By HELENE SCHIFF and ROBERT SELWA
America's wall of segregation is slowly coming down.
The nation's judiciaries are helping to crumble it; so are
sit-ins, investigations by desegregation organizations, demonstra-
tions, Interstate Commerce ' Commission action, and Justice
In the momentous term that ended last week, the Supreme
Court made many "significant decisions in favor of civil rights
and desegregation. It freed sixteen sit-in campaigners and six
Freedom Riders held for breach of the peace. It directed a lower
court to issue a prompt injunction against Mississippi travel
segregation statutes; it banned segregation in a Memphis air-
port restaurant. And it affirmed a decision holding unconstitu-
tional a Louisiana law for closing schools to prevent integra-
Push Civil Rights
The Department of Justice has been pushing civil rights,
and Atty. Gen. Robert Kennedy has been able to tell the press
that the "For White Only" signs are coming down, that Negroes
are registering and voting as never before, and that new employ-
ment opportunities are opening up every day.
"The pace is quickening," Kennedy said. "This is a time of
great excitement. Long delayed gains are being won."
For the first time, Negroes are serving on the United States
District Court in the continental United States, and the United
States attorneys in two of the nation's largest cities are Negroes,
Kennedy said. And eighty-five companies with five million em-
ployes have come forward with affirmative plans to assure
equal employment opportunities in their hiring and promotion
"This progress has been brought about by the work of the
President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities un-
der the leadership of the Vice-President. They will continue to
work to see that there is more," Kennedy commented.
He said "tremendous progress" has been made to eliminate
racial segregation in interstate transportation. Hundreds of
bus and rail terminals have been desegregated over the past
year. "Within a very short time," Kennedy declared, "it will
be possible to fly to any airport in the country without seeing
'White' and 'Colored' signs."
When the Justice Department cannot get voluntary action,
"it will continue to go to court to enforce the laws of the United
States on discrimination," he stressed.
Meanwhile, the litigation continues. Next term, the Supreme
Court will consider whether the Constitution is violated by sit-in'
convictions for trespass. It has accepted seven such cases for re-
In Jackson, Miss., the fifth United States Circuit Court of
Appeals has ordered U.S. District Judge Signey Mize to issue an
injunction forcing the University of Mississippi to admit a Negro.
"We see no valid, nondiscriminatory reason" for the univer-
sity's not accepting James Meredith, the Negro applicant, the
court said. This is the first school desegregation decision affect-
In Atlanta, a Negro college student, doctor and dentist, and
four other Negroes have filed a suit in Federal Court asking for
complete integration of all patient care facilities and student
training programs at Grady Memorial Hospital and of state
medical and dental societies. (NAACP attorneys have filed sim-
ilar litigation in Greensboro, North Carolina and Orangeburg,
The suit asks for injunctions to permit Negro physicians and
dentists the full use of staff facilities, to end the segregation of
patients on the basis of race, and to admit students to training
facilities without regard to race. Members of the Committee on
Appeal for Human Rights have been picketing and standing-in
at the hospital for several months,
In Gary, Ind., attorneys for the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People have filed suit in the U.S. Dis-
trict Court on behalf of 110 Negro children seeking an injunction
restraining the Gary School board from building an addition to
a segregated high school.
See AMERICA, Page 3
See Page 2
Seventy-One Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXII, No. 8-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, JULY 6, 1962 SEVEN CENTS
Moslem, European Fight
Kills 60 Persons
ORAN (P)-Moslems and Europ-
eans fought with knives and guns
in a bloody four-hour battle
through the heart of Oran yester-
day, casting a grim shadow over
Algeria's new independence.
Sixty or more persons, mostly
Moslems, were killed, unofficial
The battle developed without
warning along lines familiar be-
fore the Moslem takeover of power
from France this week. The ex-
pectation-still looming over in-
dependent Algeria-was that even
bloodier battles will be fought be-
tween rival Moslems contending
The Moslems said holdout Sec-
ret Army terrorists started the
battle, one of the western port
city's worst in recent history.
Fighting began at noon when a
hail of bullets came from rooftops
and balconies of European apart-
ment houses of thousands of Mos-
lems celebrating independence in
the Place Foch, one of the city's
There has been no official an-
nouncement on the fighting. No
centralized authority has appeared
to take charge since Algerian in-
dependence was proclaimed two
dags ago. However, the Moslem
Brazil Govern'ment Crisis
Causes General Strike, Riot
RIO DE JANEIRO (A')-A frenzied mob sacked more than 100
food stores and clashed with police near Rio De Janeiro yesterday as
the nation fell into the grip of a crippling general strike over selection
of a new government.
Fierce fighting between police and townspeople broke out in
Duque De Caxias, about 20 miles from here, as a result of food short-
ages. Infantry troops and tanks quelled the battling after several
By MICHAEL SATTINGER.
Programmed instruction in math-
ematics, part of the mathematics
education summer lecture series,
was the topic of two lectures yes-
Robert S. Fouch, math editor of
Science Research Associates, pre-
sented the background theory of
programmed instruction, and A.
Joseph Kramer, consultant of TE-
MAC (Encyclopedia Britannica),
dipscussed the textbooks and ma-
Fouch presented the theories of
Prof. B. F. Skinner of Harvard,
whose 1958 work with rats and pig-
eons, caught the public's interest
in programmed instruction.
Prof. Skinner, an admirer of
progressive education, uses neither
threats nor punishments, he said.
By patient waiting he got ani-
mals to do certain actions. The de-
sired behaviour was then rein-
forced by an immediate reward.
Prof. Skinner considered the im-
mediacy of the reward extremely
important, Fouch said.
Fouch said that programmed in-
struction caused so much interest
because of the false hope of re-
lieving the teacher shortage. At
most, it would enable teachers to
teach in a different way, he de-
Kramer said that researchers
must prove that their instructions
actually do teach. Authors of pres-
ent textbooks, he claimed, took no
responsibility for the student's'
Actual teaching "machines" are
a failure, Kramer said. He explain-
ed that only the book form of pro-
grammed instruction was feasible.
Present textbooks will be re-
placed by programmed instruc-
tion, Kramer concluded.
Rn n ysi rf
Mayor Adolfo Daci said 15 per-
sons had been killed but Rio De
Janeiro . radio stations put the
number dead at 7. Neither figure
could be immediately confirmed as
The strike originally was called
to protest the naming of Sen.
Auro de Moudra Andrade as prime
minister instead of a member of
the Brazilian Labor Party. An-
drade resigned however, after only
36 hours in office, when he failed
to form a cabinet.
Union leaders went on with the
strike anyway, to compel the
chamber of deputies to name "a
nationalist and democratic cab-
inet." Some union leaders said,
however, they got word of An-
drade's resignation too late to call
off the strike.
T h e Brazilian Labor Party
(PTB) is only the third largest in
the chamber of deputies. Just how
the union leaders could force the
chamber to accept a PTB mem-
ber as prime minister, with the
two largest parties steadfastly
opposed to the idea, remained to
Andrade r e s i g n e d, informed
sources said, when he and Goulart
split irrevocably over the selec-
tion of Navy and Air Force min-
isters for a new cabinet.
This set off a spate of rumors
that unrest was seething in the
Navy and Air Force commands.
The First Army commander in Rio
ordered his troops to maintain
order, and other commanders fol-
Two deputies were mentioned as
the most likely candidates for the
vacant prime minister's job.
guerrilla command ordered a 5
P.M. curfew, a move which appar-
ently had the full backing of
Nationalist Premier Ben Yous-
sef Ben Khedda called for an end
to the demonstrations in a radio
address. He said every Algerian
must return to his work Friday to
help build a prosperous new
Ben Khedda also said his re-
gime "will tolerate no challenge
to its authority," and urged all
Algerians to respect the authority
of his government.
The address was an appeal for
popular support in Ben Khedda's
dispute with disident army fac-
tions and the runaway Vice
Premier Ahmed Ben Bella.
An' army leader who claimed he
spoke for 10,000 Algerian national-
ist troops in Morocco said yester-
day the troops would take no
orders from Ben Khedda's govern-
ment. He said they would obey on-
ly the new defunct General Staff
or the National Committee of the
Algerian Revolution, a sort of
nationalist legislative body.
The split in the nationalist lead-
ership earlier brought the threat
of fratricidac civil war to Algeria.
The day's violence in Oran threat-
ened what had been at best an
uneasy peace between the Euro-
pean and Moslem communities.
Rea Unit Seeks
Dean of Men Walter B. Rea is a
member of a committee attempt-
ing to sponsor survey research into
the relationships between admin-
istrators and students at colleges
and universities throughout the
The 'eight-man committee, part
of the National Association of
Student Personnel Workers, will
need a foundation grant, however,
before the year-long study can be
started. Rea douted it could begin
The proposed survey would
probe areas such as speaker poli-
cies, student government, student
participation in policy-making and
the objectives themselves of stu-
dent affairs administrators.
In the form of lengthy ques-
tionnaires and personal interviews
with student leaders, the study
would take place at various pri-
vate, secular and state-supported
schools. The institutions would be
selected by random sampling.
Rea said the area of inquiry had
never received any thorough,
scientifically - based study, and
"there is much useful information
that might be brought out."
U.S. Seeks Japanese Capital
JOHN F. KENNEDY
... tax cuts
For 'Tax Cut
By MALINDA BERRY
Special To The Daily
F. Kennedy declared that "seri-
ous consideration" was being giv-
en to industry and labor demands
for quick tax reduction and plug-
ged for his farm and medical care
for the aged programs at his news
But the President made it clear
he will not be rushed into alter-
ing his announced plan to send
Congress a major tax reform and
reduction bill which would be ef-
fective next Jan. 1.
"We are continuing to watch the
basic indicators of the economy.
If we feel that the situation war-
rants a tax cut, then of course
we will recommend it," he said.
Although the administration
would prefer to stick to its present
timetable, Kennedy emphasized
that the United States Chamber+
of Commerce and AFL-CIO rec-
ommendations coming from lead-
ers of business and labor are be-
ing seriously considered by the ad-
The chamber last week proposed
immediate across-the-board cuts
in personal and corporate income
tax rates, giving greatest relief to
business firms and upper-income
families. The AFL-CIO has been
calling, with growing intensity, for
tax relief concentrated in the low
and middle income brackets to
spur consumer demands.
Kennedy opened the news con-
ference with a statement express-
ing strong support for his farm
He declared that his predeces-
sors have been recommending a
bi-partisan approach since 1945
and he is "hoping for favorable
action" on it.
Kennedy. plugging for passage
of medicare plan, expressed sur-
prise at American doctors' hostil-
ity to his program.
"Their reluctance is incompre-
hensible," he said, "because my
plan involves payment of hospital
bills-not doctor's fees."
TOKYO (P)-The Kennedy ad-
ministration has invited Japanese
industry to expand onto American
soil, but the prospect of any takers
A high ranking United States
embassy official confirmed yester-
day that a suggestion that Japa-
nese invest in building factories in
the United States was forwarded
"several months ago" to the Japa-
nese foreign ministry. He said no
response has yet been made.
The American official said the
suggestion was contained in a
"communication which called at-
tention to the possibilities of at-
tractive investment in the states."
The move is part of a broad
campaign to lure investment capi-
tal from all the industrialized
countries to the United States.
Secretary of Commerce Luther H.
D E N V E R (A") - The National
Education Association moved yes-
terday toward use of retaliatory
action against school districts
where negotiations fail 'to settle
The effect would be to "black-
ball" the school district, discour-
age teachers from other districts
from taking positions there, and
give wide publicity to the condi-
tions which brought on the sanc-
This would be the NEA's ulti-
mate weapon, instead of teacher
strikes which it has long opposed.
Hodges last year set up an office
devoted exclusively to attempting
to attract foreign capital.
In the background was a per-
sistent deficit in the United States
balance of payments, which sees
more money leave the United
States each year than goes in. If
Europeans and the Japanese send
over funds to build factories these
investments would reduce the pay-
Brochures made up by Wichita,
Kan. and Wilmington, N.C., com-
munities actively seeking new in-
dustry, were included because they
were available here. The U.S. off i-
cial mentioned Maine, New Jer-
sey and West Coast areas as other
potential sites for development.
The foreign ministry said the
matter had to be studied by vari-
ous ministries as well as business
circles before a position is taken.
In Washington, an official said
the idea was first broached to the
Japanese during joint meetings in
Tokyo last fall of members of the
American and Japanese cabinets.
The plan envisions the construc-
tion of plants that would manu-
facture Japanese products for sale
in the Western Hemisphere. There
is no idea of importing Japanese
labor to man such factories,
though it might be necessary to
have some foreign managerial and
technical personnel on hand.
One stumbling block would be
in acquiring enough foreign ex-
change dollars to get under way.
Japan, as does America, has an
adverse balance of payments sit-
uation, more dollars going out than
coming in. The Finance Ministry
would give protracted study to any
proposal before granting permis-
sion for a huge capital outlay for
use in the United States.
Japanese industry, to hold over-
seas markets, has expanded into
Southeast Asia, and Latin Amer-
ica, but there has been no indica-
tion it needs American plants to
maintain its $1.5 billion export
business to the United States.
Officials at the Veterans Read-
juctment Center are pondering
what to do with personnel and
psychiatric training facilities left
in the lurch when the state Legis-
lature last week decided to trans-
fer the center's functions to a sol-
diers' home in Grand Rapids.
Prof. M. M. Frohlich, director of
the VRC, said yesterday that per-
sonnel are being given the oppor-
tunity to continue their work else-
where on campus, with most of the
positions at the psychiatric center
in the University Hospital.
The VRC building itself will be
closed down after Sept. 1. The
center will attempt to complete
treatment on as many patients as
it can, then transfer the patients
to the best possible facilities else-
The patients, all World War II
or Korean War veterans, receive
their treatment free. Personnel to
take care of them, as well as re-
ceive training in psychiatric work,
include nurses, psychiatrists, so-
cial workers and occupational
None of these individuals-a to-
tal of about 55-has left the Uni-
versity for positions at other col-
leges or in private practice, Prof.
Although all the personnel can
be reassigned somewhere within
the University, if the closing down
is a permanent move, "there will
have to be fewer residents and per-
sonnel in the future."
The University does own the
VRC building, but no funds are
available to operate it for any sort
of medical function, he said.
The VRC for the previous 15
years had received a $346,000 ap-
propriation from the Legislature
for the express purpose of treat-
ing veterans' psychiatric cases, but
"phased out" the facility after
Rep. James B. Warner (R-Ypsi-
lanti) led a fight to transfer its
operations, claiming it was over-
expensive and criticized by veter-
To Offset Court Decision
Plan To Add,
Verdict May Require
By PHILIP SUTIN
State Senate Republicans are
preparing a "vehicle" to meet any
State Supreme Court decision that
the present Senate apportionment
The "vehicle," devised by Sen-
ators Haskell Nichols (R-Jackson),
Perry Greene (R-Grand Rapids),
Lynn Francis (R-Midland) and
Harold Hughes (R-Clare) is the
Constitutional Convention's ap-'
portionment scheme that would
add four seats to the Senate -
one each from Wayne, Genesee,
Macomb and Oakland counties.
Instead of going into effect in
1970, the plan would be placed
on the November election ballot
as a constitutional amendment.
The Senate's actions will depend
on the court's decision, Sen. Far-
rell Roberts (R-Pontiac) explained.
The Judiciary Committee would
meet and this plan would become
the basis for action. Revisions
might have to be made, however,
if the court set guidelines for
carrying out reapportionment, he
Senate Judiciary Committee
chairman Carlton H. Morris (R-
Kalamazoo) was optimistic that
the court would find the appor-
"If for any reason the court
decides otherwise, the committee
would meet the same day," he ex-
NATIONAL NEWS ROUNDUP:I
To Blast First H-Bomb
At Nevada Testing Site
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-The mighty underground nuclear blast planned
for today or soon thereafter in Nevada will be not only the most
powerful atomic shot yet set off in this country but also the first
known detonation of an H-bomb type device in the United States.'
WASHINGTON-Employment rose sharply in June to a record
69.5 million but the usual school's-out surge of teen-agers into the
'"labor force also sent unemploy-
WASHINGTON - One of the
most closely watched economic in-
1C dicators, the unemployment rate,
behaved in a disappointing way in
sJune. It edged up to reverse a
slow but gradual downtrend of
utilized to satisfy some of the in- more than a year.I
The Democrats were also plan-
ning for an apportionment battle
Senate Minority Leader Raymond
Dzenzel (D-Detroit) said that he
will confer with Gov. John B.
Swainson next week to draw up.a
Democratic apportionment scheme.
Differing from AFL-CIO Presi-
dent August Scholle, who in his
suit before the , state Supreme
Court asks for a strictly popula-
tion-based Senate, Dzenzel said
some allowance must be made for
He cited the Upper Peninsula,
which on a population basis, he
said, would be under-represented
in the Senate with only one or
one and a half Senators.
However, he added that any
scheme would not be weighted as
heavily towards rural areas as is
the current Senate.
Yesterday, the Supreme Court
received a brief by Circuit Judge
Creighton H. Coleman, a former
Republican state Senator, in sup-
port of the current apportion-
The Metropolitan areas will take
complete monopolistic control of
the state government if the Legis-
lature is reapportioned along popu-
lation lines, he charged.
Costs Stall Social Resear
"Large survey-research organi- There are extensive problems
zation requires not only a large created by the high expenditure terests of sorely needed basic re-
amount of capital to operate, but necessary f a r survey-research. search. WASHINGTON - President
also a great diversification of in- Since the only available money Large-scale survey research, al- John F. Kennedy reached into the
dividual talents and skills." Peter sore r ag rvt-opr-though money - consuming, has small circle of senior career ex-
diviualtalntsand kils,"Petr ;sources are large private-corpora- little or no concrete results to
Rossi said yesterday discussing ltons or the government, basic re- please government officials. Dif- perts on Russia yesterday and
"Scholars, Researchers, and Policy , ti. ot bc r- gea gern nt ficiachose Foy DI Kohler as the next
_ t ao fj ..y r w aa s' - -
! Tniv 4zif nffininlc w'1- r,M