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July 23, 1960 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1960-07-23

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". . * Now, Let Us Consider The Next
Well-Known Candidate -.-"

Seventieth Year
___ EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIvERSITY OF MICHIGAN
When Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prev- STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

AY, JULY 23, 1960

NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL BURNS

U.S. Attitude Belies

war' .1 5
y IM I II lt "} Y i1ThI
7

AT THE MICHIGAN:
Disney's 'Pollyanna'
Gladly Bad".
IT WOULD SEEM UNFAIR to attempt a serious criticism of "Polly-
anna," the current offering at the Michigan Theatre. The picture i
chock full of the expected Disney syrup and cliche against a back
ground of 1890 Americana, replete with straw boaters and tandem
bicycles. In most cases, there is nothing easier to pan and in mos
cases a panning is entirely justified.
Eleanor Porter's novel, from which writer-director David Swif
has pieced together his screenplay, is custom-fitted Disney material
Pollyanna, who has just lost her missionary parents, comes to live wit)

Castro's Accomplishments

[HE EISENHOWER administration's "hard"
line on Cuba is apparently based on the
,upposition that the Castro government is as
ad or worse than the old Batista dictatorship.
i the official view, Fidel Castro is portrayed as
wild-eyed, uncouth fanatic and his govern-
ment is pictured as a collection of gun-toting,
ushy-faced Reds who spend most of their time
onfiscating United States property.
In the context of this officially endorsed
nage, it is unfortunate that very little infor-
nation has been made available to the Ameri-
an public on the total effect of the Castro
overnment's activities since coming to power.
arleton Beals' report in a recent issue of the
ration is one of the few accounts of a
etailed factual nature on the accomplishments
I the Castro government.
Beals points out that before Castro's revo-
ition 'there were only four public schools in
[avana while now there are 57. After an on-
hie-spot survey, the Nation's "man in Havana"
.oted that Batista police stations are now be-

ing turned into schools. Again, Beals reported
that the Cuban standard of living has gone
up considerably since Batista. was deposed:
public housing projects have been created on
a" large scale and salaries, except for top
government posts, have been increased across
the board.
IN HIS REPORT, Beals also commented that
Cuban agricultural productivity has actually
shown a substantial increase since Castro's
agrarian reform measures were put into effect.
He suggested that Castro's treatment of large
American holdings in Cuba was the same as
his treatment of large, Cuban-owned enter-
prises.
In view of Beals' observations, perhaps the
United States "hard" line toward Cuba de-
serves more careful scrutiny than it has been
getting. If the Castro government looks worse
to us than the old Batista regime, it may well
be our disgrace.
--LEWIS COBURN

her Aunt Polly (Jane Wyman), a
inherited the whole town through
Ea string of ancestors.
AFTER, BEING briefed b the
domestics concerning the ill-
hmor of the villagers, Pollyanna
promptly goes about the merit-
worthy project of making the
town happy.'
That "Pollyanna" escapes the
sticky fate of most endeavors In
this vein is in part due to the ef-
forts of writer-director Swift who
has presented his well-worn situ-
ations unpretentiously.
Swift has also managed to spike
his pablum with a few barbs at
small-town provincialism. There
is more than one moment of good
comedy .ranginghfrom the inns-
tentatious to the slapstick and
highlighted by the sermon of a
histrionic small - town preacher
(Karl Malden).
Both Malden and Agnes Moore-
head a flame-haired hypochon-
driac here, have turned in ex-
cellent performances in the other-
wise bland surroundings of a cast
which has earned its pay pain-
lessly and without brio:
* * *
THE MAIN PART of the credit,
however, must go to Hayley Mills,
the young lady who holds the
title role. Miss Mills goes about
the traditional mugging dutifully
but with a total lack of self-con-
sciousness which may well warm
the most hardened and sophisti-
cated of moviegowers.
Mr. Swift has been fortunate
enough to center his picture on
one of the most enjoyable per-
formances by a child actor to
appear in a long time. Miss Mills
not only carries the whole effort,
she makes it likable.
--Earnest Jones

wealthy young spinstress who has
INTERPRETING:
Congo
Goes Wes t
By J. M. .ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
WESTERN private enterprise
and the United Nations appear to
have erased Soviet Russia from
the Congo picture.
Russia had already taken her
place within the United Nations
picture instead of outside it when
Premier Lumumba announced the
Congo had signed a big deal with
an international development com-
pany, headed by an American, to
get going on power and mining de-
velopments.
Then the Congolese leader
hopped a plane for America with
the promoter of the Congo Inter-
national Management Corp. to
seek additional economic, techni-
cal and medical aid in the United
States and Canada.
. * * *
HIS ORIGINAL intention for
the trip, to demand immediate
evacuation of Belgian troops, had
been forestalled during Thursday
night by the United Nations reso-
lution asking Belgium for speedy
withdrawal. Lumumba could ex-
pect the council to go no further.
This resolution, merely asking
for greater speed in Belgium's ob-
servance of a July 14 resolution,
was agreed to by Soviet Russia
after it became obvious she was
getting nowhere with her own
insistence on immediate withdraw-
al and her threat of military in-
tervention.
Lumumba's attitude had been
unstable from day to day in a
viously thought he could play off
Russia against the West.

S OTHERS SEE IT:
Iowa Changes ROTC

OVERTHREW MENDERES:
Student Views Turkish Riots

IN THESE SUMMER months, the issues that
were important during the last regular
school year seem very remote, but Tuesday one
spring semester topic of discussion crept back
into the limelight. That topic was compulsory
ROTC and the merits and shortcomings of
such a program.
Last May, a proposal endorsing voluntary
rather than compulsory participation in ROTC
at SUI (State University of Iowa) was put
beforethe Student Council here.
The main reason cited for the action was
that ROTC took up study time that might be
better used on more academic courses.
The proposal was referred to a committee for
study, and the Student Council hoped to make
further progress on the issue when school
opened this coming fall.
Now the SUI ROTC Department has taken
action that may change somewhat the Stu-
dent Council's action. It was announced Thurs-
day that one-third of the previously purely
"military" hours spent by students in the course
will be replaced by purely academic subjects.
Students taking Army ROTC will have one
MAX LERNER inW'-m
PaternaliM I
T HE LONG overdrawn accounts of humanity
in Africa are finally being presented for
settlement. That the settlement should be
demanded most dramatically in the case of the
Belgian Congo is one of those ironies of history
which are constantly hitting us in the face
these days.
The fact is, every student of Africa knows
the Belgian rule in the Congo and the adjoin-
ing Ruanda-Urundi has in the past half-
century (since the death of the execrated
Leopold at 88) been one of the few instances
of decent, enlightened, and progressive colonial
administration in Africa. Yet it is in the Congo
ithat the departing whites have been subjected
to the worst personal humiliations and out-
rages, and it is in the Congo that the structure
of self-government has most miserably broken
down.
How does one explain this? Part of the ex-
planation lies in the backwardness of the
Congolese social structure, and the continuing
pattern of tribal feuds and hatreds which are
now transferred to the whites. But mostly the
fault lies with the idea which was at the core
of Belgian rule. It was the idea that one people
can treat another people like children and
then except them to behave like adults.
The Belgians built clean and modern fac-
tories for the Congolese, and fine hospitals and
clinics, and neat white houses for them to live
in. But until three years ago they allowed them
no part in governing themselves. And the little
colony of Belgian administrators kept aloof
from the 13 million natives. "They live as far
away from us," said one Congolese, "as if they
inhabited the planet Sirius." They knew them
only as servants and workers. They regarded
the Congolese people as wards to be cared for,
with kindness and of course with profits for
their trouble. They ran a decent, germ-proof,
antiseptic paternal operation, bringing all the
modern improvements into the Jungle. They
came to grief because even with the best of
intentions paternalism is not enough.
N 1956 I spent several weeks in the Congo,
long enough to get the feel of the place, too
short for any real study of it. I saw the Pigmy
villages in the heart of the rain-forest, was
caked with the dust of the long parched
stretches, saw the factories and the new hous-

hour of military subjects throughout the fresh-
man and sophomore years, in addition to one
hour of drill. Those in AIr Force ROTC will
take no Air Force subjects during one semester
of the year.
THIS WILL MEAN that in the first two years
of Army and Air Force ROTC participation
the student will have 30 hours that he can de-
vote to general academic rather than military
subjects.
Both departments should be congratulated
on their moves. It shows a conscious desire
to construct an acceptable and realistic pro-
gram. Whether or not it will satisfy those crit-
ics of the program is another question. Cer-
tainly the argument of study time taken up is
lessened somewhat, but the program is still on
a compulsory and not voluntary basis.
At any rate one can say it is a step in the
direction wanted and wait until next fall to
see what further action the Student Council
will take.
--THE DAILY IOWAN

akf fires

Belgians for education and training, to develop
into a native elite. As the chosen ones, they
were presumably also the safe ones from the
Belgian viewpoint, yet they expressed discon-
tent with the slow progress of freedom. The
other was when a young Belgian official told
me bitterly that the leaders of the big busi-
ness corporation which ran and controlled the
Congo were too smug about their accomplish-
ments and too stuck in their ways to know
what was happening in the minds of the
Congolese.
He turned out to be a better prophet than
I had anticipated. Leaders Were developing
among the Congolese who were determined to
get freedom, The All-African People's Confer-
ence, at Accra in Ghana in 1959, was the
turning-point. Immediately after it the Leo-
poldville riots broke out. Nothing the Belgians
could do from that point could prevent their
being ousted from the Congo and the setting
up of a native republic. The dream of freedom
seemed to have been fulfilled in the heart of
Africa.
BUT HAS IT? The Congolese got their inde-
pendence from Belgium, but they did not
achieve freedom. This is the weakness of the
dream of freedom: if a people does not have
along with it a capacity for self-government
and a trained democratic elite to carry it out,
the dream of freedom becomes a nightmare.
By treating the Congolese as children the
Belgians kept an administrative corps from
developing there as it has developed in the
British colonial areas. The result has been the
breakdown of the new government, the foolish
move of the Congolese in ousting the Belgian
army officers without whom the army was a
cipher. the beating of the Europeans which
gave the Belgians their impulse and excuse to
reoccupy the Congo.
There is another way of putting it, which I
owe to Peter Pitner's exciting new book, "The
Death of Africa" (Macmillan, 1960). The Bel-
gians brought modern industry to the Congo,
and the new industries brought urbanization.
The old tribal villages were broken up, and
with them the old social controls. The new
cities were built, but they have not developed
a new set of social controls such as our own
big cities have. In the crisis of liberation and

By NORMA SUE WOLFE
Special to The Daily
IERSIN, Turkey - Students at
the University of Istanbul re-
cently set off a chain of events
which effected a complete change
in this country's governmental
structure
And in the nucleus of the group
was dark-haired, soft-spoken Sel-
ma Merzeci, a 19-year-old student
from Mersin, in southern Turkey.
"It all began on Wednesday,
April 27, when the late govern-
ment made a new law," Miss Mer-
zeci recalled. "According to that
law, the guards were given power
to come and arrest a person for
just sitting and thinking.
"This is not a democracy, you
know," she said, "although it
started so. On Thursday nearly
5,000 students gathered in the
garden of the University of Istan-
bul."
SOME STUDENTS stepped out
of the crowd and began to lead the
rest in singing the Turkish na-
tional march. The march was the
favorite song of Ataturk, the pop-
ular first president of the state,
she explained.
"Then they suddenly appeared
-I mean the police on horses. I
think they guessed we were going
to gather. There is a law in Tur-
key that police cannot come into
the yardpof the university on
horseback," Miss Merzeci contin-
ued. "But they came. I could even
see them riding through the rooms
of the university."
The police, whom the students
later found were only men hired
by the government to disperse the
crowd, first warned them to go
home. Then they drew their pis-
tols
* * *
"THOSE POLICE did not un-
derstand we had no harmful pur-
pose in being there," she said.
"We had only gathered to sing
songs and walk through the
streets informing the people about
the law."
But the fight began, and the
weaponless students faced a force
of armed, mounted government
mercenaries.
"We had no weapons because it
was a peaceful gathering, so the
girls took off their high-heeled
shoes and began to use them,"
Miss Merzeci said. "The boys
threw stones and used their cig-
arettes to burn the horses. It was
so cruel. We were all of the same
nationality, but the police didn't
realize this.
"Besides their pistols, they used
gas bombs," she added. "And
when the bombs cleared, you
couldn't see any bodies because
they were removed to cover the
horrible crime."
FINALLY the army came to the
rescue of the students and sent
them home.
"On that first day when the
riot began, no one believed us be-
cause they did not understand the
last government and its methods,"
the psychology student explained.
"Then the people began to under-
stand matters-that the country
was really in a very bad position."
At 9 a.m. Saturday, students
gathered again at the university.
At first, there were only three-

tied. The number grew to about
4,000, she estimated.
"At first I was in the middle,
but then I looked around and saw
many behind me. Then we began
to walk," she related, "and on that
day the people to understand us.
Clerks from the buildings threw
us flags."
The crowd shouted "Resign
Menderes" (prime minister) and
"Murder Menderes."
"We wanted to have the bodies
of our dead friends, freedom, and
liberty," Miss Merzeci asserted.
A ?rge portrait of Ataturk was
thrown down, an sne carried it
at the head of the crowd.
* S *
'THEN WE were all shouting
and suddenly I saw some officers
in front of me who wanted to
make us stop. We did, of course,
because we had decided that not
going against the officers would be
the only thing to help us," she
added.
"Just at that moment, I saw one
of the officer take his bayonnet
and put it to my stomach, saying,
'Even if you were my mother, I
would kill you.'
"Since the officers must snap
to attention when they hear our
march, we started singing," she
recalled with a smile. Miss Mer-
zeci was saved from almost cer-
tain death, but she did not retreat
into the crowd.
"I GAVE the portrait to one of
my friends, went to the captain
of the officers, took his shoulders
and began to shake him. I don't
think you could say I was brave-
just angry," she continued, "but
I grabbed him and cried, 'How can
you shoot your own brothers and
sisters?'"
There were tears in the cap-
tain's eyes, she remembered. He
said simply, "Yes, it is true," and
then took his soldiers away.
The students then marched to
the hospital for their friends'
bodies, but all had been disposed
of. It is impossible to estimate
how many students were killed in
the riot, Miss Merzeci said, be-
cause only five bodies were found.
* * *
"DURING this time Menderes
was talking to us every day, warn-
ing people we shouldn't be afraid
and act against him, his people
and his country," she added. "He
said Sunday "was a warning day,
but if this kind of action con-
tinued, he would really shoot, and
kill us all."
A NATO conference was to be
held in Istanbul that Monday. By
Sunday, a crowd had gathered in
front of the conference building."
"Our purpose was to show people
from outside the country what was
happening," she explained.
FOR THEIR actions against the
government, students were sent
home and the university closed.
On May 27, one month later, the
riot begun by the students cul-
minated in the army's overthrow
of the government.
"A provisional government still
goes on and we are very happy,"
Miss Merzeci said. "The journal-
g DAIL
OFFICIAL I

Rockefeller, Kennedy

t

* # -+

CHICAGO-There's striking sim-
ilarity between the political
doctrines of Sen. John F. Ken-
nedy and Gov. Nelson Rockefeller.
This is not going to evoke hosan-
nahs from old guard Republicans
or help Rocky toward being draft-
ed. But it would help him pull
millions of votes away from the
Democrats in the November show-
down.
If you read the magnificent ac-
ceptance speech delivered by Ken-
nedy in Los Angeles and the brist-
ling manifesto issued by Rocke-
feller when he challenged Nixon
last June, you might think you
were reading the same man.
* * *
BOTH TALK OF THE future, not
the past. Both warn of our lag-
ging defenses, of national com-
placency, make no promise of tax
cuts, put sacrifice ahead of per-
sonal security. Rockefeller pro-
poses essentially the Forand bill
for medical help to the aged which
Eisenhower has threatened to
veto. Kennedy has come out for
a similar plan.
Here is a comparison of what
the two men said:
Regording Nixon, Rockefeller
said, "I find it unreasonable that
the leading Republic candidate
has firmly insisted upon making
known his program and his poli-
cies not before but only after
nomination by his party. . . . we
cannot . . , march to meet the
future with a banner aloft whose
only emblem is a question mark."
Kennedy had this to say about
Nixon: "The Republican nominee
to be is a young man. But his ap-
proach is as old as McKinley. His
party is the party of the past. His
speeches are generalities from
Poor Richard's Almanac."
Rockefeller-"We face . . . A
problem either to be resolved by
strong action or to be evaded by
strong slogans."
K e n n e d y-"Young men are
coming to power . . . who can cast
off the old slogans and delusions
and suspicions."
ROCKEFELLER-"A new per-
iod now begins. It summons new
men. New problems to mend, new
ideas, new actions. We cannot and
we must not confuse taking pride
in the past with taking measure
of the future."
Kennedy- "We stand today on
the edge of a new frontier-the
frontier of the 1960's-the, fron-
tier of the unknown opportunities
and perils-the frontier of un-
fulfilled hopes and threats.
"Today our concern must be
with the future. For the world is
changing. The old era is ending,
'Mnld w avewllntA,1 '

and subsidies ever high. But , . .
our ends will not be won by rhet-
oric and we can have faith in the
future only if we have faith in
ourselves."
Rockefeller - "What-and who
-is this future? It is a host of
men and nations, problems and
forces, to be ignored or evaded
only at deadly peril to our own
nation's life and freedom. It is
nuclear power either to better
lives and to defend peoples-or
serving to shatter nations and
shake the planet. It is the rise of
new nations across the earth,
either to learn and to enjoy the
ways of freedom-or to suffer and
serve the ways of tyranny. It is
a giant technological revolution
changing the lives of all men for
better or for worse, as it is disci-
plined and directed."
Kennedy-"The new frontier of
which I speak is not a set of
promises-it is a set of challenges.
It sums up not what I intend to
offer the American people, but
what I intend to ask of them. It
appeals to their pride, not their
pocketbook-it holds out the
promise of more sacriflice instead
of more security."

THE PREMIER'S enthusiasm
about the development deal, how-
ever, and his mention of other
offers of economic help, make it
appear that he has decided where
his bread and butter lies.
First inquiries in New York fail-
ed to produce much information
on L. E. Detwiler, the American
promoter of the development deal,
who was accmpanying Lumumba
to America. All that was known
about it came from Lumumba.
The Premier, however, accom-
panied his announcement of the
deal with an apparent acceptance
of the United Nations position and
comment that Russian troops
would not be needed. The deal has
had its political effect, regardless
of how it turns out financially.
Lumumba even had a few kind
words to say for the Belgians.
He obviously felt that his boat
had reached calmer waters-and
they were Western waters.
He may have taken some heart
from the Security Council's re-
minder that the Congo had been
admitted to the United Nations
as a unit, which read like a slap
at secessionists within the coun-
try. But secessionism remained a
-cause for nightmares during his
American visit.

ists were taken from prisons, new
laws were made, and now new
elections will be held soon."
Miss Merzeci, who has studied
English eight years, hopes to go
to the United States in two years
on a Fulbright scholarship. A psy-,
chology major, she plans to work
in an American hospital and then
return to practice in Istanbul.
DREW PEARSON:

To The EItor_______
To the Editor:
MISS GOLDEN'S editorial of yesterday contained an interesting
expression of thought which is held by a great many people, par-
ticularly Americans: "We intuitively know that peace can ultimately
come only through disarmament but we can't trust those dirty Rus-
sians."
Our own unwillingness to develop mutual trust should be quite
apparent after the notorious U-2 plane incident and the subsequent
self-righteous rationalizations from the Eisenhower administration

after the summit collapse. A serious{
was in stating: "The core of non-
violent resistance is disarmament,
which makes the opponent an open
bully, an uncivilized beast attack-
ing dignified human beings."
DISARMAMENT, at its best, is
but a means to achieving an end.
It is but one point-the weightiest,
to be sure-in a series of steps
leading to a lasting development
toward world conflict resolution.
Economic steps have to be taken
simultaneously to insure sound
conditions both at home and
abroad. Conditions of unrest have
to be eliminated in the bud.
Population control, health and
sanitation measures, famine and
agriculture control, and illiteracy
elimination have to be closely
stndid and acted unAn All nf

error which the editorial contained
lent resistance must rest on an
ideological basis-that basis being
love for another man, regardless'
of hisfattitudes. For this intan-
gible, yet, nonetheless, realistic
foundation comes a way of life.
In a nation which teaches its
young men to hate its adversaries,
uses 75 per cent of its budget for
wars, tells its citizens that the
only laternative to radioactive fall-
out is to build modern versions of
the old-fashioned storm cellar, it
is indeed a wonder that Southern
sit-in students would even recog-
nize the concept of non-violent
solution to grave social problems.
We live, obviously, in an era of
revolution. Imagination and will-
ingness to try different ways of
rnninar with cnnflict hpenm m nra

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