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August 11, 1962 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1962-08-11

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Seventy-Second Year
TWhere Opinins AreFreeS TUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

"Ya' Gotta' Expect A -Losin' Season Once In Awhile"


World Agriculture:
An Intractible Paradox


The American Obligation:
Increased Foreign Aid

IN THE CAPITOL as well as on campuses,
Americans are asking questions about our
dealings with and aid to the underdeveloped
countries. More and more books are dealing
with the subject. Congress is giving careful
and critical scrutiny to United States aid pro-
grams. And the President of the United States
is addressing himself to the problem more fre-
quently than past chief executives.
So is Senator Wayne Morse, Democrat of
Oregon, and his Senate Foreign Relations sub-
committee on inter-American affairs. The sen-
ators are asking questions such as, "Is there a
basic conflict between the role of United States
military officers stationed in Latin American
countries and the role of our embassy? Is aid
for internal security helping their militaries
prepare coups against constitutional regimes
which may be simply reformist or mildly Social-
ist? Is military aid out of proportion to the
needs of some countries?"
Barbara Ward in her latest book, "The Rich
Nations and The Poor Nations," examines the
increasing divergence in the economies of coun-
tries. James Warburg, Vera Micheles Dean,
Frank Tannnebaum and Kingsley Davis take a
critical look at the rich-poor split in the world
today, in James Roosevelt's book, "The Liberal
Papers." John Spanier in his book, "American
Foreign Policy Since World War II," proposes
a liberal approach. Senator Barry Goldwater is
showing concern about foreign policy, proposing
a conservative approach.
The magazines are tackling these problems
too. Joseph Alsop has an article on starvation
in Communist China, in the current issue of The
Saturday Evening Post,
THERE ARE GOOD REASONS for this sharp-
ened concern about the poor nations of the
world. For one thing, the world's balance of
power is coming to rest increasingly on their
development and emergence. For another thing,
man for the first time is gaining the means of
eradicating poverty, hunger and diseases
throughout the world.
We have the means and we are starting to
use them. But we are not using them enough.
We have much to give and we are starting to
give. But we are not giving enough.
There remains taints of that ragged old iso-
lationism and national selfishness that gripped
the United States for a century and a half, that
defeated American participation in the League
of Nations and that closed the American door
to needy immigrantsand displaced persons.
Pkesident Kennedy in his Yale speech called
for the ending of myths, but myths continue,
as the racial myths bound up in the national
origins concept of American immigration policy.
Many Americans today would have us let the
United Nations die and would have us stop
giving aid to neutralist countries. National
ethnocentrism persists. Witness the upsurge of
protectionist and high tariff sentiment in re-
sponse to President Kennedy's trade proposals.
great Atlantic community, yet the road to
a fuller community is hazarded by obstacles.
There are needy in the world, and the needy
are going unfed. There is poverty in heavily
populated continents, and the poverty is going
unmet. Destitution need no longer be a reality,
but prosperity is yet a dream.
It is no wonder that Theodoro Moscoso told
his staff that there shall be no "celebration" of
ALBANY, GA. is an improbable town to make
an integration stand. Although it is in the
midst of rural Georgia, it is run by moderates
and some token integration gains were made.
Yet Martin Luther King and his Southern
Christian Leadership Conference chose to make
a stand here.
King seems to have chosen this town for
martyrdom. Yet in spite of himself, this cher-
ished goal of reformers has eluded him. First,
some unknown individual or group-suspected
to be from upstate New York-paid his fine
after he was arrested for leading a demonstra-
tion. Yesterday, the recorders court found him
guilty of another unauthorized demonstration,
but refused to jail him by suspending his sen-
Perhaps this move will clear the air. King
has suspended demonstrations temporarily. This

impasse provides an opportune time to accept
Mayor Asa Kelley's offer to meet with local
Negroes. Considering the negotiations of last
winter, Kelley's offer should be accepted in
good faith. Martyrdom makes no sense when
the lines of communications are still open.
01jr Ir+aii
Editorial Staff
FRED RUSSELL KRAMER ..................Co-Editor
PETER STEINBERGER .................... Co-Editor
AL JONES ............................. Sports Editor
CYNTHiA NEU ................... Night Editor
GERALD STORCH ...................... Night Editor

the first anniversary of the Alliance for Prog-
ress. And it is no wonder that world population
is becoming an increasing problem and birth
control a heightening issue.
Here and there some progress is being made.
In Mexico, the government has ordered the
eventual parcelling out of several million acres
of land to two million small farmers. In this
way, the opportunities for subsistance are be-
coming a little more widespread. But, as Presi-
dent Kennedy noted during his visit there,
"Land tenure must be increasingly secure and
agricultural units made economically stronger."
AND HOW CAN economic development pro-
ceed in the poor countries if political devel-
opment is at a standstill? A Twentieth Century
Fund study has found that one-party rule
perils growth in poorer lands. A susceptibility
to corruption and a loss of perspective are apt
to occur, especially with the absence of a poli-
tical opposition to criticize the government's
plans, programs, policies, ineptitudes, failures
and abuses, and to propose alternatives. As a
result of one-party dominance, a sense of re-
sponsibility is dissipated and nepotism and
graft flourish.
Political development also means individual
rights; if an individual cannot operate with
flexibility and freedom, how can he make a
creative contribution to his country's develop-
ment? Yet, behold apartheid in South Africa: '
The beaches are segregated to the three-mile
limit. Whites and blacks have separate park
benches, public toilets, post office windows and
elevators. Blacks' and whites' blood is kept sep-
arately in blood banks. Black Africans travel
on separate buses and railroad coaches and wait
at separate bus stops; they are served meals
on plates and cups of a different color and the
dishes are washed separately. Most of the Dutch
Reformed churches of South Africa refuse to
admit blacks to their services.
THE IRONY is that the West has given the
African people some consciousness of the
ideal of equality while denying them this ideal.
We taught them Christianity and brotherhood,
but refused to be brothers with them. And so
they have fought us off, and in winning the
anti-colonial struggle, they have gained polit-
cal consciousness.
Political development and economic develop-
ment are interdependent. The United States
itself is a good example. America grew and ex-
panded and industrialized and became the so-
called "arsenal of democracy." At the same
time, American democracy grew and expanded,
especially in the Jacksonian and Progressive
eras. Meanwhile, American foreign policy ma-
tured from isolationism and neutralism to in-
ternationalism and world leadership.
Those among us who are so impatient to
"win the cold war" (if there is such a thing),
that they want all the developing nations to
join our side "or else," would do well to keep
in mind that America was a developing neutral-
ist during times of world struggle. And by being
left alone by the participants in the world strug-
gle, while being aided by them, America devel-
oped into a first-rate power and a democratic
NOW IT IS OUR TURN to help the develop-
ing nations of the world while not interfer-
ing with their foreign policies. We should not
only help; we should help the most, because we
are most able. America has six times the na-
tional income of England, ten times the national
income of France, and 28 times the average for
55 free-world countries. Americans should be
willing to give many times as much foreign aid
as the Western allies.
The need to give aid increases every year be-
cause the split between rich and poor nations is
widening. Population growth is far greater in
the poorer countries on the average than in the
richer ones. Prior to 1914 the industrial coun-
tries grew more rapidly than the non-industrial.
From 1914 to 1930 the rate was about equal.
Since 1930 the natural increase in underdevel-
oped countries has risen so fast that it is ap-
proximately twice that of the industrial coun-
tries, according to Kingsley Davis. Population
changes have been widening the gap between
poor and rich.
Although the underdeveloped areas have
raised their share in production, their share
in consumption has dropped. In short, more
and more poor are consuming less and less.
And human multiplication is hindering the un-
derdeveloped nations from acquiring what they

need-more capital and more skill.
AMERICAN AID should be directed, then, to-
ward the building up of the economies of
the developing nations. It need not be merely
governmental; private charity can play a
greater part.
American churches spend too much money
keeping themselves prosperous and not enough
money helping the rest of the world become
prosperous. They need to promote foreign and
home missions more. Every church every Sun-
day should take a collection specifically for thej
Foreign aid should not be given primarily for
American advantage over the Communists; it
should be given primarily because of the moral
responsibility of those who have to help those
who do not have. And it should be given most


Daily Staff Writer
THE HOUSE gives President
Kennedy one of the greatest
political defeats of the year.
Britain's entry into the Common
Market is delayed at least two
months as talks break down. Bul-
garia institutes tighter curbs on
civil rights. A trickle of Chinese
refugees make the dangerous and
illegal journey to Hong Kong.
What is the cause of these events?
It is the same-agriculture.
Agriculture is man's most uni-
versal problem. The growing and
marketing of food stuff is also
most vexing and one of the least
open to solution. It is studded
with paradoxes.
In the West, the problem is one
of too much. United States farm-
ers have been overproducing since
the 1920's and today surplus food,
worth billions of dollars, is piled
up in storage bins to rot or be
stolen. The agriculture depart-"
ment has the second biggest
budget, surpassed only by the
defense department.
* * *
THIS YEAR Kennedy tried to
solve the surplus problem by
cracking down on production. But
individualistic farmers-a block
to effective solution to farm prob-
lems since time immemorial-and
their Congressional representa-
tives defeated this approach in
the House. Strict limitations on
production had worked well on
several of the smaller crops, not-
ably tobacco, but Congress balked
when Kennedy tried to expand
this approach to wheat and feed
In Western Europe, the prob-
lem of plenty is somewhat differ-
ent. Agricultural policy had al-
ready split the six members of
the Common Market and when
Britain wanted protection for her
Commonwealth countries, t h e
European members balked. So
Britain's entry was stalled for at
least two months as all sides
agreed to suspend negotiations to
review and reevaluate positions.
The Communist bloc nations are
undergoing a new round of belt
tightening. Following the lead of
the Soviet Union, the satellites,
one by one, are sharply raising
food prices to cover for poor crops.
This form of rationing-prices are
fixed by the government not by

the supply and demand of the
market--is most unpopular and
Bulgaria and East Germany in
particular are taking steps to
suppress criticism.
IN CHINA, where the food prob-
lem is most chronic, the situation
is looking up. The weather has
been favorable and the govern-
ment seems to have ironed out
some of the kinks in its agricul-
tural policy. However, the food
shortage is quite severe.Reed J.
Irvine in the Nation estimates
that Chinese food production is
at 1957 levels. But the population
has increased 60 million since
In non-Communist Asia the
food situation remains basically
the same despite governmental ef-
forts to raise food production and
stem population growth. Most na-
tions in the area are still caught
in the demographic curve and the
food situation is tight.
So one of the great paradoxes
of the age continues. In the West
there is more food than the na-
tions know what to do with. In
the East food is scarce. Yet no
way has been devised to accom-
plish the obvious and use Western
surpluses to feed the East.
the world food market. If sur-
pluses are give naway the agricul-
tural economies of the underde-
veloped nations and some de-
veloped ones will be ruined. Thus
surplus food programs have been
limited to emergency measures
only *and barely make a dent in
the unused stockpiles. '
More international attention
should be given to this problem.
The Food and Agricultural Organ-
ization of the United Nations
should sponsor research into the
economies of international agri-
cultural marketing. It should also
consider the possibility of a world
food bank where food-short na-
tions could borrow surpluses to
feed the masses. Or on a grander
scale, FAO should consider con-
trolling the market, by making it
a clearing house and regulator of
all international food sales.
Thus agriculture remains a par-
adoxical and vexing problem. No
panaceas are in sight. Little has
been done on the international
scene. It is time for a more in-
tensive look at this area.

Biting the Feeding Hand

To the Editor:
ISRAEL'S PART in the "Soblen
Case" is very embarrassing to
United States.
The Israeli government under
mounting pressure from its people
seems to regret having arranged
Dr. Soblen's departure from Israel
when he first arrived there after
being convicted as a Soviet spy
in the United States. Israel now
is trying all possible means to
make up for its mistake and allow
Soblen to escape the sentence.
Apparently the Israeli govern-
ment publicly claims that it is
illegal to hand Soblen back to the
U.S. because there is no extradi-
tion agreement between the two
* * *
ISRAEL BY kidnapping Eich-
man has already shown its dis-
regard and contempt for interna-
tional law and proper civilized
legal procedure to serve its own
selfish interests. Why is it then
that Israel today pretends strict
adherence to such technicalities

of law, even against the interests
of the U.S., its greatest source of
moral and economic support?
The U.S., under fierce Zionist,
propaganda, has contributed more
than any other country towards
the creation and maintenance of
Israel, against its own .national
interests and principles of justice.
How is it that Israel today stands
against it in a case involving its
national security that would have
been fatally jeopardized by Sob-
len's treason?
The real reason is the fact that
Soblen is a Jew, and Israel after
being nourished on U.S. support
and money, finds it an opportun-
ity to assert its protection for the
"chosen people," by or against
their will, even if they were citi-
zens of the U.S. itself. World
Jewry support is vital for Israel's
existence, and by offering all Jews
protection, even when they are
convicted criminals, Israel hopes
to bind them by an allegiance to
her over and above that they owe
to their countries of citizenship.

Bill Serves Taxed Public

Daily Staff Writer
THE KENNEDY administration's
Communications Satellite Bill
performs a needed service to both
American business and the heavily
tax-burdened public.
The bill would set up a private
corporation, with voting stock
half-owned by the American Tele-
phone and Telegraph Co., and oth-
er carriers, and half by the gen-
eral public, to own and operate
the United States' part of a global
satellite communications system.
It would be less expensive for
the government to maintain the
system if it turned at least some
part of it over to the hands of pri-
vate enterprise. The American tax-
payer would not have to pay quite
as much to support the govern-
ment in its efforts to finance the
satellite operation if this task were
turned over to U.S. business.



the U.S. Information Agency, said
that, although the government
should operate the satellite system,
it would be necessary for USIA to
finance it at a reduced rate.
If, in the end, the government
does own the U.S. segment of the
communications system, a reduced
rate would mean an above-normal
strain upon the taxpayer to pro-
vide the extra money needed.
Needless to say, this is not advis-
able at a time when the national.
economy so badly needs a tax cut.
Of course the government should
control the material which is fed
to countries overseas as represen-
tative of the American way of life,
but this need be little more than
the influence the administration
already exerts over internal com-
munications systems.
* * * '
lite bill would also encourage busi-
ness activity, which of late has
been declining. The bill means
thousands of dollars in possible
profit for American Telephone &
Telegraph Company and the pub-
licly owned half.
Far from being, in the words of
Harry Truman, "a gigantic give-

acy of the President in the nego-
tiation of agreements between our
country and foreign countries."
Morse said it was unfortunate
that Kennedy "who is so right on
so many things is wrong on this."
He, too, said he would fight on the
floor for a series of amendments
the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee rejected.
The real issue at stake here is,
not the primacy of the President
in foreign agreements. This right
would be preserved whether or not
the communications system is
owned and operated by the Presi-
dent or not. Any debate over the
President's control of the commu-
nications system is primarily of a
political nature,- '
Free enterprise and the Ameri-
can system can be relied upon to
sell itself overseas without gov-
ernment control.
" HREE THREATS are inherent
in this constant projection of
the personal image of the Presi-
dent: the suppression or obscuring
of significant news; the amassing
by the President of personal
power; and-most insidious of all
-the irrational worldwide identi-
fication of him with the country
as a whole. We all-mass media
and mass audience - could well
pause to assess the ramifications
of what less sophisticated societies
termed hero worship, a phenom-
enon that, inour electronic age,
has become both more complex
and more potent.
Because of the cult of person-
ality, to the average man every-
where Mr. Kennedy has become
synonymous with the United
States; his victories are American
victories; his health, American
health; his smile, his family, his
hobbies, his likes and dislikes, be-
come symbolic of the country.
And the danger of this equation is
that should the President fail,
then the country fails; should he
make a mistake, the country errs."
A President is not the country.

THE SOBLEN case proves this,
not only by Israel's official posi-
tion, but more important by the
quietness of those who use their
American citizenship only as an
opportunity to rally support for
Israel, the mother country; those
who make the loudest of noises
and write with tears and blood
when Israel's ambitions are not
supported, but today do not even
feel the urge to say a word in
support of the country in which
they live in.
Zionists have a tradition of bit-
ing the hand that fed them; they
have done this to the Arabs that
accommodated them at the time
of their worst prosecution in
Europe, they have done it after
the war by terrorizing the British
in Palestine after they have
blessed them with the Balfour
Declaration of 1917; the United
States may find it difficult. to
avoid its turn for it already began
when the "Lavon Case" exposed
the plan behind Israeli agents
sent in 1954 to bomb the United
States' Embassy and Information
Office in Cairo, and the "Soblen
Case" today show which way the
wind will blow.
It is very unfortunate that
Israel had to face the American
people-of all people-with these
facts in that way. But it may help
them in realizing that American
liberty and power were designed
to serve those American people
who, no matter what religion they
may be, owe their allegiance and
recognize their responsibility for
its well being, rather than to those
with "Dual Allegiance" whether
they may be Communists or
-Mansour Hassan, Grad
Prejudice.. .
To the Editor:
I NOTICE that Kenneth Winter,
via his cartoon in Wednesday's
Daily, has engaged in that popu-
lar and safe pastime indulged in
by people north of the Mason-
Dixon line of castigating the
people south of theaMason-Dixon
line for their prejudice and gen-
eral inhumanity.
Granted, equal rights for the
Negro are coming too late and
too slowly in the South. But it
seems to me grossly inaccurate
to imply that there has been re-
gress rather than progress, as Mr.
Winter apparently does with his
If his view is in fact that the
Southern Negro is being burdened
with more and more oppression,
perhaps he has based it on facts
unknown to me. If so, disclosure
of said facts would be welcome.
-Bob Thalmann, Grad
Diplomacy .. .
To the Editor:
LEE WETHERHORN in his let-
ter of July 26 does not really
make it clear whether he is op-
posed to foreign students because
they are propagandists or because
they are not subtle enough as pro-
Either way, the letter is a rude
and 'undiplomatic" outburst, em-
barrassing to the rest of the com-
munity. While it was obviously
occasioned by a specific gripe
against a specific foreign student,
he seems to condemn all foreign
students as a vicious influence.
Fortunately most of them have

ternational scene, pauses coolly and
in the direction of the camera as
if it were attempting to follow
her into the ladies' room; and fin-
ally, Marcello Mastroianni, hero
of "La Dolce Vita," exhibits with
confidence the virile appeal which
has made him an International
sensation, and a welcome respite
for American women who seem-
ingly find a similar masculinity
only in the idols of Hollywood
vintage years 1925-35.
* * *
somewhat in jeopardy in this pic-
ture, for through psychological
reasons which slip rather ambigu-
ously into late moments of the
picture, we find he is virtually
impotent with women he loves, al-
though he is reputed to be the Don
Juan of Rome, and undoubtedly
the handsomest man on earth
since the model for the Apollo
Belvedere was called inexplicably
to his Maker.
Such physical idolotry from
everyone in the picture could be
hard to justify, but Mastroianni
carries it through with a blend of
slight, self-consciousness and quiet
acceptance which makes him a
shade more believable than the
hysterical women who beat their
breasts and rend their garments in
choral frustration. His eventual
marriage of convenience to Miss
Cardinale is terminated by her
family and church after a year,
since his inability to consummate
the marriage offends not only his
bride, but humiliates both their
families as well.
A while later, Antonio (Mastrio-
anni) gets a shy and unattractive
servant girl, for whom he has
no feelings of love, pregnant, and
his ecstatic family and friends
carry on to distraction, confident
that their worries are over, and
bell' Antonio is again and forever,
a man.
* * *
GRANTED that the subject is a
touchy one, the handling of both
rambling scenarib and sub-titles
speaks as if the script-writers
have forgotten the meaning of
Pierre Brasseur as the father,
and his wife rise above the odds
to give genuine and moving per-

Tnged with Nausea
MOST OF THE ELEMENTS which have gone to produce the recently
successful wave of Italian pictures are once again on display, in
"Bell' Antonio," now at the Campus.
No less than two film festival prizes are accompanying this picture
around the States, those of the Lorcano Film Festival, and Rio de
Janeiro, admittedly not very pretentious, but at least there are two.
Director Bologini pokes his soft-focus camera down dimly-lit cor-
ridors, or mounts it on the back of a careening Fiat, or snuggles it close
to the complexions of any one of a number of lovely and intriguing
Italian women. Claudia Cardinale, a relatively newcomer on the In-

I demurely, and gazes disdainfully
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
vesponsiblity. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
College of Lit., Science, and the Arts,
School of Ed., School of Music, School
of Public Health, School of Bus.
Admin.: Students are advised not to
request grades of I or X in Aug. When
such grades are absolutely imperative,
the work must be made up in time
to allow your instructor to report the
make-up grade not later rthani1ra.m.,
Aug. 22. Grades received after that time
may defer the student's graduation
until a later date.
Recommendations for Departmental
Honors: Teaching dept.'s wishing to
recommend tentative Aug. graduates
from the College of Lit., Science, and
the Arts, for honors or high honors
should recommend such students by
forwarding a letter (in two copies; one
copy for Honors Council, one copy for
the Office of Registration and Records)
to the Director, Honors Council, 1210
Angell Hall, by 3:00 p.m., Tuesday,
Aug. 21.
Teaching dept.'s in the School of Ed.
should forward letters directly to the
Office of Registration and Records,
Room 1513 Admin, Bldg., by 11:00 a.m.,
wed., Aug. 22.
Doctoral Examinaiton for Avo Somer,
Music; thesis: "The Keyboard Music
of Johann Jakob Froberger," Sun., Aug.
12. 808 Burton Memorial Tower, at
1:30 p.m. Chairman, W. H. Hitchcock.
Doctoral Examination for John Alan
Sargent, Speech: thesis: "Self-Regula-
tion: The Motion Picture Production
Code, 1930-1961," Mon., Aug. 13, 2520
Frieze Bldg., at 3:00 p.m. Chairman,
Claribel Baird.
Doctoral Examination for Clarence E.
Stephenson, Speech; thesis: "T he
Theater Criticism of Walter Prichard
Eaton," Mon., Aug. 13, 2020 Frieze Bldg.,
at 4:00 p.m. Chairman, J. E. Bender.
Doctoral Examination for Thomas
Michael Cullen, Metallurgical Engineer-

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