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July 06, 1962 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1962-07-06

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Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staf writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reints.

Democrats Tie GOP
But Public Loses to Both
Daily Staff Writer .
LIKE TWO unyielding Titans, the majority legislative Republicans
and minority legislative Democrats and the executive clashed
during the recently-completed session of the Legislature and the
overall interest of the state was the loser.
Blame for this debacle rests with both sides. The greater amount
falls to the conservative Republicans of the Senate whose only reply
to gubernatorial proposals seemed to be "No!", but a considerable
amount belongs to the Democrats, who have lost the knack of effectively
compromising details while leaving the essence, intact. The focus of


State Senate Needs More
Than Just Reapportionment


AUGUST SCHOLLE'S suit demanding re-
apportionment of the state Senate shows
a gross misunderstanding of the purpose of
that august body. Mr. Scholle of course has
his legitimate objections to the senators.
They do not represent the majority of voters
in the state. From his point of view, they
certainly have stalled measures which would
have greatly helped the state's economic posi-
tion. And, of course, they have ignored the
immense problems posed by the growing De-
troit industrial complex.
But the state Senate was never meant to
represent the majority. That is the purpose
of the House of Representatives. Michigan's
state government is obviously patterned after
the national government, with factors of geo-
graphy and population used in the upper and
lower bodies respectively. The idea, of course,
is to assure representation to all interests in
one or the other group.
INDEED, anybody who -watched the antics of
Sen. Lynn O. Francis and friends during the
last session can hardly doubt that there are
more than a few valid objections to the Sen-
First the Senate passed an income tax. Then
it rejected what it had just passed after Fran-
cis sabotaged the rest of the tax reform pro-
gram. The senators weren't interested in the
welfare of the state. By and large they were
controlled by petty, provincial interests.
The best excuse for rejection of tax reform
is "The people don't want an income tax."
Instead, the Senate was so stalled on taxes
that its members had to wait for the House
to pass taxes on beer, cigarettes and telephone
calls, which, the senators conveniently forgot
to mention, the people don't want either. In
the interim, the senators engaged in some of
the most childish antics ever seen in this
or any other state, with several near fist fights.
BUT TO ACCEPT Mr. Scholle's complaints
is not to say that the Senate ought to be
reapportioned: it is to say that the Senate
ought to be abolished.
While for some this might seem a sacrilege
against the American concept of government,
after a bit of reflection the concept is not
really so outrageous. The logic behind the
United States Congress is based on' a much
wider variety of- interests than is present in
Michigan. There is no reason why the states
ought to parrot the national forms blindly.
Besides, if there were only one house in

Michigan, all the interests would be represented.
The out-state population nearly equals that of
Detroit. The Legislature would be far from
dominated by the United Auto Workers and
the Detroit metropolitan area. In fact, the
total effect of the state Senate as it now exists
is only to assure control to the rural interests.
If the Senate did not exist, the non-Detroit
areas could still be assured of adequate if not
majority representation.
ANOTHER REASON for a national senate-
that a man representing a whole state
would have a broader outlook than a man
simply representing his own little ten square
blocks of apartment buildings--also does not
exist on the state level.
State senators generally wind up represent-
ing homogeneous districts. They also must play
petty politics just as fervently as any House
member because they must stand for election
just as often.'
And finally, a state Senate does nothing to
improve the level of politics in the state. There
is as much or more petty quibbling in the
Senate as in the House. Many of its members
look at the Senate simply as a jumping off
point for other state offices and their only
contribution is innocuous but disturbing noise.
The major difference between House and
Senate politics is the senators' love for back-
biting, personal insults and disorder.
MR. SCHOLLE is right. The Senate is a
stumbling block to progress. It does not
repersent anybody but the jackrabbits and
empty fields. But that was the way it was
meant to be. The real judgment to be made in
the case of Scholle versus Hare is whether this
jackrabbit principle is worth anything.
One state has already abolished its Senate
and has lived successfully with a one-house
legislature chosen solely on the basis of popu-
lation. Such a legislature does not necessarily
assure that Detroit will dominate the state.
It would be more efficient and have fewer
Scholle's complaint is ridiculous. He is like a
spoiled child crying because he didn't get what
he wanted. If he accepts the principle of a
bicameral legislature, he must accept the re-
cent actions of the Legislature as a justly
arrived-at decision. If, however, he is really
interested in the will of the majority, the only
answer is a unicameral legislature based on
population. He may not be too happy even
with that.



Ways To Elect State Senators

Fluoride Foes Have Mental Cavity

is one more example of creeping collectiv-
ism." So says the magazine American Opinion
published by Robert Welch of John Birch
Society fame.
In an article condemning the use of fluor-
idized water, the question is asked "Shall
parents remain responsible for the health-
care of their children; or, shall all children
be cared for by the government on a mass-
production basis?"
In point of fact, both the American Medical
Association and the American Dental Assoca-
tion have endorsed fluoridation as a method
that contributes greatly to the prevention of
tooth decay, especially in children.
A NEW MACHINE has been invented, which
sooner or later will come to the attention
of the University's Plant Dept.
It is sort of a mulcher, like the ones now
being used, but has the following advantages:
-It will work only during class hours.
--It's twice as noisy as the machines now in
use here.
--It cannot be carted away from the Diag,
and must be fed its twigs one at a time.
Since the skill of Plant Department per-
sonnel seems to be devoted to mulching class-
room tempers along with each leaf, this tech-
nological advance must be of great interest to
And so this information is passed along. Any
day now, the suggestion may be acted on.
Editorial Staff
FRED RUSSELL KRAMER...................Co-Editor
PETER STEINBERGER .................... Co-Editor
AL JONES ............................. Sports Editor
CYNTHIA NEU .......................... Night Editor
GERALD STORCH ...................... Night Editor
PIIH JP SUTIN ........................ Night Editor
DENISE WACKER ....................... Night Editor

MANY of the opponents of fluoridation say
that the money spent could be put to
better use elsewhere. This is a very weak argu-
ment as the cost per person, per year is only
between ten and twenty cents.
Fluoridation has been tested both in New-
burg, New York and in Grand Rapids, Michigan
with a great deal of success. After only five
years, there was sixty per cent less tooth
decay in the people who had been using
fluoridated water. In a nearby town that had
been used as a control group and had not
been receiving the fluoridated water, there
was little change.
Those who oppose this claim that fluorides
could be administered on an individual basis
but in this case the cost would be prohibitive.
FLUORIDATION is a problem that appears
to be more psychological than anything else.
A small Michigan town was to begin fluorida-
tion: On the day the policy was to go into
effect the city hall began receiving complaint
calls from many of its citizens. They com-
plained of things from the funny taste of the
water to stomach cramps. In each case, the
operator had to explain that due to some
mechanical difficulties the fluoridation process
had not begun as planned.
The Association of American Physicians
and Surgeons in a meeting on April 12, 1958
said, "we condemn the addition of any sub-
stance to public water supplied for the purpose
of affecting the bodies or the bodily or mental
functions of the consumers."
If the statement of this group were to be
taken seriously, then water could be pumped
directly to the consumers from the sewers or
rivers without going through any filtering
process or the addition of any germ killers,
such as chlorine. Undoubtedly this would havej
a far greater adverse effect on the populace,I
of any town, than the addition of a small
quantity of fluoride to the water.
The Birchers speak of fluoridation leading
us down the road to socialism and collectiviza-
tion. They fear that the government is taking
over too many of the things for which the
individual should be responsible.
CERTAINLY we have a lot to fear from
medical socialism. Just look around us
now. We are well on the way with highway
socialism and public service socialism.
In sum, it can be stated that fluoridation of
water is not only inexpensive, and safe, but
+'k + i- 2 os+mns+n .f - :f+' -- - -

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
third in a nine part series on the
new state constitution.)
Daily Staff Writer
LEGISLATIVE apportionment is,
undoubtedly, one of the issues
on which the new constitution will
stand or fall when it faces the
voters of Michigan next April.
The apportionment issue was
one of the more important issues
that faced the convention. It was
a politically explosive problem
then and will continue to be such
in the coming months.
Republicans are high in their
praise for the apportionment pro-
vision under which the Senate and
House of Representatives will be
chosen in the future if the con-
stitution is adopted.
- * *
DEMOCRATS, both in the con-
vention and out, have attacked
the plan viciously, contending that
it perpetuates Republican rule in
the Senate and even fails to put
the House of Representatives on
a straight population basis.
John A. Hannah (R-East Lan-
sing) the president of Michigan
State University and chairman of
the Legislative Organization Com-
mittee which drew up the pro-
posals, said he will give the ap-
portionment formula in the new
constitution his full-fledged sup-
The apportionment has repeat-
edly been cited as one of the
main factors which affected de-
cisions on other constitutional
matters ranging from Senate con-
firmation of executive appoint-
ments to legislative powers over
local government.
* * *
so affected by the United States
Supreme Court decision to return
the Scholle case to the Michigan
Supreme Court.
The Michigan Supreme Court
hadhoriginally stated that ithad
no jurisdiction over the suit
brought by Michigan AFL-CIO
president August Scholle to force
redistricting of the state Senate.
The state tribunal was ordered
to reconsider the case because it
was judged wrong in saying
Scholle's action dealt with a poli-
tical dispute outside the court's
* * *
IF SCHOLLE wins his case the
August 7 primary will probably
be disallowed under some emer-
gency plan.
Scholle has announced that he
would campaign against the new
constitution if the Republican
majority pushed through its ap-
portionment plan.
The U. S. Supreme Court action
forced the Republican members
of the Legislative Organization
Committee to reconsider the time
when the new apportionment pro-
visions would go into effect. Pre-
viously, redistricting of the Sen-
ate would have waited until 1970,
when an eight member bipartisan
commission would reapportion the
figures of that year. The provision,
now, could be undertaken imme-
diately if the state court upholds

Republicans, the Democrats argue
that the GOP-sponsored plan
would merely perpetuate "legisla-
tion without fair representation
for some high population areas
such as Detroit.
"The major reason for the call-
ing of the convention was the
general public dissatisfaction with
the present method of legislative
* * *.
"THE PROPOSED document
perpetuates legislation without
fair representation, because the
apportionment problem has not
been solved," the Democrats said.
"Senate districts which would
not be reapportioned until after
1970 could vary in population by
more than four to one, the largest
being approximately 365,860 and
the smallest being 86,430, based
on population projections for 1970.
A minority of the voters will con-
tinue to elect a clear majority of
both houses of the Legislature."
To overcome some of the ob-
jections the convention approved
a plan whereby the counties of
Wayne, Oakland, Macomb and
Qenessee would each immediately
receive an aditional senator, there-
by expanding the Senate from its
present 34 members to 38 mem-
* * *
THE 80-20 formula would give
each county an "apportionment
factor" computed by multiplying
by four its percentage of the
state's population and adding to
this the county's percentage of the
state's total area.
Prof. Melvin Nord (D-Detroit),
minority leader of the Legislative
Organization Committee, attacked
the Republican proposals in a
speech that lasted over four hours.
Among other things he said:
The plan guarantees perpetual
inequality to the metropolitan
voter and the formula equates
people with square miles. "We have
always thought that only God
could make a man from dirt, but
now we see that some delegates
have arrogated that function or
themselves. Where there were
people, the formula . . . con-
ceptually destroys them. And
where there were "wide open
spaces" the formula creates fic-
tional people . . . in the image
of the Republican party."

Supreme Court the Republican
delegates defended the Senate plan
as based on principle.
"The formula is not based purely
on population. But it gives popula-
tion first consideration and pri-
mary emphasis," George Romney
(R-Bloomfield Hills), the Republi-
can gubernatorial candidate, said.
"The important consideration is
that an impartial unbiased, ob-
jective formula has been establish-
ed for the determination of Sen-
ate seats-instead of an arbitrary
judgment lacking supporting prin-
ciple," he continued.
* * *
FOR THE HOUSE of Represen-
tatives, the convention decided to
continue with the present 110
members changing only the re-
quirement for a representative.
Where it previously required a
representative district to have only
,5 of one per cent of the state's
population to gain one seat in the
House, it now requires .7 of one
per cent.
After each representative area
had been allocated one seat the
remaining lawmakers would be
elected on the basis of population,
following the complex "equal pro-
portions" formula.
Democrats claim that the change
is very slight and still favors the
rural, farm areas in favor of the
urban complexes.
They said the result would
merely cut the "ruralsRepublican
bias" from 10 seats to five.
* * * *
REPUBLICAN delegates counter
by saying that since both parties
agreed, in the Legislative Organ-
ization Committee meetings, that
county lines would be adhered to
in drawing up the representative
districts, the proposed plan is
about as close to population equal-
ity as possible.
The unsuccessful substitute con-
stitution offered by the Democrats
called for both houses of the legis-
lature to be based on a "one man-
one vote" principle with districts
varying not more than 15 per cent
above or below the average popu-
lation ratio.
Other provisions in the appor-
tionment would increase the term
for senators from two years to
four and would eliminate multiseat

the great collision was taxes, al-
though on other issues the two
forces also showed their tenacity.
"No income tax will ever pass
the door of this committee," Sen.
Clyde H. Geerlings (R-Holland)
declared as his SenaterFinance
Committee considered various tax
proposals. This kind of stub-
borness marked most of the con-
sideration of state revenue.
In January Gov. John B. Swain-
son launched his "fiscal reform"
program based on a 3.5 per cent
personal, corporate and financial
institution income tax. The pro-
gram also called for repeal of the
business activities tax and a num-
ber of other taxes which were
harmful to the state's business
Despite a then $70 million def-
icit, the Senate Republicans were
grimly determined not to pass any
new tax measures, but only to
make permanent a series of nui-
sance taxes. In the end, the GOP
conservatives won the issue, but
not before stalling the Legislature
two months and creating much
bitter feeling.
The outcome could have been
different had the Democrats play-
ed their cards right. A coalition
of liberal Republicans and Demo-
crats had formed in the Senate.
At one point they had 19 of the
34 votes and with that slim major-
ity forced an income -tax bill out
of committee and onto the floor
and then passed an income tax.
However, five days later the coali-
tion collapsed as the Democrats
and Republicans could not agree
on business relief provisions of
the rest of the income tax package,
nor on aid to local government.
The provisions for exemption
on dies, tools, jigs and fixtures
property taxes, while somewhat
over-generous to business, would
certainly not upset the essense of
the fiscal reform program. The
Democrats should have compro-
mised on this point which in the
end fatally upset the income tax
In the same manner, the legis-
lative blocs hasseled over a number
of lesser issues. They failed to
reapportion the Congressional dis-
tricts to fit in the new congress-
man the census awarded Michi-
gan. They passed a budget that
crippled mental health operations
in the state and left no money
for higher educational growth.
At times the Republicans used
their dominance to completely
ride roughshod over the Demo-
crats. In a moment of sheer spite,
the GOP-dominated Senate re-
fused to permanently confirm its
arch-enemy AFL-CIO president
August Scholle in his post on the
State Conservation Commission.
The Legislature passed a measure
overturning the Supreme Court's
Ford-Canton decision.
The result of the last legislative
session has been stalemate. With
conservative Republicans firmly
gripping the Legislature and the
opposing liberal Democrats firmly
entrenched in the executive little
else could be expected.
Since both sides have proven
themselves more interested in
creating the state in its own poli-
tical image than in debating and
compromising for the state's good,
Michigan's needs become secon-
dary in the political battle. The
deficient mental health and higher
education appropriations financed
by jerry-built nuisance taxes is
hardly meeting state needs.
During and after the legislative
session both parties pointed to-
wards the other as the cause of
the state's difficulties. Swainson
and the Democrats emphatically
blamed the Republicans for the
"fiscal mess." "When you have 23
Republican senators who can hold
up progress it is difficult to get a
program through," House Demo-
cratic leader Joseph Kowalski of
Detroit said, summing up the at-
titude of his party.
"If the governor comes out
swinging, the Republicans will
swing just as hard," a Republican

senator said, indicating the con-
servative attitude. Their tax posi-
tion is that "the people are tired
of new taxes and want economy
in government."
However, the session produced
several breezes of change. A mod-
erate Republican group developed
in the Senate which, if it sur-
vives and prospers, could change
the tenor of Senatorial politics
and make compromise with the
executive Democrats possible. This
group has shown itself interested
in more than Republican dom-
inance of the state. More im-
portantly, in the income tax hassle,
it initiated and led moves towards
effective compromise solutions.
A second hope comes from out-
side the Legislature where the
state Supreme Court, directed by
its national counterpart, is con-

ABOUT MIDWAY through Rules
of the Game one begins to
realize he has been watching some-
thing more than a well-made
French farce; but by then things
are happening so quickly that all
consideration and judgement are
swept aside, and only complete,
breathless involvement remains,
the involvement forced upon us by
a sure masterpiece.
Perhaps it was anger at being
taken in that influenced French
censors in 1939 to enforce a ban
on this picture (nominally for its
"unfair portrayal of certain levels
of our society" and the Semitic
origin of its star, Marcel Dalio)
that lasted the duration of the
With us now, at any rate, for the
first time in its restored entirety,
it should serve as a needed check
on those enthusiasms apt to run
wild over the latest tricks of Berg-
man or Resnais or Fellini, the
quality of whose films depends
so much on the solidity of their
THE DECADENCE of this film's
characters, like the ambition of
Macbeth or the curiosity of Oedi-
pus, is no more than a framework
for the revealed operations of fate
on human life. Here there are no
symbols of lost faith or the ugli-
ness of .urban existence; in place
of the usual "modern condition,"
Renoir gives us the human condi-
tion. His film has a moral objec-
tivity, at times even an inscruta-
bility, characteristic of genius.
Besides all this there is, of
course, consistently fine direction
and photography, and-for the
groundlings-irresistible farce. The
film seems all the more impressive
when one keeps in mind that 1939
was the year Hollywood gave us
its masterpiece, Gone with the
Wind, a picture about as powerful
now as a good installment of
"Wagon Train."
Art, even in as perishable a form
as celluloid, has a way of sur-
viving the hostility of censors and
the indifference of crowds that is
positively inspiring; and Rules ot
the Game is consummate art.
Renoir's subtle use of background
figures (a model, probably, for
Orson Welles), a hunting scene
more orgiastic than anything In
La Dolce Vita, and the stately
concluding speech, so eerily remi-
niscent of "This was the noblest
Roman of them all . ..
-Steve Friedman
A uthorit
"IT IS HARDLY a secret that we
no longer live in a time of im-
partial news presentation. This is
the epoch of interpretative' re-
porting. The more important the
news, the surer we can be of re-
ceiving the 'correct' interpretation
. let us discard Communist prop-
aganda and Pavlovian brainwish-
ing-to face the facts."
-Slobodan M. Draskovich,
American Opinion
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
Following is the Foreign Visitor who
will be on Campus this week on the.
dates indicated. Program arrangements
are being made by the International
July 5 & 6, Mr. Vincent Ike of Ni-

geria, University of Nigeria, Dept. of
Beginning Mon., July 9, the following
schools will have representatives at the
Bureau to interview candidates for the
1962-1963 school year.
Pontiac, Mich. (Waterford Twsp. Schs)
-Elem.; Ind. Arts, HS Instr., Jr. HS
Sci.; Typing, Bus. Machines, Home Ec.
Libr., Elem. Ment. Retard., Sp. Corr.,
Detroit, Mich.Early Elem.; Bus. Ed.,
Girl's PE, Ind. Arts,. Libr., Sec. Math,_




The Will to Self Defense

No government admits any more
that it keeps an army to satisfy
occasionally the desire for con-
quest. Rather the army is sup-
posed to serve for defense, and one
invokes the morality that approves
of self-defense. But this implies
one's own morality and the neigh-
bor's immorality; for the neighbor
must be thought of as eager to
attack and conquer if our state
must think of means of self-de-
fpn Cn

disposition and their own dispo-
This presupposition, however, is
inhumane, as bad as war and
worse. At bottom, indeed, it is
itself the challenge and the cause
of wars, because, as I have said,
it attributes immorality to the
neighbor and thus provokes a hos-
tile disposition and act. We must
abjure the doctrine of the army as
a means of self-defense just as
completely as the desire for con-

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