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August 07, 1962 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1962-08-07

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0ht miligatt Batg
Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MICH.Oa Phone NO 2-3241
Truth WI Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

"How Soon Do You Think We Can Get Away From Here
And Still Come Back Next Year?"

A tlantic Partnership
Rooted in Past

Depression In America
Will Follow Disarmament

THE PURPOSE of the new Soviet test series
is to encourage American dependence upon
defense production for economic stability. Then
when disarmament is ultimately realized, the
United States economy would experience a ma-
jor depression.
The first blast Sunday, apparently touched
off at Soviet atomic test grounds in Arctic Si-
beria, came as no surprise to the West. Premier
Khrushchev had announced that his forces
would have to resume testing because of the
United States Pacific tests now being concluded.
In a July 23 press release, the government of
the USSR declared "Even before the U.S. gov-
ernment embarked on the present series of nu-
clear tests, it was well aware of the fact that if
American nuclear bombs were to start explod-
ing, the Soviet Union would be faced with the
need to hold tests of its nuclear weapons.
essential for an effective foreign policy,
neither side of the cold war can afford to re-
lent in the merciless quest for a superior strik-
ing force. Nuclear weapons research and test-
ing has become an integral aspect of interna-
tional power politics.
To meet the demand for more nuclear weap-
onry, with greater efficiency and destrructive
power, the United States and the Soviet Union
have heavily subsidized the weapons industry
with government aid and encouragement.
The Soviet Union is forced to withhold much
of its own consumer goods productive capacity
in the interests of heavy industry and war pro-
duction. In the USSR, the prices of food,
clothes, and household appliances are prohibi-
tive. While at the same time, the Soviet Union
remains the world's second industrial power,
and the world's first nuclear power.
So great is the amphasis upon N-weapons
and an adequate striking force that in the Unit-
ed States alone, approximately 10 per cent of
the gross national product is occupied with the
manufacture of armaments.
upon government spending and support for
war production to maintain economic stability.
Not only is government support restricted to
only the nuclear weapons industry, but it is
doled out in large amounts to aid the vast pri-
vate complex of related industries. This latter
term encompasses aircraft and missile con-
cerns, electronic manufacturers, chemical, en-
gineering, and metal manufacturers, ferrous
and non-ferrous.
There is a tremendous amount of capital and
labor power invested in the weapons industry
and national defense. The cold-war is a major
source of profit and employment in America.
Were it not for the speedy rise of the cold war,
the post World War II economic boom would
not have been maintained even to a fraction of
the degree which exists today. Just as the 1939
depression was alleviated by World War II,
which provided jobs and a source of profit for
millions of Americans, so was a possible post-
World War II economic slump prevented by the
Cold War.
The cold war still remains as the only bar-
rier between the American economy and a de-
pression. The incentive for economic growth
provided for by an ever-expanding defense in-
dustrial complex manages today to maintain a
rough economic equilibrium. However, because
America maintains a semblance of economic
stability does not mean that ours is a relatively
healthy economy. In the midst of affluent so-
ciety wealth there still remains the constantly
growing specter of unemployment poverty. The
recent steel crisis and the stock market dip are

only mild indications of what would exist with-
out the cold-war economic incentive.
THE POSITION of the Soviet Union on a nu-
clear test-ban and disarmament has always
been that disarmament should be total, unilat-
eral and without controls. The West has al-
ways opposed this position, countering with its
own, more reasonable position, maintaining
control of any disarmament agreements and nu-
clear test moratoriums is necessary to prevent
secret military buildups by either side. Neither
America nor the Soviet Union has, up until re-
cently, been willing to budge from their stead-
fast positions. Therefore, all attempts to dis-
arm unilaterally have gone on the rocks, while
cold-war tensions are being built up anew.
Consider what would happen if suddenly both
the U.S. and the USSR were to agree to dis-
arm, totally, with or without inspection. A ma-
jor prop for the American economy would be
shot out from under it: all war-production
would be junked, stockpiles of nuclear weapons
destroyed, government contracts for defense
abolished. Unemployment would sky-rocket to
undreamed of heights. The aircraft and missile
industry would collapse from lack og govern-
ment contracts. Thousands of corporations who
depend upon government contracts for defense
for most of their business would go bankrupt.
The entire, vast defense-industrial complex
would be annihilated. Since many other indus-
tries depend upon industrial-complex markets
in order to maintain profits, they too would be
seriously affected. The stock market would def-
initely crash, and with it, would crash the false
prosperity of the cold-war years. The economic
situation of the United; States would be rend-
ered utterly chaotic.
THE SOVIET economic planners, once faced
with the removal of the necessity to compete
militarily with the U.S., can shift economic
emphasis to other important matters. The might
of Russia's industrial capacity could be turned
towards the production of consumer goods, and
the development of vast unpopulated areas
such as the greater part of Siberia. An almost
unlimited horizon of internal economic devel-
opment will be revealed to the Soviet govern-
ment. The USSR will make vast strides towards
the development of the well-known Marxist
The USSR will expand on the world economic
market too, due to two factors:
a) Development of her natural resources to
the point where her productive capacity will
reach a fantastic level; and
b) Economic competition from the United
States will be rendered null and void.
If unilateral disarmament was instituted, the
cold war competition would be forced into the
economic sphere, and Khrushchev's "peaceful
coexistence" would be given a chance. Here the
Soviet Union would have the clear economic ad-
vantage, and the United States would lose
ground at a more-than-alarming rate.
best political interests of the United States
because it would bring about a major depres-
sion; and would cause the deterioration of
American world power.
Marx predicted that the economy of capital-
ism would reach the point where it would de-
pend upon war production to maintain internal
stability. The nuclear foreign policy of the So-
viet Union is based upon this prediction. It is
aimed to do harm to the United States, not mil-
itarily, but upon an economic basis.
Perhaps they know us better than we know
ourselves.-EA RL POLE

®t -6s* srf . c- c-f-
The Festival Myriad

ALTHOUGH the Atlantic part-
nership, o which the Presi-
dent spoke, is a proposal for the
future, its roots are in the origin-
al and enduring connection be-
tween the Old World and the New.
Since the age of the discover-
ers and explorers nearly five cen-
turies ago, Europe and the Ameri-
cans have been one great commu-
nity, separated yet united by the
Atlantic Ocean. The Americas
were occupied and settled by Eu-
ropeans who transplanted to the
New World their religions, their
culture, their jurisprudence, and
their economy.
Within this great community
-there have been continual rivalry,
for power and for wealth, and a
long series of civil wars, wars of
independence and wars of hege-
mony. But through itall the com-
munity has remained: the proof
being that in the great wars for
the domination of Europe the
Americans, particularly the North
Americans, have always been
drawn, willy-nilly, into the fight-
ing. For a state which is by its
history and geography a member
of the Atlantic community, isola-
tion from the vital interests of the
community is impossible.
SINCE the United States emerg-
ed as an independent power in the
New World the wisest statesman
on both sides of the ocean have
known this. Jefferson, Madison,
John Quincy Adams on this side,
Canning on the other, knew it.
The disastrous men, the Kaiser
and Hitler, did not know it. They
refused to believe that the Atlan-
tic community is a reality, and
they took the road to ruin in the
fond belief that the New World
would not come in to redress the
balance of the old.
There has always been doubt
about what to call the trans-At-
lantic connection. It is certainly
not now a political union. It is a
collection of sovereign national
states. Although there is NATO,
the Atlantic community is broad-
er than the alliance. For many
indubitable Atlantic states, as for
example Sweden and Eire and
Brazil, do not belong to NATO.
* * *
THERE IS ALSO a salutary
vagueness about Atlantic commu-
nity. Since it is not a sovereign
state, it does not have to have
sharp frontiers, and in the mar-
ginal regions, particularly in Cen-
tral and Eastern Europe, it is not
necessary to pronounce on who is
and who is not a member.
Since the Second World War,
which was an intolerable civil war
in Europe, a movement has been
under way to construct institu-
tions on the foundation of the At-
lantic community. The most prom-
ising of these institutions is the
European Economic Community
and the European Union which is
to be built upon it. With the ad-
mission of the United Kingdom
and eventually of some other Eu-
ropean states, this will be the nu-

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Daily staff
writer Michael Zweig is an unoffi-
cial observer at the Helsinki World
Youth Festival under the sponsor-
ship of the Independent Research
service. This is the second of sev-
eral articles on the festival.)
Daily Correspondent
HELSINKI, July 30-The first
full day of the eighth World
Youth Festival for Peace and
Friendship is over, although the
Helsinki sky is not completely
dark. It was filled with ever-pres-
ent, ever-popular hand shakes,
smiles, informal talks, and a myri-
ad scheduled variety shows, sem-
inars, and excursions.
Officially, at least, it is neces-
sary to present a ticket at the door
before being admitted to schedul-
ed events. The United States Fes-
tival Committee has established a
system of ticket distribution to
Americans which seems to be quite
efficient. The International Fes-
tival Committee, which is the over-
all coordinating body of the fes-
tival, issues a specific number of
tickets to each national group for
each scheduled event. Each morn-
ing, Americans indicate which
morning, afternoon and evening
event they wish to attend on the
following day. If fewer Americans
sign up for an event that the quo-
ta allows, there is a public draw-
ing here at our headquarters at a
given time each day to decide
which people will go. All tickets
must be picked up by eight o'clock
in the morning of the day for
which the ticket is used. After
eight, any unclaimed tickets are
available to any Americans on a
first-come first-serve basis.
but possible way to get into sched-
uled events. Many times it is pos-
sible to enter an event, especially
variety shows and competitions
simply by showing a delegate card.
This is especially true when the
auditorium is not full. Many peo-
ple heard today's International Si-
belius Concert who had no ticket.
I planned to spend this morning
at an inter-delegation meeting be-
tween the U.S. and several Afri-

can nations here at our headquar-
ters. But somehow none of them
came at any time, so I and 124 oth-
ers were quite disappointed.
In the afternoon I went to an
International variety show. Folk
dancing, ballet, small bands and
singing ensembles, acrobats, solo
vocalists, and other performers
from Bulgaria, Indonesia, Mada-
gascar, and Switzerland delighted
all the spectators. It is quite pleas-
ant to see the color and gaiety of
other people.
* * *
I HAVE SEEN so far only one
act of unfriendliness. I was at a
large gathering this evening and
was talking with a girl from Is-
rael. As we talked, a man ap-
proached us and we turned to
greet him. I gave my name and
country, the man smiled and we
shook hands. The Israeli also smil-
ed and introduced herself and her

country. Our friend said flatly to
her "I will not speak with you."
Later I found out that he comes
from Iraq, but he would not dis-
cuss Arab-Israeli relations, or the
lack thereof, with me. The Israeli
told me that earlier today she had
spoken with other Iraquis, but that
the unfriendly reaction is not un-
I spoke this afternoon with a 14
year old, Finnish boy. He attends
one of the few Catholic parochial
schools in Finland. He told me that
he has been studying English for
seven years, and that at his grade
all classes in his school are con-
ducted in English, except when
they study Finnish and Swedish.
His English, and that of his school
friends, was quite excellent.
There was one thing, however.
which he could not understand,
and that was the racial prejudice
in the United States.

cleus of that "Europe" with which
the U.S.A. is to form a partner-
There are two different ways of
going about it. One is to suppose,
quite erroneously, I think, that the
United States of Europe and the
trans-Atlantic partnership can be
constructed on the analogy of our
own Federal constitutional union.
That would mean calling acon-
vention (as at Philadelphia in
1787) to draft a constitution for
an Atlantic union.
It would not, I believe, work.
The American states had always
been members of a union of the
sovereignty of the English kings.
There is no comparable connec-
tion among the Atlantic states.
Either the convention would put
out empty generalities or it would
end in disagreement.
THE OTHER WAY to go about
it is to decide to act as partners
without drawing up articles of
partnership, and as partners to
tackle theconcrete problems of
the Atlantic community. This is
the way M. Monnet and his collab-
orators have been working in Eu-
rope, and this is what the Action
Committee recommends in its
notable "Joint Declaration of June
26." The way to begin is to work
at the solution of concrete prob-
lems, such as tariffs, currency, and
gold reserves, and to avoid being
seduced into trying to solve the
insoluble theoretical issues.
The most exciting of these in-
soluble theoretical problems is how
to create an equal nuclear part-
nership between E u r o p e and
America. The military school men
are engaging in vast and intricate
speculations about it.
MY OWN VIEW is that Euro-
pean union and the Atlantic part-
nership can and will evolve even
though the nuclear problem is not
solved. The real nuclear problem,
which is to maintain an ample bal-
ance of power with the Soviet Un-
ion, is at present well in hand. So
long as it is, the problem of the
nuclear partnership in the Atlan-
tic world is quite secondary, and
it must not be allowed to divert
the Europeans and the Americans
from doing the great things near
at hand which it is now urgent
and feasible for them to do.
(c) 1962, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
College of Lit., Science, and the Arts,
School of Ed., School of Music, School
of Public Health, School of Bus. Admin.
Students are advised not to request
grades of I or X in Aug. When such
grades are absolutely imperative, the
work must be made up in time to al-
low your instructor to report the
make-up grade not later than 11 a.m.,
Aug. 22. Grades received after that
time may defer the student's gradua-
tion until a later date.
Recommendations for Departmental
Honors: Teaching dept.'s wishing to
recommend tentative Aug. graduates
from the college of Lit., Science, and
the Arts, for honors or high honors
should recommend such students by
forwarding a letter (in two copies; one
copy for Honors council, one copy for
the office of Registration and Records)
to the Director, Honors Council, 1210
Angell Hall, by 3:00 p.m., Tues., Aug. 21.
Teaching dept.'s in the School of Ed.
should forward letters directly to the
office of Registration and Records,
Room 1513 Admin. Bldg., by 11:00 a.m.,
Wed., Aug. 22.
Foreign Visitors

Following are the foreign visitors who
willbe oncampus this week on the
dates indicated.
Program arrangements are being made
by the International Center.
Hyuk-So Kwon (accompanied by
Young-Kim, interpreter U.S. State
Dept.), President, Taegue Univ., Korea,
Aug. 5-9.
Dotun Oyewole, Assistant Registrar
(Continued on Page 3)






The Festival Mirage

To the Editor:
THE DAILY'S Man in Helsinki,
Michael Zweig, would have us
believe in his first article, Sat-
urday, that the "Eighth World
Youth Festival for Peace and
Friendship" is indeed just that.
The editors have not only pub-
lished Zweig's article at the top
of page one, they have headed it
"Helsinki Festival Sets Under-
standing as Goal." While the rest
of Zweig's articles are appearing,
let the facts-certainly familiar to
all-be restated.
The "World" Youth Festivals,
Zweig has forgotten to tell us, are
in fact Communist Youth Festi-
vals, in terms of their organiza-
tion, their financing, and their
* * *
ALONG with the World Peace
Congress and the World Federa-
tion of Trade Unions, the Festivals
are the predominant form of Com-
munist-front activity today. The

only Festivals held outside the So-
viet bloc - those in Austria and
Finland-were held on the initia-
tive of even a minority of the
youth of those countries; rather,
they were forced on neutral Aus-
tria and Finland, against their
wills, by the Soviet Union. The
New York Times and AP dispatch-
es reporting Finnish dissatisfac-
tion with the Festival contrast
sharply with Zweig's implication
that many Finns welcome the Fes-
The recent Festivals have at-
tempted to mesmerize Western
and neutralist participants with
the economic and political might
of the Soviet bloc, to increase their
receptivity to policies for their
own countries, which do not clash
with Soviet international inter-
Mir I druzhba of course: all
that's necessary, for example, is
to adopt the Soviet view on dis-
arament. Doubtless in Helsinki, as
in Vienna, participants who at-

tempt to present Western view-
points will be denied a platform.
* * *
TO REPRESENT the Helsinki
Festival, as does Zweig, as an un-
partisan international gathering
with some "Communists in it," to
imply that the Komsomol dele-
gates from the USSR are also
there "to gain insight into the lives
and thoughts of other people"-
this is the height of political
The present writer advocates in-
creased cultural contact between
the Soviet bloc and the West, such
as the recent Polish-American dis-
cussions in Warsaw. But let us not
delude ourselves into thinking the
Western voice will get a hearing in
Communist - organized activities
carefully designed to exclude us.
Above all, let us not be so naive
as to spread the Communist myth
that the World Youth Festivals are
free international forums.
-Ross Johnson
Columbia University

Voters Face Test

THE VOTERS of the Fourth Congressional
District will face a test of their sophistica-
tion today as they select a Republican candi-
date for Congress. In a district where a Demo-
crat is a rare as an awk, victory in the primary
is as good as election to Congress.
The electorate in exercising their great re-
sponsibility have posed a dilemma-are they
to support a candidate who has been smeared
or are going to endorse its perpetrators.
THE smear which began last Monday night
was supplemented last Thursday night by
an inquisition. In a Berrien Springs speech
constitutional convention delegate Lee Boothby
(R-Niles) revealed the "awful truth" about fel-
low candidate Chester J. Byrns, a St. Joseph
attorney. In his college days, the shocked
Boothby reported, Byrns was a member of the
United World Federalists and further he wrote
a letter to The Daily applauding the election
of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. to Congress.
Citing Byrns' campaign literature picturing
the attorney as an isolationship and long-time
Republican worker, Boothby called Byrns a
"liar" and a socialist and claimed that Byrns
in his letter has spurned the "sacredness of
tired and true economic doctrine."
"This man, just a few years ago, was push-
ing for world government. His career at the
University belies his current position. He has
not kept faith with the voters," Boothby added.

forces with the camp of fellow candidate
Speaker of the House Don R. Pears (R-Bu-
chanan), especially with C. C. "Duke" Harrah,
a leading Pears supporter who happened to be
chairman of the Berrien County Republican
Screening Committee, a controversial organi-
zation designed to recommend candidates to
the county party.
On Thursday night the inquisition was held.
Boothby and Pears were present at the hear-
ings, ostensibly called to consider who were
"qualified Republicans" deserving voter sup-
port, but designed to magnify Boothby's
BYRNS disdained the affair, calling it an
"insult to the voters" and intimating that
machine politics were at work.
The next morning Harrah issued a statement
endorsing Boothby and Pears as "qualified
Republicans" and declaring, "We can find no
evidence to refute his statement in the Daily
that he is of no political party. Yet he claims
to be a life-long Republican. We also cannot
assertain if he was sympathetic to world
Certainly, the committee could report, no
other way. No one from the Byrns camp was
there to defend him and no attempt was made
by opponents on and off that supposedly im-
partial screening committee to determine his

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