"I Want To Protect You"
- Seventieth Year
-'. EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSrrY OF MICHIGAN
hen Opinions Are Free' UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Alter Republican Pl1ani
By GEOFFREY GOULD
Associated Press Correspondent
CHICAGO--A Republican convention official said yesterday the pa
has received an avalanche of mail from TV viewers complain:
about the way the Democrats staged their convention in Los Angel
"They have indicted the insincere nominations of favorite son
said Jaren L. Jones, vice-chairman of the GOP arrangements comm
JULY 22, 1960
NIGHT EDITOR: JEAN SPENCER
Until Trust Is Established
HE FEDERATION of American Scientists
has announced its support of arms control.
id eventual disarmament with the comment
at our country is unquestionably in favor of
sarmament "in principle."
The American public, while desiring dis-
mament as a means to peace, fears the arms
ntrol proposals which have been suggested
y both the United States and Russia because
uncertainty that such plans would be carried
it in good faith.
An interesting contrast is provided by the
WE HAVE a friend who's an expert. He is,
further, the world's foremost. Foremost,
that is, on practically everything.
Take men's fashions. He's the one who
predicted, just this summer, that the Ed-
wardian and Italian styles were on the way
out, and people would return to the bold look
of the immediate post war period-I forget
which war that was, at the moment. He was
especially specific in stating that colonial cut
Madras jackets and blazers would not be worn.
He was right, too; they're not. It's too warm.
My friend is wise in the ways of the campus.
He's the one who advised our reviewer that
everybody likes constructive criticism, so go
ahead and report the fact that acoustics in
East Hall are just about equal to the acoustics
in Echo Canyon, especially when one is seated
close to the orchestra. He's the one, too, who is
urging us to send an embryo reporter to cover
the Board of Trustees meetings, and lobby for
student parking space at Ballantine Hall.
But our friend has just scored his greatest
coup to date. He'll go down in history as the
man who predicted that Lyndon Johnson would
never step down as Senate majority leader
just to take a Vice-Presidential nomination.
-INDIANA DAILY STUDENT
"faith" involved in civil disobedience cam-
paigns, examples of which are found both in
India and in our own southern states. It takes
a strong person to participate in a civil dis-
obedience campaign, for he must subject him-
self to physical abuse without attempting to
retaliate. It takes a kind of faith.
THE CORE of non-violent resistance is dis-
armament, which makes the opponent an
open bully, an uncivilized beast attacking dig-
nified human beings. This spectacle sways the
emotions of onlookers, who in traditional fash-
ion will favor the underdog. Its second effect is
to sway those of its opponents who are human
enough not to react as uncivilized bullies, and
who therefore give in to the demands of the
unarmed, non-violent campaigners.
If the United States accepts an arms con-
trol or total disarmament program there is a
strong possibility that we will be placed un-
wittingly in the position of non-violent re-
sistors: the only contenders without arms.
But the opponents in this situation are cer-
tainly not going to give in to the demands of
the disarmed, and they have demonstrated
several times that the label of bully doesn't
hinder their actions.
MOREOVER, the stakes in this issue are much
too high for either side to risk trusting
the other. To accept disarmament at this time
would take far more faith than the American
public can muster. Without the backing of the'
public on such a vital issue, the government,
as an organ directly responsible to its elec-
torate, should not attempt the program.
The trust required for disarmament cannot
be cultivated either at a conference table or
after the program is enacted. It must exist be-
fore any plan to disarm or control arms is
signed, and certainly before a single weapon
tee. "They were violently opposed
objected, trenuously to staged
demonstrations and lack of atten-
tion and attendance by the dele-
The Republicans, Jones said,
plan to put on a streamlined, busi-
ness-like convention in which the
length of speeches and demon-
strations will be strictly limited."
* . .
"OUR APPROACH .. . was to
put on a better show," Jones said.
But he added that original plans
to mix -in a large amount of show
business entertainment to liven
the proceedings has been more or
"I am convinced that the people
are not interested in anything but
what goes on in that hall," Jones
said. He said the entire conven-
tion, with two sessions on Monday
and evening sessions on the next
three nights, will cover about 16
or 17 hours. He said the Demo-
cratic convention took about twice
that much total time.
The Republicans, of course, are
aided in their efforts to keep
things short by the fact that there
is in effect just one actual candi-
date for the Presidential nomina-
tion-Vice-President Richard M.
Nixon. Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller
of New York has said he would
accept a draft of the convention,'
but doesn't expect one to materi-
alize. However, it is almost certain
that Rockefeller's name will be
placed in nomination unless he
Ivetoes the idea.
"WE ARE NOT GOING to have
tions," Jones told a news confer-
"We are limiting demonstra-
tions to candidates. The Demo-
crats had demonstrations for the
keynoter, for the permanent
chairman, and for that group of
governors who got on just for the
purpose of impressing the home-
"The Democrats had too much
show, too much talk, too much
lack of attention, too much rig-
Jones explained that a closed
circuit television system will bring
the convention proceedings into a
TV lounge set up by the Young
Republicans organization outside
the international amphitheater.
He said persons who come to
the TV lounge to watch will be
a rotating basis depending on how
taken inside the amphitheater on
many empty seats are available.
410 0 940 -r)-W 04..i 4411,1 drCael rNO..Vr- o
to long seconding speeches. They
FEW MOVIES probe deep into
the psychologoy of a character
and leave the viewer with the feel-
ing that he has seen something
more than a mess of melodramatic
perversions (as one could see in
"Suddenly Last Summer") - or
with a sense of compassion with-
out feeling that the easily reached
sentimental layers of reaction have
"Citizen Kane" is one of these
movies. Like the recent "Wild
Strawberries," it explores a man,
more alone than most. But unlike
"Wild Strawberries," it does not
come to an easy end.
"Here's a toast to love; on my
terms," said Kane at the depar-
ture of his only friend. "These are
the only terms there are; your
own." And Kane saluted an atti-
tude that prevented him from ever
He carried t his attitude with
him his whole life, except perhaps
at the end. He applied it to his
newspapers and to his electioneer-
ing. Though it never brought him
the love he sought, it brought him
dazzling material success.
AT HIS DEATH, he mutters a
meaningless word, "rosebud,"
which prompts a magazine editor
to examine Kane's life in hopes of
finding a scoop. He eventually
finds an understanding of Kane
by interviewing those close to him,
and at the last refuses to reveal
the meaning of the word strangely
uttered on Kane's deathbed. He
does not learn the precise origin
of the term, though the audience
does. He has intruded far enough.
The photographic technique is
given an attention unrealized ,in
American films today. One is forced
to agree with critic Dwight Mac-
Donald that since "Citizen Kane,"
producers have been content to
photograph a stage play. One
scene fades into another with un-
usual skill and the whole main-
tains remarkable continuity.
Many of the effects would norm-
ally be unduly melodramatic, but
not in this picture. Neither do the
characters bedome melodramatic,
even Kane when he becomes ab-
surdly eccentric and withdrawn.
RELIGION IN SCHOOLS:
TODAY AND TOMORROW
yThe Congo and the UN
By WAL.TER LIPPMAN
ANYONE WHO THINKS that the United
Nations is a mere talking machine and of
not much practical use should take a good look
at the situation in the Congo. He will find that
situation is very bad and that the future of
the Congo Republic is sure to be full of great
But he will also find that without the UN,
as it is now administered with the genius of
Mr. Dag Hammarskjold, the situation would be
worse than very bad. It would be desperate and
hopeless. Above all it would be a very great
danger to the peace of Africa and it could
well be a danger to the peace of the world.
THE CONGO is a very large and a very rich
and a very primitive country. Suddenly and
with almost no notice it was granted inde-
pendence. There had been no serious prepara-
tion for self-government. There is no educated
native governing class. There is no native civil
service, there are no native technicians and
administrators for the big industrial enterprises
which have come under the legal authority
of the Congolese government. The suddenness
with which independence was granted, and al-
most total lack of preparation of the natives
for self-government, precipitated the crisis in
which the authority of the government col-
lapsed. The European population, which is in
serious danger, will probably have to be in the
main evacuated. The Congo has fallen apart
and is faced with civil war.
In the imperialist days of the nineteenth
:entury such a collapse of authority would
have meant intervention by the great powers.
They would have moved in not only to restore
order but, also to partition the country into
spheres of influence. In the Congo the im-
nediately interested powers are Belgium,
France, Great Britain, and Portugal. But as
the world is today these powers could not
intervene without the USSR and the U.S. each
taking a hand as well.
This would in the present state of world
opinion be intolerable.
There exists then a vacuum of authority in
one of the richest and largest and most tempt-
ng under-developed territories in the world.
T'he Congolese government cannot now main-
;ain order. and it will be a long time before
t has learned how to administer the country.
Or the other hand, the great powers cannot
now fill the vacuum of authority without a seri-
ous danger of conflict among themselves and
without affronting opinion throughout the
IN THIS SITUATION the United Nations
would have to be invented if it did not al-
ready exist. Those who read, as every serious
student of international affairs should, the
report of the Secretary General to the Security
Council will find there, in the veiled language
of diplomacy, a fascinating and inspiring story.
It is the story of how an international force
is being created to meet the situation in the
Congo. A lot has been said about how there
ought to be at the disposal of the United Na-
tions an international force. But Mr. Ham-
marskjold's report shows that he is not raising
an international force as such and theoretically
for all occasions, but a specialized force tailored
exactly with tact and ingenuity to the situa-
tion in the Congo.
The force is being drawn primarily from the
independent African states, from those not too
much involved in international disputes. It is
being drawn also from states that are neutral
or at least not active belligerents in the cold
war. The force is going to the Congo at the
request of the Congolese government and it is
instructed to regard that government as the
"host."' Its objective is to restore order, enabling
the Europeans to stay on with safety or to
leave, and thus making it unnecessary for the
Belgian troops to remain.
With the force will come relief to which
we and the Russians and others who are send-
ing no troops will contribute supplies. The UN
force in the Congo will, if the emergency
passes, become the means of supplying the
Congolese government with the technical aid
it so sorely needs.
IS UNITED NATIONS enterprise is the
most sophisticated experiment in interna-
tional cooperation ever attempted. Among all
that is so sad and so mean and so sour in
world politics, it is heartening to think that
something so good and so pure in its purpose is
possible. No one can say that the experiment
will succeed. But there is no doubt that it
deserves to succeed. Quietly and unobtrusively
all the influence of all the governments should
be exerted in Leopoldville and in Brussels and
elsewhere to help make it succeed.
BVIOUSLY, the United Nations cannot suc-
ceed if the Soviet Union accepts the invita-
tion of Prime Minister Lumumba to inter-
vene. But it is hard to see what the Soviet.
government would have to gain by opening
up a direct conflict, not with the United States
By FRED STEINGOLD
Daily Staff Writer
DOES the Constitution prohibit
a public school from conduct-
ing daily Bible-reading or other
The United States Supreme
Court has never squarely answered
this perplexing question but it
may do so soon.
The problem may come before
the high court from either or both
of two sources:
(1) The recent decision of a
special federal court that a Pen-
nsylania statute requiring at least
ten verses of the Bible to be read
at the beginning of each school
day is unconstitutional.
(2) A legal fight shaping up in
Miami over a similar statutory
provision and other religious ob-
S* * "
STATE COURTS WHICH have
considered the contention that
Bible-reading in the public schools
violates the separation of church
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent In TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. two days preced-
FRIDAY, JULY 22, 1960
VOL. LXX, NO. 23
Astronomy Department visitors' night.
Fri., July 22, 8:30 p.m, Room 2003 An.
gell Hall. Dr. Kenneth Yoss. Mt. Holy-
oke College, will speak on "The Dis-
tances to Stars." After the lecture the
Student Observatory on the fifth floor,
Angell Hall will be open for inspection
and observation of Jupiter. Saturn,
Double Star, and Hercules cluster. Chil-
dren welcomed but must be accompan-
ied by adults.
August teacher's certificate can d.
dates: All requirements for the teach-
er's certificate must be completed by
Aug. 1. These requirements Include the
teacher's oath, the health statement,
and the Bureau of Appointments ma-
terial. The oath should be taken as
soon as possible in room 1439 UES. The
office is open from 8-12 and 1:30 to
The Speech Dept. Colloquium with
Dr. Miriam Pals, of Johns Hopkins
Hospital, previously announced for
Tues., July 26, has been cancelled.
Graduate Social Hour: July 22 from
5 to 7 p.m. at the VFW Club, 314 E.
Student Recital Cancelled: Joel Ber-
man, violinist, has cancelled his re-
cital for Fri., July22, at 4:15 p.m. In
Rackham Assembly Hall.
Doctoral Examination for Andreas
Koutsoudas, Linguistics; thesis: "Verb
Morphology of Modern Greek: A De-
scriptive Analysis," Fri., July 22, 1409
Mason Hall, at 4:00 p.m. Chairman, 0.
Doctoral Examination for Allan Hir-
sch, Conservation; thesis: "Water Pol-
lution Control in New Zealand: An
Aspect of Environmental Conserva-
tion." Fri. July 22. 108 Museums An-
and state have reached conflicting
opinions. A majority of the state
decisions hold that Bible-reading
is not constitutionally objection-
able, particularly if objecting or
dissenting students are excused
The Bible, according to these
state courts, is not a sectarian
book and reading it in class is not
religious instruction. Such deci-
sions are usually earlier In date
than those holding Bible-reading
* * *
THEY WERE written long be-
fore the 1949 United States Su-
preme Court decision which laid
down the general rule that neither
a state nor the federal govern-
ment can aid one religion, aid all
religions, or prefer one religion
Those state courts which hold
that Bible-reading does violate
the Constitution reason that the
Bible is by its nature sectarian and
that reading it in school coerces
the consciences of those who do
not accept it as authoritative.
This was much the same line of
reasoning followed by the special
three - judge federal court last
In that case the parents of a
high school boy - both boy and
parents were Unitarians - com-
plained that a Pennsylvania sta-
tute which provides for daily read-
ing of ten verses of the Bible by
teachers or students is unconsti-
THE PARENTS also complained
that reading the ten verses in con-
junction with the practice of re-
citing in unison the Lord's Prayer
violates the Constitution.
The school board, which was
the defendant in the case, argued
that reading the Bible without
comment does not infringe upon
religious freedom and that it is a
substantial aid in developing the
minds and morals of school chil-
The federal court decided that
the practice of reading the Bible
and reciting the Lord's Prayer
vidlates the First and Fourteenth
Amendments to the Constitution.
Judge Biggs said:
"The daily reading of the Bible
buttressed with the authority of
the State and, more importantly
to children, backed with the au-
thority of their teachers, can
hardly do less than inculcate or
promote the inculcation of various
religious doctrines in childish
minds. Thus, the practice required
by the statute amounts to religious
instruction, or a promotion of re-
* * *
THE SCHOOL board plans to
appeal the decision to the United
States Supreme Court so perhaps
a definitive answer to this difficult
legal problem may be forthcom-
The more recent Miami litiga-
tion could also provide a test case
for the Supreme Court. There, the
plaintiff's case is being directed
by Leo Pfeffer, associate general
counsel of the American Jewish
Congress, and appears to have
more than merely local support.
Florida, like Pennsylvania, has
a law which provides for daily
readings from the Bible. The
Florida law goes even further and
provides'in the statute itself for
recitation of the Lord's Prayer. In
addition, the Florida schools spon-
sor ceremonies in observance of
* * * -
THE MIAMI school board last
June passed a resolution provid-
ing that a child whose parents ob-
jected to any religious observ-
ances in the schools might be ex-
cused from the observances.
Apparently, this was an at-
tempt to dilute the impact of the
argument that the religion pro-
gram involves coercion. The plain-
tiffs will undoubtedly insist that
coercion still exists because chil-
dren will hesitate to become con-
spicuous through their absence
from the ceremonies.
A decade has passed since the
Supreme Court last considered the
relationship between religion and
the public schools. At that time,
the burning issues were whether a
state could provide free trans-
portation to parochial school stu-
dents and whether religious in-
struction could be given on a "re-
leased time" basis,
The 'issue of racial segregation
in the public schools dominated
the Court's attention during the
interim years but the religious
question may once again come to
AT THE STATE:
ITALIAN FILM vendors have once again unleashed the Frank
Merriwell of the classical world in "Hercules Unchained."
Those who saw the first of this series of sex-and-sand spectaculars,
probably thought Hercules should have been chained forever, but he's
back on the screen doing Just as many feats of strength as ever, and
even kills two tigers instead of the usual one.
The muscular mastadon, Steve Reeves, recreates his immortal role
as the strongest mortal on earth. His wife, Sylva Koscina, also returns.
Sylvia Lopez, as the nympho queen Omphole, portrays one of the tough-
est barriers to Hercules' mission to save his city of Thebes and the honor
of his wife, Iole. Reeves, with his bulging muscles, is backed by a cast
'Goodbye' Sets Of f
THE AUDIENCE at Northland Playhouse was treated to a nice bit of
nonsense Tuesday night. Titled "Goodbye Again," it starred that
master of nonsense,. Tony Randall.
From first glimpse of the bleary-eyed, sleep-befogged hero to last
glimpse of him, diabolically leering, leaping into the arms of his
secretary, Randall is the epitome of the professional comedian.
A very able cast assists him and sometimes comes close to out-
grimacing him. Especially good was the second act scene-stealing
done by John Astin who should be an outraged husband, but can only
complain that despite a large wedding, a Buick in the garage and an
electric rotisserie, something is missing in his marriage.
* * S S
THE SOMETHING MISSING is his wife, who during the bulk of
the play is busy throwing herself into Randall's arms.
It seems the hero, a celebrated author, was once a "great and
good" friend of hers and now-after six years-she wants him to
forgive her for deserting him (he can't even remember her name) and
be friends again. Throw in a husband all too eager to be "reasonable
and fair-minded" about the situation, relatives anxious to avoid scan-
dal, a secretary who is more than a "pal" to the young author and
Chaos, skillfully handled, is just what "Goodbye Again" is.
Randall's old bag of tricks is clearly in evidence, much to the
audience's delight-the stiffly nodded head, the puzzled look, the rapid
switch from imperious demand, to childish simper, and a very good
sense of timing and shading.
* * * *
of Italians almost equally endowed
and adept at pectoral expansion.
The same could be said of the
scantily-clad, female contingent,
THE ACTING performances are
as one would expect. The film is
Italian with the words dubbed in,
sometimes done well and at other
points, poorly. The theme song,
Evening Star, sung by June Valli,
does not sound like a winner,
The palace and cave scenes are
striking in color, although the
viewer is aware they are film sets.
Sports fans will recognize Primo
Carnera, ex - heavyweight boxing
champ and wrestler, as a bad
giant. Camera's acting ability has
not changed any since he left the
ring and his role calls for no more
than an occasional line and sev-
The Oedipus myth is woven in-
to the plot of the screenplay. The
conflict between Polynices and
Eteocles provides the object of
Hercules' labors at reconciliation.
He is, however, prevented by the
charms of lovely. Omphale from
stopping their double-death in a
THE PLOT, although slightly
different from the last picture,
still had the same events-a little
boring due to their repetition-. In
KATHLEEN MOCRE. Editor
ICHAEL BURNS .,............Night Editor
NDREW HAWLEY ..................... Night Editor
ICHAEL OLINICK ................Sports Co-Editor
:SAN JONES.....................Snorts Co-Editor