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Michigan Daily, 1960-07-29

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"A Little Closer - Not Too Close - Smile - That's It"

0, Pioneers!

Seventieth Year
-- EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Vhen Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth wil Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG.* ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

.
4 > :
t<; ;:.

T HE CINEMA GUILD closes its doors for the season with "Home of
the Brave" and "The Cage," a not too auspicious ending for what
has been an excellent season in both academic history and entertain-
ment value.
The idea of a survey of the American film was laudable and co-
herent, with gaps resulting only from a lack of time. If we might
have wished for, say, one of those horrible sweet musicals or farce
comedies from the thirties or a Garbo film from any year, what did
come went a long way to make up for it. Unfortunately the finances

_ __.__ .. _ .. . . ......a..w TTY Tr iTTTT T.tfT'

I

7

LY, JULY 29, 1960

NIGHT EDITOR: ANDREW HAWLEY

Negro Militance
Misunderstood, but Effective

PHILIP RANDOLPH, the Negro labor
leader who instigated the march for free-
dom at the national political conventions, said
yesterday that much of the progress in the civil
rights area has been due "to the militant action
of Negroes and their allies."
There is a great deal of truth in Randolph's
statement.
The strong court battles waged by the Na-
tional Association for the Advancement of
Colored People are well known. The NAACP has
also been active in other areas, particularly the
labor field. Randolph, too, has been very active
in the fight.
Early in the second World War, Randolph
led a Negro march on Washington which re-
sulted in the establishment of the wartime Fair
Employment Practices Commission. This action
enabled Negroes, for the first time in American
history, to get decent jobs in large numbers.
This event ranks with the Emancipation Proc-
lamation, the 1954 school desegregation deci-
sion, and the sit-in movement as one of the
most important landmarks in the struggle for
equal rights for Negroes.
TFHE OTHER well-known militant action by
Negroes is the recent sit-in movement in
the South. There are two significant facts con-
cerning the sit-ins: it is a legitimate, peaceful
protest, and it works. Both United Press Inter-
national and the New York Times reported a
Hyde Park
YESTERDAY'S Hyde Park session on the
Diag, unexpected anti informal as it was,
may have clarified the thinking of a few
people present regarding the problems and
responsibility involved in a realistic disarma-
ment program.
Such a benefit, if it did occur to any degree,
should not be underrated; because, in the long
run, disarmament will be more "realistic" than
any arms program we or any other country can
ever devise to secure its sovereignty. But the
concept of the gathering-an impromptu, in-
formal discussion-is just as valuable to the
principle by which this country governs itself.
-HAWLEY

few days ago that at least 14 cities have de-
segregated their lunch counters since the sit-ins
began.
Negroes, through their voting power, have
been able, recently, to force the political parties
to adopt a more friendly attitude toward civil
rights legislation.
Negro militance in this area is a legitimate
method of gaining an end for which they should
never have been forced to fight in the first
place. But there is also a less fortunate side-
effect to this militance: many people, who
basically favor fair treatment for Negroes, are
confused by the militance of the movement.
THE PRIME example of this attitude is dis-
played by former President Harry Truman.
Truman has said some incredibly foolish things
about the sit-in movement. For example, he has
called it a Communist-backed movement. Al-
though a small percentage of the people active
in the movement, particularly some of the
whites, may at one time have had some contact
wiht the Communist party, none of the leaders
of, the movement have had any connection with
that party.
Truman also made the statement that if a
sit-in were ever initiated in any store of his,
he'd throw the instigators out. This is a stan-
dard statement of opponents to the sit-in-and
even opponents of fair employment and fair
housing acts. It is a result of the fairly wide-
spread idea that civil rights improvements in-
evitably cause "undue interference with a
man's right to do business as he pleases."
In a sense, of course, civil rights improve-
ments do limit an individual's freedom-as it
is limited when the law says you can't commit
a murder, operate a bawdy house, or sell
liquor without a license. There are certain
limitations which must be placed on an indi-
vidual's freedom for the sake of the com-
munity's welfare. This, in effect, is the thing
that must happen in the civil rights area.
The militance will continue until everyone
realizes-as Sen. Kennedy and Vice-President
Richard Nixon now seem to realize-that the
Negro is a full citizen, and denying him his
rights is morally wrong. Both Presidential
candidates have indicated that they are willing
to assume responsibility for leadership in this
field. This is what America needs.
--JAMES SEDER

/

AT THE STATE:
'Lost World'
Lost Cause
WITH "The Lost World" coming
in sequence with "Raymie, Boy
of the Beach" and "Hercules Un-
chained," the Messrs. Butterfield
have taken- their third strike and
are most definitely out. Had we
sufficient folly to suggest prizes
among the three, there could be
no first or second, but only a des-
perate struggle for last.
The current offering is filled to
the brim with lizards masquerad-
ing as dinosaurs, stellar starlets
reading lines as if they were taken
from a telephone directory, man-,
eating prehistoric yegetables, and
the potent lure of molten lava
and diamonds. But never mind,
you've seen it all before.
The blurb says it's a prehistoric
world exactly as it was at the
dawn of time. Not quite, Holly-
wood. First there was no Jill St.
John to mar the scenery and muff
the lines, nor was there the emi-
nently Latin Fernando Lamas to
suffer the tempests of sacred and
profane love.
Somewhere in the midst of the
seamy jungle Miss St. John says
"Why did I ever come?" That's
what I wondered.
-Michael Wentworth

-

UNDER RUSSIAN SYSTEM:

do not seem to have been as suc-
cessful as the concept and so we
probably cannot hope for any-
thing more coherent next fall than
a string of popular favorites.
"THE CAGE," as four columns
of close-set advertising tell us, is
not only experimental, but is art.:
I'm afraid I didn't much see the
connection, and my reaction to
Cinema 16's advanced thinking
was one of entire depression.
I watched as long as I could-
somewhere after he ate the paint.
sandwich and pulled out his glass
eye-but the agonizing contriv-
ance of the whole thing made it
easier to sleep until the feature
came on.
* * *
UNFORTUNATELY the feature
wasn't that much better. I have
never been able to find as much
in Stanley Kramer's films as I
probably should, or perhaps it
was just too hot for his somewhat
pompous social messages, but they
had little of the impact that could
be expected of such a dynamic
subject.
The situation was theatrical in
the extreme and oversimplified.
Words such as "lowkeyed" "un-
assuming," and "brutal" are often
used in relation to Mr. Kramer's
efforts, and are undoubtedly de-
served, although I would perhaps
substitute a trio of a somewhat
less flattering nature.
That he is a step above many
of his predecessors cannot be de-
nied, nor that his appeals are in-
telligent. But that he is also, a
little rhetoric, and perhaps a little
dull is equally true.
In summary we can only point
out the high historical and aca-
demic importance of these lilms
and wish that they. did not eclipse
so tediously and so often what we
could call, in vulgar terms, their
value as pure entertainment.
-Michael Wentworth
DAILY
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN °
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
city of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no di-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form t0
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. two days preced-
ing publication.
FRIDAY, JULY 29, 1960
VOL. LXX, NO. 28s
General Notes
Graduate Social Hour: Last meeting
of the summer session. Fri., July 2
from 5 to 7 p.m. at the VFW Club, 314
E. Liberty.
Astronomy Department Visitors' Night
Fri., July 29, 8:30 p.m., Room 2003 An-
gelHall. Dr. Alan H. Barrett will speak
on "Radio Astronomy." After the lec-
ture the Student Observatory on the
fifth floor of Angell Hal will be open
for inspection and for telescopic ob-
servation of the Moon, Saturn, and
Double Star. Children welcomed, but
must be accompanied by adults.
(Continued on Page 3)

Science Progresses-Unevenly

TODAY AND TOMORROW
Nixon as Leader
By WALTER LIPPMANN

I

HAVING SUCCEEDED In appeasing Gov.
Rockefeller, the Vice-President has had to
deal with his most difficult problem, which is
how to get a platform and to persuade the
party to take a stand which will give him a
chance to win the election. For the Rocke-
feller platform and the Rockefeller stand were
indubitably the best bet if any Republican can
win the Presidency this year.
All the polls show that the Republicans are
a much smaller party than the Democrats,
something like as forty is to sixty. To be
elected, Nixon has to be much stronger than
his party-if the Gallup poll is right, he has
to be even stronger than Eisenhower was in
1956. To come near this he has to be very
strong in the big industrial and urbanized
states. He needs a platform which in its
pledges to deal with public needs is substan-
tially the same as the Democratic platform
and Gov. Rockefeller's personal platform.
THAT THIS IS WHAT he would like to do
is shown by a speech he made at St. Louis
last month. After scoffing at Rockefeller's
"growthmanship," he turned around and es-
poused the Rockefeller - Democratic position
on public needs. He called for public spending,
which he called "investment" in "our public
education establishments, in our national
transportation system, in the renewal of our
run down urban areas, in the development of
our natural and human resources, in providing
imaginative new leadership for the exciting
scientific and technological revolution which
will dramatically change the whole character
of life in America and the world in our time."
This being what Nixon would like to stand
for, he has to reckon with the President and
his close advisors, on the one hand and with
the Congressional Republicans fro the old Re-
publican strongholds on the other. We have
seen, as I pointed out yesterday, that in his
agreement with Rockefeller on defense and
public needs, he was very careful indeed to
Editorial Staff

avoid any departure from the main lines of
the Eisenhower economic and fiscal policy.
THIS DOES NOT MEAN that as President
he would not depart from them. But it does
mean that in the campaign he must be care-
ful not to say that he has departed from them.
This is a serious handicap. For the things that
he and Rockefeller would like to do can not
be done without a substantial change in the
Eisenhower policy.
In the writing of the platform the dominant
voices appear to be not so much Eisenhower
and his immediate advisors, and not Nixon
himself, but the Republican Old Guard in Con-
gress fortified by an eccentric fringe of re-
actionaries who dream of a golden past that
never existed and pretend that they are con-
servatives. The main preoccupation of the Old
Guard Republicans is not to elect Nixon. It
is not even tocarry Congress, which they know
is impossible.
THEIR MAIN PREOCCUPATION is to pre-
serve their power in Congress which rests
on a coalition with many of the older South-
ern Democrats. The bond of their coalition is
that the Northern Republicans will help to
stall off civil rights measures and that with
the Southerners they will both stall off the
welfare measures.
This is the reason, which is otherwise po-
litically inexplicable, why Nixon is having such
a hard time to get a civil rights plank on which
he can stand in the big Northern states.
If, in spite of his handicaps, Nixon man-
ages to be elected, he will face the problem of
how to govern with a Democratic Congress.
Eisenhower has had to do this, and no doubt,
the world would not come to an end if Nixon
had to do it. But almost certainly it is true
that the country would be in for a troubled
time.
As President in dealing with a Democratic
Congress, Nixon would differ from Eisenhower
in two main respects. The first, which is ob-
vious, is that he is not Eisenhower, that he is
not a world figure, that he is not above the
party battle, and that he does not inspire in-
stinctive popular affection.
The second, which is somewhat less obvious,
is that in the 'fifties the country was weary of
the Pfin. nA -axv4nn .f' the New T I and

By MICHAEL OLINICK
Daily Staff Writer
SCIENTIFICACHIEVEMENT in
the Soviet Union is facing the
Igreatest crisis in its uneven his-
tory now, according to a Rand
economist who spoke on "The
USSR in the Technological Race"
at the University Tuesday.
Dr. Hans Haymann character-
ized the scientific scene in Russia
as two opposing worlds. On one
pole is the realm of the "key pro-
ject where money and encourage-
ment for research are seemingly
limitless. Compared to this scene,
Haymann labelled the vast bulk
of routine scientific investigation
as "poorly staffed, inadequately
equipped and badly financed."
* * *
TO UNDERSTAND Russian sci-
entific achievement and structure,
one must examine the term "tech-
nological race" to see how the
Russians define it and how sci-
ence fits into its execution.
Khrushchev clearly views the
competition as a horse race, Hay-
mann said. "The United States
nag is old and tired, yet still in
the lead. The strong and swift
Soviet steed is closing the gap and
will soon win the race to capture
the greatest prize in history."n
With this in mind, the Rand
economist claimed that the Rus-
sians now have three primary
goals: rapid economic growth, an
Imposing military* posture, and
political aggrandizement. The ap-
plication of science and technol-
ogy to these aims is a very con-
centrated and direct one.
t
SINCE THE START of the first
of the Five Year Plans, rapid eco-
nomic growth has been the funda-
mental aim of the Soviet Union.
This has been pursued so single-
mindedly that "formidable rates"
have been achieved. In the newest
plan, a seven year prospectus, an
even greater urgency for this
growth has been stressed. By 1970
the Russians hope to outstrip the
West in per capita production.
Technology plays a basic role
in fulfilling this expectation. The
enormous amounts of capital that
have been pumped into the Soviet
economy are reaching the point
of diminishing returns. The popu-
lation also suffers from a scarcity
of young labor, due to the effects
of World War II
* * *
THE USSR MUST thus concen-
trate on improving the equality
of present production, rather than
adding more factories and power
stations. The new slogan from
Moscow is "Automation and in-
tegration mechanization."
In the area of automation, the
Russians are quite a bit behind
the Americans in a field which,
for them, is "largely virgin terri-
tory." Encouragement of men in
this field is reflected in recent ap-
pointments to the Soviet Academy
of Sciences, highest honor the
Russians can give to their re-
searchers. Out of eleven men

Russian arms production is "un-
paralled in history" and very
clearly confuses and baffles our
Defense department. "The U-2 is
a symptom of our frantic efforts
to overcome the imbalance of
the situation," Haymann sourly
claimed.
But we do know that at least
two-thirds of the Russian nation-
al budget allocated to science is
associated with national defense.
Many believe the actual figure to
be closer to three-fourths. Here,
of course, the effort of science is
directed to the innovation of
newer, more powerful, and more
lethal weapons.
, * *
THE THIRD NATIONAL goal
is political aggrandizement. "The
Russians have made a determined
effort to improve their political
appeal and build up national
prestige," Haymann said. "Sci-
entific achievement serves them
well here; too. They have long
demonstrated the ability to
squeeze out political capital from
almost any innovation. Khrush-
chev's clever, but somewhat
heavy-handed threats about So-
viet rockets shifted the defense
balance to him."
In the underdeveloped and un-
committed nations, Russian aid
stresses modern scientific symbols:
a nuclear research plant or a
multi-million dollar cyclotron built
in Cairo or Rangoon by the So-
viets. They convey the image of
Soviet progressiveness and of the
improvements to be gained from
peaceful research.
* */ *
THIS IS HOW THE accomplish-
ments of Soviet sciences are used
to further the establishments of
the prime goals of today's Rus-
sian Communism. Yet how are the
achievements in research gained
anddwhat is the story behind the
rapid growth of science in the
USSR?
First, the Russians have been
doubly blessed by the past. At the
time of the 1917 revolution, the
powerful intellectual traditions of
the 19th century were still felt.
The names of Mendeleyev and
Pavlov and men like them had
given the nation a respect for the
researcher and a heritage of sci-
ence.
* * *
THE SECOND BLESSING is
one that stems from backward-
ness. Technology was a stunted
pygmy in Russia when the Czars
were overthrown. The country was
so far behind that it was able to
make accelerated progress merely
by adopting and copying the tried
and proven methods of the West
and building immediate success
out of the Western world's hard-
won achievements.
"We have often laughed at the
Russians for copying us so care-
fully, even in the production of
their automobiles where they have
employed Cadilac-type tail fins,"
Haymann said. "I think we ought
to congratulate them for it. They

has been practiced, and this ulti-
mately is not good for research.
But at least the control and or-
ganization are done by the scien-
tists themselves and not by politi-
cal hacks."
* * *
RESEARCH IN PHYSICAL sci-
ence is perhaps the freest activity
in the USSR. Social conditions
attract the best people and science
is the most desirable profession.
"If the Russian scientist lives in
a cage," Haymann said, "it's a
gilded one and much larger than
most Russians have."
Political and scientific leaders
have bridged the gap separating
them much better in the Soviet
Union than in the United States.
Thescientific literacy and engi-
neering sophistication of Russian
political leaders establishes an
easy intimacy between the realis-
tic hard-core administrator and
the searching academican.
A technical background for gov-
ernment leaders is as common in
the USSR as a law degree is here.
Khrushchev himself displayed
such formidable knowledge of
turbo-prop and turbo-jet airplane
engines that Vice-President Nixon
found it very difficult to carry his
side of the conversation when the
two discussed the subject in Mos-
cow last summer.
..THE UNDERSTANDING of sci-
ence held by Soviet politicos and
the resulting intimacy it estab-
lishes with researchers allows the
government to give a lot of auth-
ority to the scientist himself. The
senior designer of a research pro-
ject is often given unequivocal
authority, especially in a project
rated as highly important. He is
unhampered by bureaucratic red
tape and is aided by large re-
search grants.
Even such an apparently beau-
tiful arrangement has its flaws
and shortcomings, of whichthe
most serious are being noticed and
from which the current crisis has
arisen.
* * *
THE SCARCITY OF first-rate
scientific talent and limited re-
sources forced the Soviets to pick
and choose among many possible
lines of research development.
These selected projects were given
immense help, great achievements
were produced.
The remaining fields of science
-the huge bulk of the unspectac-
ular, but important ones-is hard-
Tly supported at all. They suf-
fer from rigidity, duplication,
overcentralization, and lack of
communication. Concentration on
the part has meant neglect of
the whole.
Soviet science thus has large
gaps where little or no achieve-
ments have been forthcoming.
Chemical research, especially in
biochemistry, is very weak. A
group of U.S. scientists who re-
cently visited in the USSR report
that "not one project of interest"
was being worked on in biochem-
istry. Medical research, except in
+hah ..l ni- hi..d ar- f i -_

pletely unpredictable art, scien-
tific discovery. The problem of
prediction, the great one facing
Russian science, today, is harder
for them now.
When they were lagging behind
the Western nations, scientific
areas that promised fast and im-
portant developments were fairly
easy to recognize. As the USSR
pushes out to the borders of
known research, choosing profit-
able areas on which to concen-
trate becomes a process more
than tinged with the cold reality
of random sampling.
THE SOVIETS REALIZE that
they are at this point of crisis
and they are trying to elevate the
general level of all sciences to in-
sure success without risking
money, time, and top talent on
worthless research. Yet they can
not maintain the accelerated
growth of scientific achievement
across the whole realm of research
The "somewhere" that does not
without losing out somewhere.
get probed by the inquiring cre-
ativity of an able researcher may
result in the extra burst of energy
that will send the "tired andold
nag" of U.S. democracy across
the finish line first, if a Western
researcher discovers that "some-
where" first.

DREW PEARSON-
Nixon wants Ike
TO Go Back To Work
CHICAGO--There's one important request Vice-President Nixon is
making, very diplomatically, of Eisenhower: don't go back to chas-
ing a ball around the golf course in Rhode Island while the world
crisis continues.
Nixon is making the request very discreetly through White House
aides. He doesn't want to tangle with Ike direct. Nevertheless heI was
furious over newspaper headlines reporting that Ike paused only mo-
mentarily in his round of golf to get telephone reports on the Congo
crisis, the threats to Cuba, the RB-47 incident and other world-
shaking events.
Nixon felt that the picture of Eisenhower relaxing nonchalantly
on the golf course when the Russians had launched the greatest pres-

sure drive against the West in
history did not sit well with the
public and he- sounded off in
rather bitter language privately.
He also put pressure on White
House aides to get the President
back to work.
* * *
THAT'S WHY AFTER the visit
to Denver, Eisenhower is expected
to fly back to Washington on the
evcuse that Congress is coming
back to work.
Nixon, however, is reported still
boiling and if he didn't have to
rely on Eisenhower for campaign
speeches he'd say something pub-
licly about how he expected to be
a fulltime working President.
To offset criticism, Jim Hagerty
stressed the fact that even on the
golf course Ike had a secret ser-
vice man along with a walkie-.

enhower's suite with hand-paint-
ed Japanese landscapes. Of all
places, Ike wants to be reminded
of is Japan whose riots kept him
away. , . The same hotel as-
signed Vice-President Nixon to
the famous "smoke-filled room"
where the deal was made in 1920
to make Warren Harding Presi-
dent of the United States. When
Nixon learned of the room's his-
tory, he asked to be transferred.
a .. Chicago's WGN-TV scheduled
a routine re-run of a "Navy Log"
show on the eve of the Republi-
can convention, belatedly discov-
ered it was the dramatization of
Democratic candidate Jack Ken-
nedy's wartime heroics. The film
was switched at the last minute.
GOP National Chairman Thrus,
ton Morton had a convention

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