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July 12, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-12

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Seventy-First Year
_ ° EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail"
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 12, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH OPPENHEIM

CORE Dearborn Trip
Results May Deceive

THE "SUCCESS" of the Congress on Racial
Equality's recent "Freedom Ride" to Dear-
born may have been a pyrrhic victory.
Although Negro groups were served in 21 of
the 23 establishments tested, there is some
question that CORE's action has furthered in-
tegration in Dearborn. In fact, where the of-
ficers of the participating groups state that
they are "encouraged by their findings," dis-
couragement might be more appropriate.
Their statement said that they "feel that
continued use of public accommodations by
Negroes will establish a clear-cut pattern which
will help end discrimination and win the fight
for freedom for Negroes in the crucial fields of
housing and employment." If this is their ob-
jective, the "Freedom Ride" has not furthered
it.
DEARBORN'S RESPONSE to the "Freedom
Riders" may have been more in its own
interest than in the interest of integration.
Dearborn merchants probably did not desire
the pressure upon their establishments which
CORE has been seen to exert. Certainly they
wished to avoid "sit-ins." Hence, by far the
most politic reaction to the supposed threat of
unwelcome pressures was to serve CORE's test
cases.
By so doing, they were able to tie CORE's

hands. Its functions through dramatizing in-
cidents of segregation before the public and
publicizing these instances in an attempt to
prick the public conscience. However, when
discrimination goes underground, as it may
have done in this case, CORE is unable to
combat .it through these techniques.
Thus, if there is discrimination in Dear-
born which wisely shielded itself from a po-
tential CORE attack, the "Freedom Ride" was
unsuccessful in that it did not ferret it out.
Of course, there is also the possibility that
there is, in fact, no discrimination in those
facilities tested. It may be that discrimination
in Dearborn occurs in other forms-housing
and employment, for example. In which case,
the "Freedom Ride" would have shown to those
Negroes who might be interested that they will
not be excluded from these establishments.
This would constitute a "success."
But, unfortunately, the former view is some-
what more likely. Certainly, CORE expected to
find segregation in Dearborn, or the ride
would not have taken place there. Residents
of the suburb have expressed surprise at the
treatment of the Negroes. A familiarity with
the all-white suburb leads one to suspect that
the results turned up by the "Freedom Riders"
may not be indicative of the actual situation.
--RUTH EVENHUIS

"It Seems To Be Getting Rougher"
TO L
-
- G
.-
.. j
df
- t
-f

ITALIAN HOTSPOT:
Alto Adige Divided
By Ethnic Tensions

By JULES LOH
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
FOR NEARLY A HALF A YEAR,
now the Alps of northern Italy
have echoed sporadically to gun-
fire and explosions and angry
speeches of passionate men who
feel they have been wronged.
The recent outbreak of disor-
der is the latest chapter in a dis-
pute which has raged for more
than a century in an area known
better for its picturesque slopes
than for bloodshed and violence.
But violence there has been, and
bloodshed, and so far diplomatic
discussions at the highest level-
even at the United Nations-have
been unable to put a stop to it.
Since February, six persons have
been killed and more than $4 mil-
lion worth of property has been
destroyed, mainly electric power
facilities. About 10,000 tons of
fruit have spoiled for lack of re-
frigeration, and scores of indus-
tries have shut down, idling thou-
sands.
The region where all this is hap-
pening is known as the Alto Adige
(pronounced ah'-di-jay) to Ital-
ians; South Tyrol to Austrians.
It is an area of 10,000-foot
peaks and lush valleys, about the
size of Connecticut, with a popula-
tion of 400,000. It includes the two
Italian provinces of Bolzano and
Trento. The land is a part of
Italy, legally, but the 250,000 Ger-
man-speaking people of Bolzano
feel a stronger allegiance to Aus-
tria, at least to Austrian ways.
That, broadly, is the problem: a
clash of cultures.
* * *
THE MODERN HISTORY of
the dispute dates back to World
War I when the territory was ced-

Columbia Stays Up-To-Date

DIRECTOR OF STATE COLLEGES:
Chambers Sees Difficult Task

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY'S decision to stop
its sophomore course in modern Western
civilization is undoubtedly a wise one.
For too long the civilized among us have
held sway. Courses in English literature have
all too often taken the time of eager students
who might otherwise be studying Dirty Poli-
tics, Monopoly Management or Progressive
Unionism (a la Hoffa).
Soon the constructive effects of the new
policy will reveal themselves. The opium dens
on Amsterdam Avenue will grow desolate, and
the empty sound of old mascara brush rub-
bing against rum bottle will be all that's left
of the pseudo-civilized Columbia sophomores.
In their place will rise a new breed, well
versed in 19th Century Social Darwinism, but
utterly contemptuous of the morally decayed
teachers who misled previous generations.
Perhaps those teachers who gave up teach-
ing modern civilization will be made to take
courses in modern barbarism, as taught by

prominent national and international figures.
Dueling corporations could be organized in-
stead of physical education requirements. Such
training would, of course, be compulsory.
Those who flinched would be, forced to eat
all their meals at John Jay Hall. Or else, they
could be forced to read an 18th century novel,
or a Shakespeare play,
Freed of the strength-snapping propaganda
of modern civilization, present undergrads will
grow younger and younger on their up-to-1914
education.
When they get very young they will hand'
their ideas down to their grandfathers, who
will also grow younger, and pass on the wis-
dom to their own grandfathers, etc., etc.
Several generations of this will force 1914 as
much as 300 years into the future. Then, all
those students whose education stops at that
date will be 'way ahead of their time, and not
hopelessly behind it.
-PETER STEINBERGER

By PETER STEINBERGER
Daily Staff Writer
PROF. Merritt M. Chambers, a
visiting scholar at the Univer-
sity's Center for the Study of
Higher Education, will begin work
soon on his first task as executive
director of the Michigan Council
of State College Presidents.
He will superintend the meeting
later this month of business offi-
cers of the state colleges, who will
try to develop "unit cost" methods
acceptable to all the schools.
Prof. Chambers, getting started
in his new job, emphasizes the

Relief Requires Work

HATS OFF to Newburgh, New York! Yes,
that's right. This little city has declared
war on the professional freeloaders. Bright
and early on the morn of July 15, every able-
bodied man now receiving welfare relief pay-
ments from the City of Newburgh will have
to do a spot of manual labor to get their pay.
A rigorous set of tasks has been laid out
for those on relief. Such arduous chores as
raking leaves and polishing brass in the city
buildings will be expected before any relief
checks will be rendered.
The city fathers are to blame for this
monstrous offense against society. For some
strange reason they expect the confirmed un-
employed to render service to the taxpayers,
since the taxpayers have to support them.
Needless to say. everyone isn't standing
idly by while this slave labor is ruthlessly put
into effect. Democratic officeholders all over
the state of New York are screaming bloody
murder. They charge it's unconstitutional, in-
humane, unsympathetic, unduly cruel, and-
yes!-even un-American. But no one has taken
any concrete action, perhaps because they
cannot find a law forbidding a day's work
for a day's pay.
AND THIS ACTION isn't just needless
cruelty on Newburgh's part. The city coun-
cil found that they weren't able to balance
their budget for fiscal 1962. The taxpayers put
their feet down. No more tax hikes. The city
had no choice. They had to tighten their
belt. A good place to start was with the
five per cent of the city's population that
is unemployed.
They decided to kill two birds with one
stone. Since they had to make welfare pay-
ments out of tax money they required some
work in exchange. This would indeed create
one of two phenomena: Either the profes-
sional moochers would go to work, thus re-
ducing the number of employes needed on the
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS............... .. Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL........................Co-Editor
DAVE KIMBALL ................ Sports Editor
RUTH EVENHUIS .................. Night Editor
MICHAEL OLINICK...................Night Editor
JUDITH OPPENHEIM ..... ...........Night Editor
PETER STEINBERGER...............Night Editor

city payroll, or they would go out and find
regular jobs, thus reducing the number on
the relief rolls.
The National Association for the Advance-
ment of Colored People screamed "foul," since
about a quarter of those on relief are Negroes.
They were joined by many do-gooders in
crying discrimination, but to no avail. The City
of Newburgh holds firm: No work, no money,
and that's that.
So Saturday is D-Day in this little town of
31,000 people. And I'm willing to bet that,
the State of New York notwithstanding, many
chronic welfare victims in Newburgh will sud-
denly become rehabilitated, for what's the
sense in working for a little money (welfare)
when you could be working for much more
(regular wages).
IT'S A FOOLPROOF PLAN if Newburgh has
the courage to withstand insults from the
do-gooders.
However, it has only diehard opposition from
those groups who constantly claim to be doing
good for people. It remainds one of the old
adage: "Fear not those who do evil in the
name of evil, only those who do evil in the
name of good."
One hopes that Newburgh will withstand
this 'evil in the name of good' opposition, and
that she will set an example that will get the
American people moving again.
Nothing is so terrible as seeing a man who
no longer wishes to provide for himself. But
Americans have gotten out of the habit. The
Newburgh action is truly a shining light in
the midst of the swamp.
--MICHAEL HARRAH
Faculty Raid
UNIVERSITY mathematician Nicholas Kaz-
arinoff, just returned from the Soviet Un-
ion where he was the first American to teach
a full course at Moscow University, reports the
various scientific and mathematical institutes
there are just beginning to implement the
unique practice of "faculty raiding,"
The Soviet institutes are handicapped, how-
ever, because one can't offer more than the
other in the way of faculty salaries. Under a
socialist system, the math professor at Siberia
Polytech must get the same salary as his col-
league in Kiev College.
So the Russians are forced to turn to "fringe

but I won't be telling them what
to do."
EVALUATING unit costs in-
volves judgments by business per-
sonnel and also some academic
representatives, such as deans,
Prof. Chambers explains. Although
the technical work has to be done
by business office personnel, aca-
demic views are also important.
The reason to get these unit cost
figures is to provide the Legisla-
ture-and the public-with some
idea of what each special kind of
education costs.
The University, because it has
a large proportion of graduate
students, looks horribly inefficient
when its total expenses are di-
vided into the enrollment, and the
result compared to similar figures
for Ferris Institute.
Actually, as University admin-
istrators have often tried to tell
lawmakers, it costs more to edu-
cate a graduate student (or a
medical student), and so the ex-
tra money spent on the statistical-
ly "average" student here is not
simply waste.
Why have unit cost systems at
all? If an administrator knows his
own school, the figures don't tell
him anything new; any classifica-
tion of costs lumps things together
in odd ways and can be mislead-
ing.
But the Legislature and the
public want some idea of costs,
and so it will be Prof. Chambers'
job to work up compromises
among the schools until all agree
on one way of figuring cost-per-
student, and cost-per-credit-hour.
Because a unit-cost formula
could be designed to show up any
school at all as either highly in-
efficient or else a model of econ-
omy, the actual shape of Michi-
gan's unit cost plans will be de-
termined by political compromise
among the schools as well as by
technical considerations, Prof.
Chambers says.
HE IS SOMEWHAT dubious,
personally, about the worth of
cost-systems in general, because,
as he says, "they can be mislead-
ing."
One of the benefits legislators
have forseen from coordinating the

THE MICHIGAN Council of
State College Presidents
named Prof. Merritt Chambers
as its "executive director" last
week, ending its search of more
than a year.
Last April, when the council
announced it was on the verge
of naming a "mediator," some
state legislators predicted their
choice would be "just another
lobbyist".
The competition among the
various state supported schools
for money from the state has
led to much bewilderment-not
all of ituunintentional-among
economy minded legislators,
and some sharp interchanges
amongthe college, officials
themselves.
The mediator was to end the
bickering among the colleges
by supplying the schools and
the Legislature with uniform
figures on costs and needs, the
success of present plans and the
usefulness of proposed ones.
The council, facing skepti-
cism from the Legislature
which was at that time de-
ciding on the education appro-
priation, postponed its choice
for the job.
Last fall the council mem-
bers still couldn't agree on the
right man for the job. One dif-
ficulty was that whatever re-
commendations the man would
make must inevitably favor

some schools at the relative ex-
pense of others
Thus, if his studies suggested
establishing a new medical
school in Detroit instead of
Lansing, then Wayne State
University and not Michigan
State University would get the
prestige of the school.
* * *
MORE IMPORTANTLY, the
Legislature has demanded
for several years that the col-
leges agree on some way to
report their costs, so that what-
ever number of millions are
wasted (as some legislators
would like to believe) in graft
will show up clearly.
In 1956 the Legislature had
set' up a special committee, the
Russell Committee, to survey
the state's higher education
system and make recommenda-
tions that would help the Leg-
islature decide how much
money to put where.
But when the committee re-
ported that by and large the
state's schools were fairly ef-
ficient, and could stand more
financial support without any-
thing going to waste, the law-
makers lost interest in their re-
pbr.t and ignored it. Since then,
various other reports have beeii
begun by Lansing committees,
although the need for those
reports hasn't been obvious to
anyone.

ed to Italy. But the roots of the
problem were planted centuries
ago when Germanic people from
what now is Austria began filter-
ing through the Brenner Pass and
its neighboring corridors into the
south-slope valleys of the Alps.
They claimed the territory, called
it South Tyrol, and for a century
before World War I it was a part
of Austria.
Italians, however, recognized
the Alpine crest as a geographical-
ly natural northern border-the
virtual dividing line between
northern and southern Europe.
Furthermore, the Brenner Pass
(where Hitler and Mussolini used
to meet) strategically dominates
this northern gate to Italy.
Consequently the Alto Adige,
the upper region of the Adige
River, came to be regarded as
"Italia irredenta"-Italy unre-
deemed, a patriotic and political
term Italians applied to lands un-
der foreign rule which they none-
theless regarded as Italian,
.* *. *
IT IS OVER this agreement that
the present outbreaks of terror-
ism stem.
The Tyroleans feel their rights
-in such areas as housing, Jobs
and politics - are being abused,
and demand more autonomy. The
Italian government contends there
is no such discrimination.
The Tyroleans long have argued
their cause in the Italian parlia-
ment through their SVD party,
but last October Austria itself en-
tered the picture by bringing the
matter before the United Nations
with a demand for complete au-
tonomy for Bolzano.
Italy promptly charged Austria
with "championing the causes of
expansionism, revisionism and
pan-Germanism," and made a
counter demand to put the case
before the World Court and there
justify its legal claim to the re-
gion.
After days of bitter debate and
behind-the-scenes negotiation by
the UN's special political commit-
tee, the General Assembly accept-
ed an 18-nation compromise reso-
lution.
The United States, for its part,
rejected both the Austrian and
Italian demands and helped draft
the compromise:
Italy and Austria were to nego-
tiate the dispute between them-
selves, and if they didn't settle it
'within a reasonable period of
time" they would put the matter
before a mediator of their own
choice.
Three months later, on Jan, 27,
the Austrian and Italian foreign
ministers met in Milan. The nego-
tiations ended abruptly the fol-
lowing day when the Austrian del-
egation stalked out.
Students began demonstrating
in front of the Austrian embassy
in Rome. Before long, placard-
carrying protests turned into rock
throwing mob scenes. The violence
spread to the Alto Adige.
The ministers moved to Zurich,
Switzerland, for a secorid try.
It, too, ended in failure. Each
side blamed the other for the viol-
ence, which was becoming more
and more frequent in the Alto
Adige.
The Italians dispatched 10,000
troops to Alto Adige to help 1,000
Carabinieri (National Police) pre-
serve order. Soldiers guarding
power installations had orders to
challenge and shoot,
Again'the ministers sat down at
Zurich. Again the negotiations
ended inconclusively.
In accordance with the UN res-
olution, the ministers agreed to
seek outside mediation - but
couldn't agree on a mediator.
Italian Foreign Minister An-
tonio Segni said he wants to re-
fer the issue to the International
Court of Justice in the Hague.
Austrian Minister Bruno Kreisky

favors putting the matter direct-
ly before UN Secretary-General
Dag Hammarskjold.
There the matter stands.
Italian negotiators at Zurich
wouldn't speculate what their next
step would be. A member of the
Austrian delegation, however, had
a somber comment.
If the dispute isn't settled soon,
he said, "the South Tyrol may well
become another Algeria."

I

4

e

PROF. MERRITT M. CHAMBERS
... directs state colleges
voluntary nature of the council,
and therefore the non-dictatorial
nature of his own job.
"I'm the servant of the council,"
he says. "My job is to try to help
execute its decisions, and at the
same time carry on studies so they
(the college presidents) will have
information which will also be of
help to the public.
"During the past year the coun-
cil made a good deal of progress
toward getting uniform financial
reporting. My mandate is to take
up from where it is now and go
forward, but most of the actual
changes wil be approved within
the business offices of the indi-
vidual colleges.
"I'll be present at the meetings,

state's schools would be the "sin-
gle budget"-regarded as warmly
in Lansing as the "single tax" was
by old-time French economists.
For the lawmakers, the chance
to review one monster budget in-
stead of several different ones
(each using slightly different
terms in explaining why it is the
most economical of the state's
schools)-is naturally looked on
as a great relief.
But Prof. Chambers doesn't see
this as a super-priority item.
"I don't think' I could stress
that to the exclusion of other
things,"' he says. "The college
presidents have been moving in
that direction in the past year;
the studies just completed will help
in setting up a single budget."

He also adds cautiously that
there is a chance the presidents
will submit their budgets en masse
to the Legislature this fall, after
having gone over them previously.
In these decisions, will Prof.
Chambers merely carry out the or-
ders of the council, or will he
make suggestions on his own?
"It will work both ways," he
explains. "I'll be making reports
and the very fact that I'm re-
porting means that I'll be making
suggestions."
He is also vigorously opposed to
a .state-wide super-board that,
could arbitrarily control spending
at the individual institutions. This
has been the attitude of the coun-
cil since its beginnings in 1950.

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DAILY OFFICIAL BLEI
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.44. . fv...r... r . r . r ..1{..tact...r.. the" v ureau of Appointments,...::::: 3200.

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 12
General Notices
Fulbright and Smith-Mundt An-
nouncements of grant programs for
1962-63; University Lecturing and Ad-
vanced Research in Europe and else-
where may now be consulted in 110,
Rackham Bldg.

on Wed., July 12 at 2 p.m. in the
Schorling Aud., University School.
Communist China Lecture Series: H.
Arthur Steiner, Prof. of Political Sci-
ence, University of California at Los
Agneles, will discuss "Communist China
and the United States" at 4 p.m. on
Wed., July 12 in Aud. A.
Language Learning Lecture: W. Free-
man Twaddell, Prof. of Linguistics and
German at Brown University, on Wed.,
July 12,, at 7:00 p.m. in 3003, North
University Bldg. Prof. Twaddell will re-
port on the June "Conference on the
Teaching of English at a Foreign Lan-
guage," held at Cambridge.
Doctoral Examination for Leslie War-
ren Ross, Education; thesis: "Com-
munication in College Administration,"
Wed -.TJly 12, 42000GT1HSat9:00 a m.

Events Thursday
Baratin, the informal conversation
group of the French Club, will meet
Thurs., July 13, from 2 to 4 p.m. in the
Romance Languages Department
Lounge, 3050 Frieze Bldg. All those
interested in speaking French are cor-
dially invited to stop in.
Student Recital: - Barbara Barclay,
pianist, will present a recital in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree Master of Music on Thurs., July
13, 8:30 p.m., Aud. A. Compositions she
will play are by Schumann, Schoen-
berg, and Beethoven. Open to the pub-
lic.
Educational Film Preview: *"Think-
ing' Machines" and "Project "Hohole' "
will be shown on Thurs., July 13 at 2

be discussed by Dr. J. B. French, Uni-
versity of Rochester on Thurs., July 13
at 3:30 p.m. in 2038 Randall Lab.
Placement
The following schools have listed
teaching vacancies for the 1961-1962
school year.
Detroit (S. Redford Schools)-Visiting
teacher, Elem Art Cgns., Elem. Lang.,
HS Math, Jr. HS Math, Sp Corr., Kg.,
E. Elem.
Gary, Ind.-Guidance Couns., Lang.
Coord. (9 Lang. Labs)
Warren, Mich.-HS English.
Bloomfield Hills, Mich. - Counselor
(man), Dean of Girls.
Sheridan, Il. (Ill. Industrial Sch for
Boys)-Educable Mentally Handicapped.

tact the Bureau of Appointments, 3204
SAB, NO 3-1511, Ext. 3547.
Par t-Time
Employment
The following part-time jobs are
available. Applications can be made in
2200 SAB Monday through Friday, 8:00
a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring part-
.time or temporary employes should con-
tact Jack Lardie at " NO 3-1511, Ext.
3553.
Students desiring miscellaneous jobs
should consult the bulletin board in
Rm. 2200, daily.
MALE

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