled across
America"--a trained cadre of agitators.
He proposed to do this by declaring it
a federal crime to travel across state
lines or use interstate mails or telephone
lines in-the process of "stirring up" riots.
Anyone found guilty-if it is possible,
even for the federal government, aided
by numerous and ingenius electronic mar-
vels, to single out the one transgression
of a state line which touched off the ac-

tual explosion-would be fined up to $10,-
000, jailed for up to five years, or both.
His colleague, Representative Joel T.
Broyhill (R-Va) has thoughtfully added
the necessary precaution of including
such trouble spots as federal forts, parks,
reservations, and arsenals, as well as the
District of Columbia in the realm to be
protected from "agitators."
BUT IT NEVER OCCURS to these astute
lawmakers that the marked similarity
characteristic of the riots which have
ripped more or less by surprise through
our larger cities might result from the
syndrome of inferior education, low em-
ployment, inadequate housing, common
to all of them. And they seem to be far
too obsessed with the mythical "outside
agitator" to be interested in the sharp
infringement which their "anti-riot" bill
would inflict upon constitutional safe-
guards of free speech and assembly.

The following passage is ex-
cerpted from an address given
by University President-elect
Robben Fleming at the Sesqui-"
centennial Conference, "The
University and the Body Poli-
tic," held here two weeks ago:
In the debate over how the
cost of higher education is to be
allocated, the far ends of the
spectrum, so far as the student is
concerned, are free tuition on the
one hand, and full cost reimburse-
ment on the other.
Free tuition may very well be
a desirable ideal. We do not
charge students at the elementary
and secondary levels. If, as can be
readily shown, there is a high
correlation betweenpotential eco-
nomic growth and educational
sophistication, the cost is justi-
fiable. And on the social front,
free tuition maximizes the oppor-
tunity for the economically dis-
advantaged student to attend col-
lege, thereby more nearly achiev-
ing the objective of equal oppor-
tunity for all.
At the opposite end of thescale,
full reimbursement has rarely
been an objective, even of the
private schools. Thus in both pri-
vate and public schools the real
question has always been how
large a share of the total cost the
student should be expected to
Everyone knows that tuition
has been going up at both public
and private institutions. We know
less than we should about how
closely this rise parallels the
change in the price level. In the
decade between 1953-54 and
1963-64 tuition and fees, as a
percent of total income of in-
stitutions of higher learning,
changed in public institutions
from 9 to 11.2 percent, and in
private institutions from 30.9 to
30.4 percent. These figures may
be deceptive, however, in the ab-
sence of a breakdown of total in-
come at the institutions during
the decade in question.:;,. -
THOSE WHO worry about- the
rise in tuition point out the like-
lihood that it will shut out the
very student who most needs an
education. They too can cite fig -
ures in support of their position.

Median parental income for col-
lege freshmen in the United States
in the year 1966 was $9,560. The
median U.S. family income for the
same year was $6,900. Forty per-
cent of the families in the United
States had incomes of less than
$6,000 in 1966, yet those families
supplied only 19.5 percent of the
college freshmen. If one further
restricts the category to college
freshmen in public institutions,
the forty percent of the families
with less than a i $6,000 income
furnished 27.8 percent of the
freshmen in such schools.
What seems to be taking place
in the public sector is a kind of
compromise.,Tuition rates are go-
ing up, but governors and legisla-
tures are.increasingly trying to
identify a "fair" figure to which
student contributions can be tied.
In Wisconsin the governor has
supported in-state tuition which
amounts to 20 percent. of the di-
rect cost of education. For those
who find such an amount a ser-
ious obstacle to attendance, in-
creased loan and scholarship
funds are made available. This
does not, of course, wholly resolve
the problem. Many young people
who come from homes with less
than a $6,000 annual income, par-
ticularly if they belong toa min-
ority group, may never have had
a fair chance for adequate pri-
mary and secondary education.
Thus scholarships are largely un-
available, even though potential
academic achievement is present..
One suspects that loan funds are
also -less available to the poor
youngster, if only because the
necessary borrowing represents
spending beyond anything he has
ever known.
Given other pressures for public
spending, it is unlikely that con-
verts are going to be made at the
present time to a free tuition con-
The Daily has begun accept-
ing articles from faculty, ad-
ministration, and students on
subjects of their choice. They
are to be 600-900 words in
length and should be submitted
to the Editorial Director.

cept. Even in California, where
many. would rather fight than
switch, the free-tuition argument
seems partly a question of .seman-
tics because California's "fees"
equal "tuition" charges in some
other states.
In the meantime, those of us
who believe that the cause of
democracy isbestserved by main-
taining tuition and fees in public
institutions at as low a level as
possible, must pin our hopes on
convincing state legislators of the
validity of our position. The end
result may be a figure which is
still too high for the many stu-
dents who come out of the fami-
lies having less than a $6,000 an-
nual income. For them we must
find other solutions. One sugges-
tion, which is perhaps worthy of
some thought, is to remit or
scale-down the tuition for stu-
dents who come from low income
families. There would be prob-
lems in administering such a sys-
tem, but students are accustomed
to submitting family economic
data when they apply for' scholar-
ships or loans, and this would not
be an undue invasion of privacy.
The cost to the state would prob-
ably not be very great, and the
benefits could be enormous. If it
is fair for the average student in
a public institution to pay ap-
proximately 20 percent of the di-
rect costs of his education, may
it not be equally fair for some
completely disadvantaged, stu-
dents to pay 0 percent of the cost
of their education?
IN OUR RATHER brief history
as a country, the sources of in-
come in support of higher educa-
tion have remained much the
same, i.e., private gifts, state and
federal appropriations, and stu-
dent tuition and/or fees. It is the_
relative proportions of each which
have changed, and =which may
continue to change.
For the public institutions, at
least, two clear guideposts exist
for the future: (1) The independ-
ence of the institutions must be
preserved, no matter what the
source of the funds; and (2) The
opportunity for an education is
so valuable to the nation that the
cost to the student must never be
placed beyond the reach of the
common man.




Violet' Is Vivid.

Public Perception

of rapid communication and super-
sonic transportation, the world is often no
more than what the journalist makes it.
Lately some of the media have made in-
teresting contributions to the public per-
ception of the world. Here are a few:
Look Magazine offered. "How China
Got the Bomb," the story of the exile of
two American-trained scientists, driven
to Mao's China by McCarthy-era persecu-
tion. If China can deliver a nuclear pack-
-age with an efficient missile, says Look,
it will in part be the work of the two
Caltech alumni, Tsien Hsue-shen and
Chao Chung-yao, who were forced to take
their respective genius in missiles and
physics elsewhere, despite a mutual desire
to work and study in the U.S.
Life Magazine has presented the long
nightmarish story of Ma Sitson's perse-
cution during Mao's continuing cultural
revolution. Ma was able to bring his mu-
sic and family to the U.S. and drop his
ghoulish tale on American readers via
Several publications have described
government blundering before and dur-

and dangerous bickering among several
agencies active in the area. Faced with
the tragic strafing of the Liberty by the
Israeli military, the publications were
able to weigh several aspects of the Amer-
ican presence and spot cavities in leader-
IT DOESN'T TAKE very much for the
media to botch an effort, even a friv-
olous local prigram like "Summer in the
City," which was aired recently on TV-2
and featured Radio WKNR announcer
Scott Reagen. Local teens were filmed and
interviewed a go-go at drive-ins, beach-
es and nite spots, one of which was Ann
Arbor's Fifth Dimension. Unfortunately,
although the program offered nuggets of
Motown music, not one Negro was inter-
viewed. This is especially bizarre because
over half of the enrollment of Detroit
Public Schools is non-white. The program
gave the impression that Negro youth had
vanished for the summer, or at least
weren't frequenting drive-ins, etc. It was
a tasteless blunder which can only make
"Summer in the City" a longer,hotter
prospect for the blacks and whites who

George Birimisa's one act play,
"Daddy Violet," performed at the
Canterbury House last Tuesday,
is a truly interesting piece of thea-
tre. Basically- it is an, investiga-
tion into two ideas: relaxation and
radiation, which "is resolved in a
message-we prefer to turn from
the realities, of the Mekong Delta
to the utopia of Salinas Valley
("Steinbeck's Country"). Trans-
lated into conventional, theatre,
this slight concept would not have
carried, would have been too sim-
plistic and have been easily dis-
But what happens in this piece
(you can hardly call it a play)' is
that a dielectic is set up between
the message and the actual per-
formance, I mean that "Daddy
Violet" is written in such a way
that the message is always trying,
to attain coherence and deny the
ad-libs, the improvisations and the
lack of characterization and fixed
location for the play.
The actors, who all retain their
"real life" names, are ostensibly
members of a rather seedy theatri-
cal group, working in the Chek-
hov tradition (?). Less ostensibly
they are actors playing actors or
not-actors playing. actors. They
profess inability to act, but do act
and offend us by calling them-
selves actors. This is not to say
that the acting is bad. Rather
it is. only through good acting that
these actors elicit our feeling that
the whole thing is preposterous.
And this is just what is right,
since how else can three actors
present so strong a message with-
out being a little self-conscious
and without resorting to the evan-
THUS WE HAVE the actors re-
vealing their own phobias (or at
least that is how it seems) and
doing their starbits. Dan Leach
does a magnificent impersonation
of a turkey to give the audience
what they want-an actor doing-.

The result of this is two fold.
An up-tight audience relaxes and
anticipates that they are going to
get involved. Without this the
three actors regular excursions in-
to the audience would not have
been possible.
The piece proper starts with
Silvis Strauss doing relaxation ex-
ercises while Birimisa radiates-
eye-to-eye contact--with members
of the audience. With the ar-
rival of Dan Leach we learn that
the problem of acting resides in
the, establishment of "centers." A
center in the chest for example
is a cue for Leach's Marlon-
Brando-type improv.
move into a series of flower im-
provisations Birimisa becomes
Daddy Violet; Srauss, Violet; and
Leach, Easter Lily (or Ester Baby).
The flowers discover their roots:
the Mekong Delta. However, all is
O.K. The look away, upwards and
outwards over Salinas Valley.
But why Salinas Valley? This is
Steinbeck's preserve and whatever
we might think of Steinbeck, he
has been "out there." No, the ref-
erence is more subtle. We have
without realizing that this Utopia
taken Salinas Valley as our Utopia
for the author is the Mekong Del-
ta. Salinas Valley Utopias are
equivalent to the Delta.
Now, whereas this social com-
ment is indirect, thehindictment
of the flower 'people--hippies tend
to dislike "Daddy Violet"-is as
direct as can be. As the actors
move between "life" and drama,
they become true flower-people
not by reference, but description.
By confering on the flower-people
the Salinas Valley mentality, Bir-
misa makes his fiercest comment:
SDS, not LSD.
tricks and gimmicks outlined
above, the pronouncement only



Joni Mitchell

-- The Next Baez

DETROIT-"Man, she's got to
be the living end," enthused one
person who had just been treated
to an evening of Joni Mitchell's
songs. Just by coincidence, Joni,
who writes all her own songs, is
singing at a Detroit night spot
named The Living End.
Joni isn't the only one who sings
her own songs, however. Buffy Ste.
Marie, Ian and Sylvia, Tom Rush,
and several other noted recording
artist have appropriated some of
Joni's creations.
Joni, a native of Saskatoon,
%k h_ ha a ,.tist's h1ndin he

soon audiences in New York, Bos-
ton, Baltimore, Philadelphia and
Miami were enjoying her music.
As long ago as 1965, she was in-
vited to perform at Ontario's Ma-
ritosa Folk Festival-she'll be
there again this year-and less
than a week ago she sang at the
Newport Folk Festival.
Joni is a versatile instrumental-
ist. She plays guitar, ukelele, and
i. South American instrument call-
ed the tiple, which she describes
as "a ten-stringed country cousin
to the uke."
However, her diversity is most
aparent in her songs. Joni admits

hearing. Audience reactions range
from silent reflection on her sad
"Who Has Seen the Wind" to
broad smiles when she sings, "Dr.
Junk the Dentist Man."
She has a childlike quality com-
pounded of equal parts of in-
nocence, shyness, and enthusiasm.
She says its because she's a part of
what she calls "the back to the
sandbox movement." Joni explains
that "the movement is part of
the love movement which includes
dropping sophisticated pretenses
and enjoying funny things like
dressing up in funny clothes."
Joni will be leaving Detroit next]
week. headed for the West Coast.

Back to Top

© 2024 Regents of the University of Michigan