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July 22, 1961 - Image 6

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-22

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'4

Special Congressional Whip

r Ak4*Bgan Patty
Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
TruthWill Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL OLINICK

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Bour guiba Running
Serious Risks
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
PRESIDENT Habib Bourguiba is running serious risks through his
attack on the French position in Tunisia and Algeria, and his rea-
sons for doing so at this particular time are unclear.
Bourguiba has built up a good reputation in the United States for
his regime. His efforts as mediator in the French-Algerian dispute have
been much appreciated despite the fact that his country's provision of
a base for the Algerian rebels has at the same time aggravated the
problems of our French ally.
Only a few days ago Bourguiba was helping to arrange renewal of
the Algerian peace talks.
Now, by an armed attack on the French in Bizerte and in Algeria,
he has violated the Western conscience with respect to the use of force

Crisis in Berlin:
Is This IT?

ASTRONAUTS, austerity in Great Britain, the
European Common Market, the death of
school aid for at least one more session of
Congress-all these go to make up the recent
news.
But none of them equal the Berlin situation
in importance, in number of headlines, in con-
tinuing impact. The difference? School aid,
economics and space travel-these are the little
extras that fill out the national and interna-
tional scene.
The Berlin crisis is no extra. It is (euphemis-
tically-as Washington would have it) a matter
of defense, a matter of foreign policy, and, in
actuality, stripping the sugar coating from the
politicians language-a matter of war.
For what else does this talk of calling up
the reserves, of proclaiming a national emer-
gency, mean?
The world is about to learn whether the error
of Munich really was an error-or at least
whether refusal to submit is any better.
S THIS IT? -Is this to be The Last Crisis?
Those who might know don't talk; and those
who don't have any knowledge are afraid to
--with one exception. Air Force Chief of Staff
General Curtis LeMay is reported to have said
that this country will be in a nuclear war by
December - and no longer in existence next
year.
Looking more closely at the reasoning behind
High Authority
MILITARY LEADERS have long been prone
to speechifying about the Communist Men-
ace--personified, usually, by anemic little
teachers who oppose ever-higher defense spend-
ing.
But, when Sen. J. William Fulbright asked
the Senate to put a stop to generals who in-'
doctrinated their troops with John Birch
theories, Sen. Strom Thurmond of South Caro-
lina decided to object.
"In the Defense Department, among military
personnel, lies the real bastion of knowledge
and understanding of the Communist threat,"
he said, "knowledge . . . long since lacking in
the White House, the State Department, and
other agencies of the national government."
So now'We know who is most qualified to
talk about the Communist threat-it is the
generals.
UT BEING ALIVE, we are not really capable
of appreciating their wisdom. Those soldiers
who understood them best are now dead,
buried with high honors and-quite fittingly--
still more speeches.
The answer to John Birch generals is not
to silence them. Rather, we-the audiences-
should kill ourselves as the soldiers did, the
better to understand. And, if enough people
listen to them, it might be a very good idea to
kill ourselves. We'd have so little to lose.
--PETER STEINBERGER

this, one finds a simple chain of logic-a chain
that others of equal intelligence and knowledge
agree with either in part or in whole.
First, the United States is going to involve
itself in a conventional war in Europe to keep
Berlin.
SECOND, the United States-with or without
its allies-will lose any such war. This coun-
try's army is much smaller than the Red army,
equipped on a comparable technological level
(which the Chinese have not yet reached-
explaining Korea), and will be based an ocean's
width from the scene of combat.
Third, the ensuing rout will lead to a nuclear
attack on Russia by the United States (or Bri-
tian or France) in order to prevent the entire
continent of Europe from being overrun by
the Russian might.
Two interesting supporting details may be
noted. Former President and still General
Dwight D. Eisenhower is agreed that no ground
war in Europe can be won. And President John
F. Kennedy has been having several closed
luncheon meetings recently with Gen. Douglas
MacArthur-the man who, with Eisenhower,
is the highest ranking member of the armed
-forces and who was the chief advocate of nu-
clear attacks on Red China to keep from losing
the conventional war in Korea.
BUT IF LeMAY is right, this country-and all
countries-are doomed. Let us then look
(and pray) for a mistake in his argument.
The most likely error in LeMay's stand comes
in any assumptions he may make about the
Russian's moves. But he does not appear to
make any-whether deliberately or not, he
hides the major fallacy in his argument.
He tacitly assumes that the Soviet Union
will start a conventional war in Europe over
Berlin. Certainly, it will have to be action of
some sort on their part-calculated action-
that leads us to go to war. Will they take this
action?
FROM ALL THEIR international propaganda,
it would appear that they are going to do so.
And yet, Western journalists inside Russia re-
port a strange lack of internal propaganda-
directed either to a general war-scare and wild
patriotism or to the Berlin and Germany issue.
The Soviet hierarchy is not preparing its
subjects for a war. They have not yet even
brought out of their warehouses the enormous
stacks of posters with the United States and
allies pictured hungrily poised over Berlin
(dressed for war, of course) that have been
repeatedly used in the past.
There has been, to observers' eyes, no de-
tectable change in the tenor of Soviet life. So
it seems that here.is where LeMay's reasoning
falls down.
AND IT SEEMS THAT-with the grace of
God and Nikita Khrushchev (American
leaders don't seem to be helping) -this is prob-
ably not going to be IT. I hope.
-ROBERT FARRELL

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION:
Re-Apportionment Controversy

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
is the fifth of a six-part analysis
of the issues likely to be consid-
ered at the forthcoming constitu-
tional convention. Primary election
for delegates to the convention is
next Tuesday.)
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Daily Staff Writer
THE MOST TALKED-ABOUT
question up for consideration
at the constitutional convention is
reapportionment of legislative dis-
tricts.
The constitution presently pro-
vides for a state Senate of 34
members and a House of Repre-
sentative with 110. The House
represents the state on a basis of
population, while the Senate pro-
vides for representation strictly
by area.
Although House membership is
set at 110, the method for divid-
ing the population into districts
involves dividing the total state
population, at each census, by 100.
However, each country or group
of counties forming a legislative
district is given a representative
when it reaches a population of
at least one half of the normally
specified population for a repre-
sentative.
This means that areas of rela-
tively low population can get a
representative when they have
only one-half the full population
requirement,'and in addition,'they
may have an extra representative
when they have reached a popu-
lation of one and a half times
the minimum required.
* * *
THE DISTRICTS, as far as pos-
sible, are made to follow existing
LETTERS
to the
EDITOR
To the Editor:
DAVID MARCUS, author of the
editorial, "The U. S. Should
Prevent Rocket Sales to the UAR"
(July 11), is either displaying ig-
norance or intellectual dishonesty,
perhaps both. Neither are desir-
able on the staff of The Daily and
are an insult to the intelligence
of the readers. It is our desire
that such poor journalism will not
occur again.
-H. A. Ibraheemien, A.A.A1
-Peter Signorelli, '63

township, city and county boun-
daries. This means that the repre-
sentative districts vary enormously
in size. This "moiety clause" en-
ables districts with populations
far below the established require-
ment to have the same represen-
tation as those exceeding the mini-
mum.
Prime instances of this can be
seen in the Upper Peninsula where
all seven representative districts
have populations below the re-
quirement, ranging from 51.7 to
78.7 per cent of the required
figure.
In south and southern Michigan,
the Bay County district has 138.8
per cent and Wayne County 100.6
per cent.
The purpose of the Senate is
to be representative of area
rather than population. There is,
correspondingly, variation in popu-
lation within the senatorial dis-
tricts.
* * *
THE NET EFFECT of both the
senatorial division according to
territory and division for the
House of Representatives (which
permit districts far below average
size to have representation) is
that the rural areas of the state
are highly over - representated
while the metropolitan, highly
populatedareas are vastly under-
represented.
This results in bitter rivalry be-
tween the metropolitan interests
and the rural interests, with the
rural districts generally gaining
the advantage because of strength
of numbers.
Thus the Legislature, totally un-
representative of the real popu-
lation and needs of the state con-
tinues to pass measures of benefit
to the increasing minority of citi-
zens in out-state districts, while
the growing majority in the big
cities (particularly Detroit, Sag-
inaw, Flint and Grand Rapids)
fight a losing battle for recog-
nition of their needs.
* * *
THE FACT that metropolitan
representatives are usually Demo-
cratic while those from the rural
districts tend to be Republican
means that the Legislature is
slightly more conservative than
the general thinking of the state's
population would warrant, and also
that the governor, who is elected
by popular vote, is often a Demo-
crat who has a difficult time

working co-operatively with his
Republican legislature.
Con-con then will need to look
into several aspects of the repre-
sentation issue. It will have to
analyse the senatorial districts to
see whether better ones can be
devised than are now in the con-
stitution.
The moiety clause will have to
be eliminated and the method for
determining the average figure for
representation in the House will
have to -be studied and possibly
amended to divide the population
by 110, the actual size of the
House (rather than the fictional
number of 100).
* * *
OTHER SMALL FEATURES of
the legislative article which may
be amended include legislative
aids, such as research facilities,
and legislative salaries.
Another question is the possi-
bility of having the state legis-
lature meet quarterly instead of
annually. In 1951, the state con-
stitution was amended to provide
for the Legislature's meeting
yearly instead of biennially.
However, since the work load
for the state senators and repre-
sentatives is constantly increas-
ing, it has been suggested that the
Legislature increase the frequency
of its sessions, thus moving to-
ward the concept of the "full
time legislator"
Biding
T-ime
"ISRAEL IS BIDING ITS TIME,
as the Arabs well know and
about which they often complain.
Contrary to the Arab propaganda
line, time is on Israel's side.
"Time, after all, is the great
legitimizer of national status.
With each passing year, theoreti-
cal boundaries conceived in 1947
recede into the background, and
the existing border achieves in-
ternational status.
"With each passing year, world
pressure for refugee resettlement
mounts. With each passing year
her population grows and her
economy is strengthened, and the
"silent miracle" of Israel's eco-
nomic growth since 1948 goes on."
-Gil Kollin
"The Student Zionist"

to settle political disputes, and at
the same time creates resentment
in at least some Arab areas by
seeming to claim a position in part
of the Sahara which the Algerian
Arabs also claim as the most sen-
sitive point in the negotiations.
* . *
BY ATTACKING France at this
critical moment in the Algerian
affair, Bourguiba will appear in
the West as seeking to profit from
a situation which is troublesome
enough already.
France, in yielding to Tunisian
independence claims in 1956, vir-
tually agreed in principle that she
would have to get out of the mili-
tary base at Bizerte eventually,
but succeeded in making the tim-
ing a matter of future negotiation.
Bourguiba may be entitled to some
exasperation over France's avoid-
ance of such negotiations, espe-
cially in view of the pressure on
him from Arab sympathy with
neighboring Algerians.
* * *
HE ADMITS that the use of
force can, in the end, prove useful
only as a political demonstration,
rather than a direct means of
French expulsion. Yet by the very
adoption of force he foregoes
much if not all of the general
world sympathy which a political
demonstration is intended to
arouse.
There is a growng realization
in France that the only position
she can maintain in Africa de-
pends upon mutual interests rath-
er than upon force. The growth of
that realization has produced some
success in her relations with for-
mer dependencies, but its ascend-
ancy in French minds can only be
slowed by too much pushing.
At this point, Bourguiba's image
in the United States may be suf-
fering from poor public relations,
his reasoning having been largely
overshadowed in the news reports
by the violent action. But at the
moment his Western friends are
embarrassed by his intemperance,
and his Arab friends by the pos-
sible effect on the cause of the Al-
gerians.
Revlisionism
Critcized
'THE MATERIALISTIC dialectic
considers that the struggle
between opposites is absolute,
while the unity is relative. If we
speak of their essential differ-
ences, these opposites determine
the definite line of demarkation
which cannot be ignored solely
because of their unity and mutual
transformation.
"This is one of the main themes
of the Marxist-Leninist teaching
about the class struggle is pre-
cisely the practical application of
this theoretical principle.
"BUT PRESENT-DAY revision-
ism does not admit this revolution-
ary theoretical principle. It de-
stroys the essential distinction be-
tween the two opposites, as if the
struggle between them were not
absolute and as if the unity of
contradictions were absolute.
"This sophistic attitude is exact'
ly reflected in a revisionist atti-
tude towards the class struggle,
particularly the international class
struggle."
-Chang Pei
"A Criticism of the Sophism
of Present-Day Revisionism"'
Caretaker
"BY EVERY STEP we make to-
ward making this state a
caretaker of our allies, by that

much more do we move toward
making that state our master." 1
-Dwight D. Eisenhower

COMMUNISM:
Latin
Question
By BERTRAM B. JOHANSSON
WHICH of the two top billing
events in Latin America will
attract the most attention?
Will it be Soviet spaceman Yuri
A. Gagarin's scheduled visit to
Havana for Premier Fidel Castro's
July 26 anniversary celebrations
next week? Or the Inter-American
Economic Conference beginning
near Montevideo, Uruguay, Aug. 5?
Which will win the most friends
in Latin America?
These are the sobering questions
facing Latin-American and United
States economists, government of-
ficials and publicists who for
months have been laying the sta-
tistical and ideological groundwork
for the economic conference. It is
scheduled to take place next
month in midwinter at Uruguay's
famous beach resort, Punte del
Este.
There is no doubt that cosmon-
aut Gagarin's appearance will de-
light the canny publicist, Fidel
Castro, and many of his Cuban
sympathizers. There may even be
an unveiling of Soviet MIG fight-
er planes, for extra measure.
* * *
ACTUALLY, the mammoth af-
fair in Havana may well whip up
a backlash of publicity on which
Premier Castro may not be count-
ing. There are others in the hemis-
phere, once strong sympathizers
with the Cuban leader, who will
interpret the Gagarin visit as
further evidence of an ever-
deeping commitment of Premier
Castro to an alien ideology.
Diplomatic sources in Havana
and Washington believe Premier
Castro may also announce for-
mation of an "all-powerful pro-
letarian party" at the July 26 cele-
brations. This may mean the for-
mal merging of his July 26 move-
ment into the Cuban Popular So-
cialist (Communist) Party,
The new party, is expected to
arise from a movement called the
Integrated Revolutionary Organ-
ization which diplomats believe
will become the sole official party
of Cuba.
Premier Castro may have to de-
vise another socialist constitution
to make his decree "legal," which
would allow the Cuban leader to
authorize "democratic" one party
elections.
MEANWHILE, reports are cir-
culating in Washington that Presi-
dent Kennedy may not be able to
atten d the important Inter-Ameri-
can conference at Punte del Este
because of the serious pressures of
the West Berlin situation.
The administration's hope is
that Kennedy might be able to
lend his official presence at Punte
del Este to demonstrate his spe-
cial interest - and it is that,
keenly so - in Latin American
economic progress and hemispher-
ic unity. This is a time when both
Premier Castro's Cuba and Soviet
and Chinese Communist efforts
at Latin-American infiltration are
reaching new intensities.
FOR, IN EFFECT, the special
conference of the Inter-American
Economic and Social Council at
the ministerial level will repre-
sent, for all practical purposes,
the kickoff of President Kennedy's
Alliance for Progress proposals in
Latin America. The disposition of
much of the $500 million Act of
Bogota funds, voted by Congress
at Kennedy's request, will be con-
sidered at the Uruguay conference.
For months now, financial and
economic experts from Latin and

North America, with the help of
the Organization of American
States, the Inter-American Devel-
opment Bank, and the United Na-
tions Economic Commission for
Latin America, have been, working
up studies thathare intended to
shed light on the basic problem.
This problem is how to advance
social and economic reforms by
means of evolutionary rather than
violent revolutionary methods that
will be felt and recognized by the
lowly peasant and malnourished
city dweller as population increases
five per cent annually, the swift-
est rate in the world.
* * *
MORE, the administration is
l-,n.-n 4in in nr.ao infl int ar.faPA

I

4

A

I

Aid to Education Too Expensive

THE SHARP SETBACK just suffered by, the
federal aid to education program should
clarify a number of things. The decision of the
House of Representatives' Rules Committee to
table three major bills shows first of all that too
many price tags had been attached to the pro-
gram. The final and decisive one was the de-
mand that aid to parochial schools must ac-
company public school aid.
The committee double-riveted its action by
killing a motion to reconsider. This does not
wholly remove any possibility of by-passing
the Rules blockade, but House leaders consider
the revival of school aid in this session unlikely.
The situation spotlights particularly the'diffi-
culties the question poses for the President.
HE NOW URGES fresh efforts to get the
program through Congress. He describes it
emphatically as the most important domestic
legislation he had requested. But so far it has
not appeared that the administration was using
as vigorous political tactics for school aid as it
has used in getting other measures through
Congress.
Of course the issue raises special problems
for Kennedy. A* few years ago while in Congress
he proposed aid for parochial schools. But then
he changed his position. Later, in the election
campaign he urged "an America where separa-
tion of church and state is absolute" and where
no "church school is granted public funds."
When the Roman Catholic bishops insisted
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS....................Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL .......................... Co-Editor
DAVE KIMBALL....................... Sports Editor
RUTH EVENHUIS........................Night Editor
MICHAEL OJJNICK......................Night Editor
mTTTTH t- rEN WM -nU1-+-------NihtEdit *r.

that parochial school aid be included with
federal funds for public schools the President
said that the questions should be considered
separately by Congress. But he did not call off
his aides who sought ways to give long-term
low-interest loans to parochial schools. And
there was no public protest from him when
public school aid was held up for weeks while
plans for nonpublic aid were devised.
INDEED the President now says he agrees that
loans to church schools for "specific pur-
poses" would -not be unconstitutional. This ap-
pears to mean that he will make no decisive
effort to rescue the aid-to-education program
by freeing it from the encumbering proposal for
loans to parochial schools-which would not be
so strongly sought if they did not in fact pro-
vide aid. Without such separation few Wash-
ington observers believe the general program
can be rescued.
That the President should now be unwilling
to press his demand for separation may be due
more to the influence of his political advisers
than to that of his church's leaders. For these
advisers originally put him forward as able
to carry key states by enlisting strong Roman
Catholic support. Their estimates were con-
firmed in the election. -They do not wish to
have that situation changed in another elec-
tion.
MANY CONGRESSMEN are under similar
pressure-both ways. They fear that any
vote will offend Catholics or Protestants and
are quite content to let the Rules Committee
save them from such perils. The entire situa-
tion underscores the unhappy lesson already
learned by many other countries-that aid to
church schools tends to open a Pandora's box
of divisive and damaging controveries.
-CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR

A

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DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
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The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
SATURDAY, JULY 20
'f T 2 - .

Events Sunday
Recital: William Eifrig, organist, will
be heard in a recital on Sun., July
23 at 4:15 p.m. in Hill Aud., presented
in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree Doctor of Musi-
cal Arts, Horace H. Rackham School
of Graduate Studies. He will perform
the compositions of Buxtehude, Scheidt,
Mozart, Hinemith and Reubke. Prof.
Marilyn Mason is chairman of his
doctoral committee. Open to the pub-
lir.

Department of English Language and
Literature, will speak on "What Will
English Be Good for in 1970?" on
Mon., July 24 at 4 p.m. in Aud. C.
Placement
PERSONNEL REQUESTS:
Management Consultants, N.Y.C. -
High-salaried senior positions in client
firms: Operations Director-BSME, thor-
ough knowledge of purchasing & 10
yrs. aircraft-oriented exper. Asst. Dis-

ices. Grad. with either Engrg. degree
or some ME or Safety Engrg. courses.
Substantial safety engrg. exper. with
insurance co. or in industry desirable.
To assist insured mfgrg. firm in plan-
ning & developing of accident preven-
tion programs.
Fergus Falls Public Library, Fergus
Falls, Minn.-Head Librarian for re-
cently remodeled & enlarged public li-
brary. Grad. with degree in Library
Science.
U.S. Dept. of Navy-Civilian job op-
nnrinma fn a__call, A-- ,-

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