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July 22, 1961 - Image 5

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1961-07-22

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BERLIN CRISIS:
THE LAST ONE?,
See Page 2

Yl r e

Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom

~~Aait

MORE SHOWERS
High-85
Love-70
Early morning fog;
Partly cloudy in afternoon

VOL. LXXI, No. 17S,
U.S. To Stage Airlift
For 20,000 Cubans
Government Plans Free Flights;
Castro Approval Not Yet Assured
E WASHINGTON W)-- The United States government announced
last night it will sponsor a free airlift for more than 20,000 Cubans
wanting to come to the United States.
The State Department said that, starting today, Pan American
Airways will step up its flight to Havana tenfold in order to bring
in the waiting Cubans at the rate of 1,000 a day.
The United States government expects to pay some $350,000 out
r' of its emergency foreign aid fund to finance the mass airlift. The
White House has approved the action.
The State Department said the step is being taken because the

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1961

FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

i

7

Massiv ot
Boosts

Infantry, Aerial Attack

French

Hold

in

Bizerte

Grissom is Space Flight Succeeds!

Cubans have been unable to pay

SEN. J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT
. objects to extremists
Senator Hits
P "
Political Role
Of Military
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-Sen. J. Wil-
iam Fulbright (D-Ark) said yes-
terday he had sent Secretary of
Defense Robert S. McNamara a
"confidential memorandum" ob-
jecting to military sponsorship of
meetings featuring "extremist
speeches" by outsiders.
"The point I wanted to make,"
Fulbright told reporters, "was that
it is not the traditional role of
the military to sponsor meetings
weighted to one side of a political
subject."
Fulbright said the principal
theme of some meetings spon-
sored by generals and admirals
has been that "the greatest dan-
ger to this country is internal
communism, and that communism
has infiltrated our schools and our
churches and dominates our gov-
ernment."
Criticizes Memo
Fulbright's remarks drew imme-
diate criticism from Senate 'col-
league Strom Thurmond (D-SC)
who denounced the memorandum
as a "dastardly attempt to intimi-
date the commanders of United'
States armed forces."
Thurmond termed the memo,
which was followed by new De-
fense Department restrictions on
speeches by top military men, an
effort to prevent United States
commanders from teaching their
troops "the nature of the menace
of world communism."
Unofficial Document
Fulbright, chairman of the Sen-
ate Foreign Relations Commit-
tee, said the memo was in no
sense a committee document and
that other members of the com-
mittee were unaware that he had
sent it.
Thurmond, a major general in
the Army reserve, said, "In the
Defense Department among mili-
tary personnel lies the real bastion
of knowledge and understanding
of the Communist threat, an un-
derstanding and knowledge long
since lacking in the White House."
Satellite Fails
After Takeoff
VANDENBERG AIR FORCE
BASE, Calif. ()-The 27th Dis-
coverer satellite rocket was de-
stroyed by the safety officer 60
seconds after it soared spaceward
from this Pacific missile range
yesterday.
Search teams are seeking debris,
assumed by the Air Force to have
fallen in the sea. The Discoverer

in American dollars for the flight
-to Miami. Instead, they have had
only Cuban pesos - unusabledto
pay their fares on such flights.
State Department Press Officer
Lincoln White, who issued the an-
nouncement, said no assurance
has been received from Prime
Minister Fidel Castro as to wheth-
er he will let the Cubans out. Nor
has the United States government
told Castro about the plan, he
said.
This raised questions about ob-
stacles the airlift might face in
actual operation.
The approximately 20,000 Cu-
bans eligible for the free flights
are those who have visas or waiv-
ers issued by the United States
government allowing them to en-
ter this country. Most of them are
relatives of the thousands of Cu-
bans who have found refuge in
America since Castro took power.
"The bulk of the waivers grant-
ed to Cubans now awaiting pass-
age to the United States has been
given to reunite divided families
and to permit students under the
age of 21 to carry out their wish
to follow or continue studies in
the United States," the announce-
ment said.
Pan America presently flies
about 10 flights a week between
Miami and Havana. Each flight
can carry up to 109 passengers, of-
ficials said.
To multiply the flow tenfold and
bring out the 20,000 Cubans in
about a three-week period, the
United States airline intends to
step up its flights to 10 a day.
tRusk Briefs
Allied Envoys
tAbout Berlin
WASHINGTON (P) - Secretary
of State Dean Rusk yesterday
briefed envoys from Britain,
France and West Germany on
new United States plans to step
up defenses against the Berlin
threat.
It took Rusk slightly more than
30 minutes to tell the Big Three
emissaries about President John
F. Kennedy's Save - Berlin pro-
gram. The President is to an-
nounce his plans in a radio-
telecast Tuesday night.
Hint NATO Step-Up
West German Ambassador Wil-
helm Grewe hinted that part of
the Kennedy program involves an
increase in the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization's , conven-
tional weapons defense forces.
Beyond that, the diplomats de-
clined to indicate what they were
told.
French Minister Claude Lebel
termed Rusk's fill-in "very satis-
factory." The British representa-
tive, Lord Hood, declined com-
ment. Hood is British Embassy
Minister.
The next United States step in
informing allies of the Kennedy
program will be undertaken in
Paris by Thomas K. Finletter,
United States ambassador to
NATO. Finletter returns to Paris
today.
Grewe Comments
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrush-
chev has declared he will sign, by
the end of this year, a peace treaty
with Communist East Germany,
which he says will wipe out west-
ern rights to Red-surrounded West
Berlin.
Asked whether a step-up in
NATO's conventional forces is pro-
posed, Grewe said, " I would not
be surprised to see . .. some sign
of it."
As for West Germany, Grewe
said, "If there's such a common
decision in NATO, I'm quite sure
we will take part in it."

Washington Seeks
Increase in Draft

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -P)-
Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom suc-
cessfully thundered 118 milesinto
the sky yesterday only to wind up
with a scramble for life from his
flooded spacecraft and a swim.
Grissom was plucked wet but
unscathed from the Atlantic
Ocean 303 miles southeast of here
by a helicopter only two minutes
after abandoning his rapidly fill-
ing capsule.
The $2 million, instrument-lad-
en capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank
beyond hope of recovery in 14,800
feet of water.
Attains Top Speed
On his flight, Grissomdattained
a top speed of 5,280 miles per
hour and thus became the fastest
American ever, and the second
American into space.
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration officials said Gris-
som reported the capsule's side
escape hatch blew off accidentally
before the craft was hooked to a
helicopter.
Grissom said he removed a
safety pin preparatory to opening
the exit and the explosive bolts
which kept it secure fired inex-
plicably.
Grissom's space craft carried a
new type hatch which was se-
cured with 70 explosive bolts de-
signed to hurl the hatch cover 25
feet in event of an emergency.
As soon as the hatch flew off,
apparently, the seas rushed in.
Grissom, in effect, floated out as
he had been taught to do in train-
ing for such an emergency.
Forgets Chores
During his flight Grissom be-
came so enthralled by the view
from his 19-inch high "picture
window" that he reported he mo-
mentarily forgot to carry out his
assigned chores.
Despite his improved view, Gris-
som reported he was unable to
pick up any landmarks because
the ground was obscured by
clouds.
Nine minutes after launch and
as he re-entered the atmosphere,
Grissom reported, "I feel good.
Everything is looking good."
On the flight Grissom controlled
his ship by releasing hydrogen
peroxide gas from small jets. He
made the ship yaw, pitch and
roll.
At two points on the flight -
and despite installation of sup-
posedly improved equipment-
voice communications with Gris-
som faded.
NASA officials said that the loss
of the capsule was not expected
to slow United States prepara-
tions for an orbital flight late this
year or in early 1962.

-AP Wirephoto
DUNKED ASTRONAUT-A Marine helicopter hovers over the ocean during attempt to retrieve
the space craft at the end of Astronaut Virgil Grissom's flight. The capsule was lost in the sea. At
top of the Liberty Bell 7 is the "horse collar" hoist which would have been used to lift Grissom, who
had to swim from the flooded craft.
Russians Still Co-mmad-nd Space Race Lead

Say Tunisian Troops
Retain Center of City
Invading Force Dominates Canal;
Warships Increase Army Strength
TUNIS (R)-French troops, supported by tanks and planes
blazing away with rockets-continued to enlarge their hold
in the heart of the city of Bizerte today.
The Tunisian government insisted the center of the city
was still in Tunisian hands despite a massive attack from
three sides. But unconfirmed reports said most of the Tunisian
volunteers among the defending force were fleeing the city.
Tunisian government officials said their infantry was put-
ting up fierce resistance behind makeshift barricades.
Seize High Ground
The French reported their forces, attacking by land, sea
and air, seized high ground dominating the canal leading from
the Mediterranean to theirs z

By The Associated Press
CAPE CANAVERAL-The Rus-
sian space successes have spurred
this country into an all-out drive
to reach the moon before a Soviet
Cosmonaut plants the Red flag
there.
President John F. Kennedy has
asked the American people to sa-
crifice an additional $7 to $9 to
achieve a manned lunar landing
by 1967.
The flights of Astronauts Alan
B. Shepard Jr. and Virgil I. G.
Grissom are steps in that direc-
tion. But the United States has a
long way to go before an Astro-
naut can be rocketedtoward the
moon.
Kennedy Signs Bill
A few hours after Grissom's
successful flight yesterday, Ken-
nedy signed a bill authorizing
$1,784,300,000 for the National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration to push the United States
race for space.
We are, in fact, several months

away from matching the Russian
feat of placing a man in orbit
and returning him safely to earth.
Our scientists do not at this time
have a powerful and reliable
enough rocket to do the job.
Stress Scientific Aspect
Space experts agree there are
three main reasons for sending
man into space and to the moon-
science, worldwide prestige and
military security.

The United States is concen-
trating on the scientific aspects
in a broad program aimed at
eventually capturing the prestige
lead held by the Russians as the
result of their many space "firsts"
and spectacular flights achieved
with mammoth rockets.
The experts consider the Rus-
sian program as a one-way street
with military domination of space
the ultimate goal.

DISDAINS MOON TRIPS:
Astronomer Views

"Because the universe is so big,v
and we have seen so many billions
of stars, and mapped them, I can-
not be impressed by the sending
of a man to the moon, or even to
the nearest star."
This was the opinion offered by

Prof. George Z. Dimitroff of Dart-
mouth College, in a lecture he
gave here last night.
Introducing the audience to
some of the problems in astrono-
my, such as the sun's atmosphere,
sunspots and structure and origin

{

U.S. Agrees To Support
New Argentine Program
WASHINGTON (A)-The United States and Argentina announced
yesterday agreement on a broad program of economic and social
development for the South American republic, involving projects
costing more than one billion dollars.
To get the giant program moving along more rapidly, projects
costing $205 million were announced, with $155 million to come from
United States agencies, and the remaining $50 million from the World
Bank. The longer range program is to include aid from Japan to
European countries, as well as
from the United States.
In addition, the United Statesj
offered to help in such ways as it
U ccould to boost Argentina's exports'
n iver lseto this country.
U1 e S No immediate agreement was
announced on the touchy problem
of increased Argentine meat ex-
of galaxies, he emphasized the rel- ports to the United States. Areas
ative smallness of the earth and of Argentina are still afflicted by
its solar system. hoof and mouth disease.
Outskirts of Galaxy I The immediate projects concern
"It takes light only a couple of facilities for increased production
seconds to get to the moon from of steel and electric power, im-
here," he said, "and only eight proved railroad facilities and
seconds to reach the sun. building and modernization of key
"But it takes four years for airports, including the Interna-
"Bu t t akivesatftheyearstrtional Airport at Buenos Aires.
light to arrive at the nearest Roads and housing also are in-
neighboring star. Our Earth is on cluded in the specific projects
the outskirts of a galaxy contain- mentioned yesterday.
ing 100 billion stars. Details 'of the agreement were
"And the nearest neighboring announced at a news conference
galaxy is one and a half million: by Adalbert Krieger Vasena, a for-
light years away. mer finance minister of Argentina
Slimy Cookies who headed the negotiating team
"Now do you see why I'm not from his country. The state de-
so enthusiastic about getting partment had announced general
strapped into a space capsule along aspects of the aid program earlier.
with two monkeys, and a jar of
slimy cookies, just to get to the
moon. or maybe to the star only HS U Approves
four light years away?"
Prof. Dimitroff used slides to operating Budget
demonstrate the spiral appearance
of nebulae containing billions of Michigan State University Board
stars, and suggested that the arms of trustees yesterday gave formal
of the spirals might be moving approval to a $30.7 million operat-
either way-in towards the cen- ing budget for the school for

naval base three miles inland
from the embattled city. The
city of 45,000 stands astride
the canal.
Tunisian officials said three
French warships sent landing
barges through the canal into Bi-
zerte Bay under a rain of fire and
landed troops, who then linked up
with the attacking forces.
One barge was reported set afire
by Tunisian machine guns as it
nosed through the narrow canal.
150 Tunisians Die
Tunisia's government radio said
at least 150 Tunisians were killed
in the assault. It claimed 100
"death volunteers" moving to oc-
cupy a portion of the French-held
Sahara 500 miles to the south died
when attacked by French planes
dropping Napalm bombs - fire
bombs made of jellied gasoline.
The French, who have reported
just 5 dead and 30 wounded since
fighting broke out Tuesday, denied
using Napalm bombs anywhere in
Tunisia.
French Premier Michel Debre
held out hopes of a ceasefire. Aft-
er a conference with President
Charles de Gaulle, Debre said
France is ready to instruct its
Bizerte commanders to discuss a
possible halt to the fight with the
Tunisians.
Form Guerrilla Units
Shortly, before the Bizerte as-
sault, Tunisian President Habib
Bourguiba appealed to his people
to "fight to the death." Calling
for foreign volunteers to join the
fight, he ordered his country to
arm and directed formation of
guerrilla units. He ordered Tuni-
sian United Nations troops home
from the Congo. -
French officials in Paris said the
sole reason for military action is
to maintain the base's land and
sea communications threatened by
barricades thrown up by Tunisian
infantrymen.
Steel-helmeted French para-
troopers set up check points on
roads around Bizerte, and French
tanks w e r e reported moving
through the city's dusty streets.
Position Tanks
French tanks were reported in
position on the road which links
Bizerte to Tunis, about 40 miles
southeast.
French planes strafed the Tuni-
sian military post of Japy in the
city, officials in Paris said, and
tank-supported columns and land
and carrier-based planes concen-
trated on roadblocks preventing
movement between the base and
other installations.

MICHEL DEBRE
. suggests ceasefire

Tunisia Asks"
STN Support
UNITED NATIONS () - Tu-
nisia called on the United Nations
Security Council yesterday to help
force all French military person-
nel from Tunisian territory.
Mongi Slim, the Tunisian dele-
gate, charged before an urgent
session of the 11-nation council
that the population of Bizerte "is
being massacred" by French at-
tackers.
He accused French paratroopers
of committing attrocities on ci-
vilians, and said French planes
dropped Napalm (jellied gasoline)
bombs on Tunisian positions out-
side the naval base of Bizerte.
. French Delegate Armand Berard
categorically denied the Napalm
bomb charge. As for atrocities, he
said the language of denials of
other Tunisian charges trans-
mitted to him by his government
made him hope that this latest
accusation was unfounded "and
does not correspond to reality."
Slim and Berard engaged in a
final exchange before the council
adjoudned until 10 a.m. today. It
had met for five hours on the
French-Tunisian crisis set off by
the battle over Bizerte.
Earlier, Berard asserted Tu-
nisia fired the first shot on Wed-
nesday and that French counter-
action was taken in self-defense.

lediterranev
Bechateur
i
BIZERTE
Hamila Sidi-Ahmed
A.F. Bo e'
r. r is r - - M Fl :6

.m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . s - -

r

I

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