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July 21, 1962 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1962-07-21

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Severty-Second Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
_ UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG, r ANN ARRMICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

"Ching Up -- Far Better Thing And All That --
Move Along-- Good Chap -"

STRATFORD FESTIVAL:
'Taming of the Shrew'
Highlights Season
Special To The Daily
STRATFORD, ONT.-After two magnificent seasons of brilliantly di-
rected and acted productions of Shakespeare in 1960 and 1961, the
Stratford Festival this summer comes as a mild disappointment with
its mixed-bag offerings: a badly misguided "Macbeth," and ill-staged
but otherwise ,good "Tempest," and a splendid "Taming of the Shrew"
for which the 1962 season will long be remembered.
Taking additional material from a contemporary play called "The
Taming of a Shrew"-whose relation to Shakespeare's "The Taming
of the Shrew" is uncertain (it may have been the model for Shake-
speare's comedy)-the Stratford people have rounded out and improved

TURDAY, JULY 21, 1962

NIGHT EDITOR: GERALD STORCH

Need Better Studies

°"

I Communism

THE UNITED STATES has come a long way
in the matterof high school instruction in
Communism. Only ten years ago it was near-
heresy and a threat to American security for
high school teachers to deal with the subject.
But the fog of McCarthyism has lifted from
the land, and Americans, many of whom used
to oppose the mention of Communism in the
presence of young ears, are now urging the
adoption of high school studies in it.
A joint committee of the National Educa-
tioial Association and the American Legion
has issued a guide, "Teaching about Commu-
nism," on the basis that American schools must
give "in depth" treatment to the Communist
threat to Western civilization. The guide cor-
rectly asserts that this treatment should in-
clude an accurate and factual presentation of
Communist philosophy and practices, geared to
the knowledge, maturity and competence of
American junior and senior high school stu-
dents.
An accurate and factual presentation has
been missing in some of the course set-ups
across the nation. Louisiana's required unit on
"Americanism Versus Communism" is a good
example of the distorted approach. The unit
makes everything black and white as if the
world situation were that unclouded. Its
syllabus declares that "America must estab-
lish a final and complete victory over Commu-
nism as its primary goal for the future." This
is Senator Barry Goldwater's approach; it im-
plies military war. The Kennedy Administra-
tion's approach is to try to achieve disarma-
ment and military peace, permitting the con-
flict to be economic; but the Louisiana course
Ignores this.
THE COURSE AIMS at "outlining the super-
ior characteristics and advantages of a free
capitalistic economy as compared with the
controlled collectivist economy of socialism and
communism" and in this way it tosses social-
ism into the same basket as Communism. It
does not take into account Great Britain: the
most democratic country in the world, a
country that is socialist to a great extent. Nor
does it take into account Norman Thomas, the
most outstanding American socialist, one of our
greatest defenders of individual liberty. Yet so-
cialism and the welfare state are defined by
the Louisiana course as "way stations on the
road to Communism."
The course presents the idea that "the in-
ternational Communist movement has one pur-
pose: to help the rulers of the Soviet Union
gain control of the world." No mention is made
of the anti-Soviet policies and heresies of Yu-
goslavia, Albania and Communist China.
"If we persist in teaching simply that Com-
munism is to democracy approximately as black
is to white, or villainy to heroism, the student
will find it difficult if not impossible to under-
stand the enormous gains of Communism in the
last two decades," John H. Fischer, president of
Columbia's Teachers' College, has pointed out.
The student "will be ill-prepared to deal with
the current reports on Soviet education, or to
explain the internal accomplishments of Rus-
sia since 1917."
ORE THAN 30,000 Louisiana students are
exposed for an hour each day to the distor-
tions in that state's required course in Com-
munism. Much of the stress is' on materials
of .the House Un-American Activities Commit-
tee, some of which is valid, but much of which
carries the shadows of McCarthyism.
The problem arises partly because liberals
have been so busy fighting McCarthyism and
its right-wing shades today that many of them
have neglected the problem of the Communist
challenge. This is ironic because the interna-
tional Communists have been greater violators
of individual freedom and due process of law
than the American right-wingers. The liberals
should not only seek to establish the open mar-
ketplace of ideas but should also take issue
with Communism.
American high school studies in Communism
should be a concern of both conservatives and
liberals. Both groups have much at stake in
our conflict with Communism. Both need rec-
ognize the need for an American citizenry well
informed on the issues and background of the
cold war.
BUT THOSE who should have greatest con-
cern are educators, about the problem of
how can our schools teach young people the
intricacies of Communism when most teachers,

even social studies teachers, have little back-
ground on it? This University's "Survey of the
Soviet Union," "Philosophic Basis of Commu-
nism, Fascism and Democracy," and other, more
specialized courses are popular and excellent;
but, it would seem, we are the exception. Few
college graduates elsewhere are able to gain a
thorough understanding of Communism.
For the problem lies not only in the back-
Business Staff
ANDREW CRAWFORD. ......Business Manager
KENNETH KONOP ...... Display Advertising Manager
JO ANN LOIKREC......... .... Circulation Manager
JON WhiiTE.......Classified Advertising Manager

wardness of high school social studies curricu-.
lums, but also in the backwardness of college
social studies curriculums. If we want to im-
prove our high schools, we will have to improve
our colleges, particularly our teachers colleges.
We will have to offer more courses in Commu-
nism and the cold war at the college level be-
fore we will have many well-taught courses of
this kind at the high school level.
But this should not stop us from planning
and instituting high school courses in Com-
munism now. We need strain to the limits of
our resources in getting started, but the im-
portant matter is to start.
MANY STATES and communities are realiz-
ing this. The Michigan Legislature has been
examining a bill that would require a course of
not less than thirty hours on comparative
government, the emphasis being on "the free
enterprise competitive system of the United
States in contrast with the doctrines, objectives
and techniques of Communism." The Chicago
Bureau of Curriculum Development is planning
an experimental course contrasting Commu-
nism and democracy, which is to be ready for
trial in September.
This is the time for proposals and sugges-
tions and for discussion on how to plan Commu-
nist studies in Communism. Here are some sug-
gestions:
Communism should not be taught in isola-
tion. We should teach it in contrast with Amer-
ican democracy, and we should make the study
of the two civilizations as complete as possi-
ble, dealing with political and governmental
systems, economics, culture, society, literature,
history, philosophy, legality, the arts, geogra-
phy, and foreign policy,
WE SHOULD OFFER not merely one semes-
ter of "Comparative Civilizations: Commu-
nism and American Democracy," nor even two,
but three. And the prerequisite for the courses
should be a semester of economics and a year
of American history. Since Communism is so
economic, an understanding of economics is
particularly vital. The year of American his-
tory could be taken simultaneously with the
studies in Comparative Civilizations.
Comparative Civilizations I would cover the
Communist Manifesto and Frederick Engels'
explanations of it, would deal with an intro-
duction to Lenin's and Khrushchev's ideas, with
Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of In-
dependence, with the Bill of Rights, with civil
liberties, civil rights and political enfranchise-
ment, and with Jacksonian and Populist de-
mocracy.
. Comparative Civilizations II would deal with
the history of the Soviet regime: with czarist
Russia, the Communist revolution, the New
Economic Policy, Stalinism, and Khrushchev-
ism. It would contrast the one-party rule of
the Soviet Union with the multiple-party sys-
tem of the United States (and perhaps Brit-
ain also). And it would include a study of
John Stuart Mill's "On Liberty," the greatest
and most incisive defense of individual free-
dom ever written, and in what ways the
United States has implemented Mill's position.
COMPARATIVE CIVILIZATIONS III would go
into the foreign policies of the Soviet Union
and the United States; it would include some
Russian literature and it would include John
Dewey's writings on democracy. It would cover
the Trotsky-Stalin split, and it would use
George Orwell's "1984" and "Animal Farm"
"1984" is a grim and living portrayal of a one-
party dictatorship, and "Animal Farm" is an
excellent satire of the Soviet regime. Compara-
tive Civilizations III would also deal with the
Communist regimes in China, Yugoslavia, Al-
bania and the Soviet satellites; it would deal
with comparative foreign policies and with
Soviet-American and Sino-American relations.
And it would analyze Khrushchev's 20-year pro-
gram of economic development.
No one teacher would conduct an entire
course; many teachers would come to the Com-
parative Civilizations classes to lecture on their
specialties. Occasionally all the Comparative
Civilizations classes would assemble together to
hear a debate between an erudite American
democrat and erudite Communist. Preferably
the Communist would be directly from a Com-
munist country. If the Soviets or Chinese de-
cide to have Comparative Civilizations courses
of their own, we could send American scholars

to their schools for debates.
A basic textbook in Comparative Civiliza-
tions could be William Ebenstein's "Today's
Isms: Communism, Fascism, Capitalism, Social-
ism." Ebenstein, a professor at Princeton Uni-
versity, writes with a clarity that few can equal,
and deals with the history, economics, philoso-
phy and sociology of Communism and democ-
racy.
ANOTHER BASIC TEXTBOOK could be the
anthology, "Communism, Fascism and De-
mocracy: the Theoretical Foundations" by Prof.
Carl Cohen of the University. This book con-
tains the primary sources needed for an under-
standing of the philosophy and tactics of Com-
munism and democracy.
Studying Communism is not merely a matter
of understanding an enemy or competitor; it

on the Shakespeare play by en-
larging the role of Christopher
Sly.
In Shakespeare, Sly, a tinker
made to think he is a lord, appears
only in the first two scenes .and
then sits down to watch the play.
In the present production he re-
mains the active s p e c t a t o r
throughout and, poor tinker once
more, speaks the final lines of the
play.
* * *
MUCH FUN AND HUMOR re-
sult from Sly's watching and in-
terrupting the play, and Hugh
Webster's portrayal of Sly is amus-
ingly agile, particularly when, at
a climactic moment, he is found
to have disappeared in a rush of
players offstage. Sly's greater par-
ticipation in the comedy creates
a framework for it, a setting that
shows off the brilliance of the play
and, by emphasizing its artificial-
ity, makes more vital the evening
of theatre.
As for the play within the frame,
"The Taming of the Shrew" is the
now familiar tale of Petruchio's
wooing, wedding and taming the
wild Katharina while a trio of
suitors scheme to win her more
agreeable sister Bianca.
As the shrew, Kate Reid is quite
a wench, proving once more her
ability to give a memorable per-
formance in a leading role without
playing the grande dame of the
theatre. And the absence of the
"star" performer on the Festival
stage helps to maintain the level
of uniform, highly professional
production for which Stratford is
already famous.
JOHN COLICOS is the lusty Pe-
truchio and Garrick Hagon a wide-
eyed, appealing Lucentio. Their
servants Tranio and Grumio are
played by Bernard Behrens and
Eric Christmas.
William Needles and Peter Do-
nat strike numerous poses as Gre-
mio and Hortensio, the affected
and luckless wooers of Bianca. To
them fall the most richly detailed
of the attractive costumes of Tan-
ya Moiseiwitsch that clothe the
play so charmingly.
But once again the major share
of the credit must go to the direc-
tor, Michael Langham, whose pres-
ence may be recognized in the uni-
formly spirited performances spok-
en throughout to give real illu-
mination and meaning to the
Shakespeare text. Langham, ar-
tistic director of the Festival since
1955, is one of the great directors
of Shakespeare and seems to be
the individual most responsible for
the continued success of the festi-
val productions.
-Vernon Nahrgaig

Foreign Aid in Focus

By PHILIP SUTIN
Daily Staff Writer
THE UNITED States is embark-
ing on a new concept of foreign
jaid which if successful will im-
portantly change the political
structure of the world for the bet-
ter, but which if it fails may iso-
late this country in many key
areas of the world, especially Lat-
in America.
Although one of the proclaimed
goals of foreign aid has been to
expand democracy by aiding econ-
omic development, this concept
has received little more than lip
service from State Department of-
ficials. Aid has, and still is, poured
in voluminous quantities to some
of the most hated and corrupt re-
gimes in the world. In the past the
effects of this policy have been to
shore up these governments and
create popular hatreds that would
haunt the United States long after
the regime has departed.
Now the Kennedy Administra-
tion seems to have reversed this
trend. With an angry blast at the
Peruvian military for "reversing
the trend toward democracy in
Latin America, President John F.
Kennedy suspended all but hu-
manitarian aid projects in Peru.
This is the first time the United
States has suspended aid to a
friendly country because of its
internal political changes.
. * * *
IN PARTICULAR this has put
Latin American countries on no-
tice that the United States will no
longer sit idly by as totalitarian
governments gobble up the free
world. Further action will deter-
mine whether the United States
really means it or whether it sus-
pended aid to Peru in a fit of tem-
per to save its Alliance for Prog-
ress.
If this policy is carried out, it
could have great significance. Our
cancelling of aid could knock the
underpinnings out of several ma-
jor dictatorships. Tailoring aid to
fit democratic desires will also
change the image of America
among the dispossessed of the
world. These revolutionary peoples
see the United States as the sup-

porters of the status quo and miss
the essential democracy of this
country.
However, there are also great
risks in this approach. This meth-
od is perilously close to wrongfully
interfering in the internal affairs
of another country. A broad defi-
nition of democracy must be the
United States' guide for there is
no set formula and imposing the
American variety on other situa-
tions where it is not suited may be
disastrous.
IF THE United States presses
too hard, it will be resented and
will lose political allies in strategic
areas. Such is the paradox of for-
eign aid that has been plaguing it
since its inception. How can the
United States promote democracy
yet at the same time maintain the
political links vital to its foreign
policy?
There is no formula except mak-
ing intelligent thoughtful judge-
ments in each individual case.
However, some approaches are
more useful than others.
In the past, foreign aid has
failed because it has been too con-
centrated on the military and on
government grants. A United
States bloated military has often
stepped outside its rightful bounds
and interfered in the politics of
the country. Many o> the military
dictatorships have been financed
in part by U. S. aid. The harsh
Korean regime is a good example
of aid folly.
Giving grants to governments
has also failed for much of the
money is not spent on useful proj-
ects, but remains with the ruling
clique or in the hands of grafters.
The prime example of this sort of
debacle is Laos where the United
States spent more per capita than
any other country, but only cre-
ated an unnatural inflation and
accomplished little else.
* * *
A PROJECT approach seems a
better way of giving foreign aid.
This insures that specific helpful
projects are done and allows the
United States to disassociate itself
from the government in the eyes

of the populous. The Alliance for
Progress, coupling projects with
social reform schemes is a good
theoretical example of this ap-
proach. In practice it has not suc-
ceeded because Latin American
governments are loath to both re-
form and the necessary planning.
The "Aid to India" consortium
is the best example of the project
approach in action. The United
States, with five of its allies, fi-
nances Indian projects in coopera-
tion with the Indian government.
This scheme has worked well and
others are being set up for other
nations.
To date, no perfect solution to
the foreign aid dilemma has been
found. However, Kennedy has
started off on the right track both
with his handling of the Peruvian
situation and the Administration's
emphasis on projects and econom-
ic aid. These are significant be-
ginnings. Careful and intelligent
planning will be necessary to carry
them out.

AT THE CAMPUS:
Peter Pan
10 A SLIGHTLY jive beat, Peter
Pan's pirate ship took off for
Never-Never land at the Campus
Theatre last night, replete with a
modern day Peter Pan, Captain
Hook, (in fact, no less than two
Captain Hooks) and a very pixy-
ish Tinker Bell,
This particular pirate ship was
a slightly remade Pontiac called
La Belle Americaine. So was the
movie.
, * * *
ACCORDING to the prologue
this is a very frank movie about
the old franc and the new franc,
which trade at 100 to 1 to 20c and
I suppose it is in a way.
But more its about La Belle
Americaine with all its buttons
and gadgets and six, not four, but
six headlights.
La Belle Americaine carries n
Peter Pan named Perringon,
played by Robert Dhery from an
ancient tubing factory to the top
of French government and society,
periodically running out of gas on
the way. It carries him further too,
but to find out where, go see the
movie.
IT WAS directed by Robert
Dhery and written by Robert
Dhery, Pierre Tcherina, and Al-
fred Adam, all of whom were also
in the cast. The pixyish wife of
Perrington was played by Colette
Brosset.
The whole group was the creator
of "La Plume de ma Tante," a fan-
tastic fantasy review on stage.
This is fantasy on film and just
about as good.
The humor and quality of this
movie lasts right down to the end
title. Wait for it.
--John Herrick
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to'
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
SATURDAY, JULY 21
General Notices
The Thayer Street Parking Structure
will be closed to all vehicle parking
from 6 p.m. Sat., July 21, until 6 a.m.
Mon., July 23. This closing is necessi-
tated to complete the surfacing of
stairwells and ramp areas.
Seniors: College of L.S. & A., and
Schools of Education, Music, Public
Health, and Business Administration:
Tentative lists of seniors for Aug. grad-
uation have been posted on the bulle-
tin board in the first floor lobby, Ad-
min. Bldg. Any changes therefrom
should be requested of the Recorder at
Office of Registration and Records win-
dow Number A, 1513 Admin. Bldg.
Clinic will be held at the Fresh Air
Camp on Tues., July 24, at 8:00 p.m,
A Limited Number of Ushers are
urgently needed for the School of Mu-
sic Operas, which are to be presented
in Hill Aud. Aug. 8, 9, and 10. Anyone,
students, staff members etc. are eligi-
ble to usher and if you are interested,
come to the Box Office at Hill Aud.,
from 5 p.m. to 6 p.m. on Tues., July 24,
or contact Mr. Warner at NO 8-8597.
Events
Faculty Recital: Robert Noehren, Uni-
versity organist, will present the second
and final recital of his summer series
(Continued on Page 3)

'i

r .

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Freedom and License

To the Editor:
J AM CONVINCED of the total
uselessness of letters to the edi-
tor as a means of bringing about
changes in editorial policy, but I
must write you nonetheless to pro-
test the tone of Michael Harrah's
editorial on the recent Supreme
Court decision on Senate reappor-
tionment in The Daily for July 20.
Mr. Harrah has a great deal to
learn about the proper limits of
political debate and it seems to me
high time that he learned it. Per-
sonal abuse of the justices of the
Supreme Court as 'stooges,' clear
hints of improper influence and of
collusion with a plaintiff and a
call for civil disobedience are no
part of responsible editorship and
I call on the senior editors of The
Daily to apologize and to disavow
Mr. Harrah's editorial.
** * i
THlE DAILY quite legitimately

desires to be taken as a responsi-
ble newspaper and it quite legiti-
mately insists on its right to free-
dom of expression, but in recent
years it has more and more fre-
quently confused freedom with li-
cense and has failed to remember
that respect and influence are in
direct proportion to responsibility
and maturity.
If it wishes to be taken serious-
ly by both facultyr and students,
it seems to me that The Daily
should begin once more to practice
something like decency of expres-
sion and to take account of the
fact that it has no right to abuse
its readers through abuse of their
elected officers.
Mr. Harrah's editorial might be
acceptable at a meeting of the
John Birch Society; it has no right
to attention in an academic com-
munity.
-Prof. Robert J. Niess

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