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July 10, 1964 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1964-07-10

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EDikmD AmqMAxAGRD a7 STumngT T = xUarvDusm op07MIWam
vUmgDEaAuTmomry (w BOARD ut CONTROL o' SSTmzPu mn
here opinions Are Pvn S P==rAmours BW., Awi Ao, Mrc., PnomL weo 24241
Ty hWis Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
FRIDAY, JULY 10, 1964 NIGHT EDITOR: LAURENCE KIRSHBAUM
Swimming Policy Subverts
Whole Educational Process
E UNIVERSITY, in its seemingly per- floundering around in the Huron River
vasive drive to abolish all but the most after his canoe tipped over. And even
academic of pursuits from within its con- strictly in terms of educational utility
fines, has apparently decided that even for the rest of society, the several thou-
the physical well-being of its students is sand dollars that an undergraduate edu-
of no importance. cation at the University costs would al-
On page 193 of the 1964-65 literary col- most literally go down the drain if a stu-
lege announcement is the statement: "All dent were to go to a watery grave for
(male) students are required to take a lack of swimming prowess
swimming test. Those students who are VET WHAT HAS HAPPENED? The reg-
unable to meet the swimming standards . T
are required to elect beginning swim- ulation is there, for the University is
,, ralways anxious to look good in the pub-
mT int li eye. But the swimming test is no
There can be little doubt as to the value longer given! There is a question on the
of this requirement. Learning to swim physical education form freshmen fill
would certainly be of far more educa- out which asks a student whether he is
tional value than a course in oceanogra- able to swim, but an unscrupled char-
phy or "Mechanics of Viscous Fluids II" ater could answer falsely and never be
(Engineering Mechanics 723) if one were uncovered.
Furthermore, there are students who
take beginning swimming and pass it who
HHpavencannot even swim a couple lengths of
the intramural pool. Nonetheless, there
RNEST HEMINGWAY'S brother Lei- is nothing to make them receive further
instruction.
cester, having staked his nautical Even worse is the situation with wom-
claim from a 6-by-30-foot raft, is plan- en, who do not have a swimming require-
ning to found a new Caribbean republic ment at all. Seldom are there cases of
by building an island on a submerged discrimination against females worse
bank. than this one, which apparently regards
The infant nation, he explained, will the education women receive as far more
support itself by "stamping stamps, coin- expendable than that of men. It seems
ing coins, making up books and films and that it's all right if women drown, for
thinking up funny slogans for visitors." they have no valuable contribution to
But there's another possibility. If Barry make to society anyway.
Goldwater continues to move successful-
ly toward the White House, the going IT IS DIFFICULT to stay at a university
price of remote-desert-island real estate which practices such callousness and
may soon begin to skyrocket. hypocrisy. But perhaps there is some hope
--K. WINTER worth staying and fighting for. Perhaps
one day an embittered faculty member
who has just seen his best student dis-
appear in murky currents because he
wasn't taught how to swim will realize
Editorial Staff that there are things worth learning out-
KENNETH WINTER ................. Co-Editor side the narrow academic walls.
EDWARD HERSTEIN.................Co-Editor Perhaps he will be irate enough to stage
MARY LOU BUTCHER............ Associate Editor
CHARLES TOWLE................... Sports Editor a pool-in, refusing to leave the pool un-
JEFFREY GOODMAN.................. Night Editorilsmin
ROBERT HIPPLER.................. Night Editor til swimming tests are again given to
LAURENCE KIRSHBAUM..............Night Editor entering freshmen. Perhaps he will even
Business Staff get his water polo team to play some-
SYDNEY PAUKER................Business Manager where besides the intramural pool so that
CY WELLMAN .................. Supplement Manager pool time will be available to teach stu-
RUTH SCHEMNITZ.............Circulation Manager dents lessons that may save their lives.
PETER DODGE..........Assistant Business Manager M . .
More likely none of this will come to
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the pass. But with this one small item be-
use of all news dispatches credited to it or otherwise ing almost all there is to prevent this
credited to the newspaper. All rights of re-publication from being a truly great university, one
of all other mattershere are also reserved.igattron
The Daily is a member of the Associated Press and has the obligation to stay around and
Collegiate Press Service. fight on.
Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning. -EDWARD HERSTEIN
Summer s11bseripton rates $2 by carrier, $2.0 by mail,
Second cass postage paid at Ai Arbor,1Micb. Co-Editor

THE 'TRIPLE REVOLUTION'

Bringing to Life the Lost Mozarts

EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third
and last in a series of articles eval-
uating the analyses and proposals
of the recently-formed Ad Hoc
Committee on the Triple Revolution.
By JEFFREY GOODMAN
T HE SINGLE most distressing
and wasteful requirement of
man's long history is that he has
always had to work for his liv-
ing.
Now I am defining "work" dif-
ferently than most people have
become accustomed to doing. By
work, I mean engaging in some
activity designed to produce goods
or services for the sole reason that
one must engage in that activity
if he is to provide for his own
subsistence and/or for the sub-
sistence of others who depend on
him.
That definition leaves out ab-
solutely any activity in which the
human being desires to be engaged
because it gives him an honest
sense of satisfaction. As long as
a man gains this feeling from
his activity it is irrelevant to the
definition whether or not he also
provides his subsistence by the
same activity.
THE PROPOSAL advanced in
March of this year by the Ad
Hoc Committee on the Triple Rev-
olution would do away with the
necessity for work by guarantee-
ing everyone a minimum income
-somewhere around $3000 a year
-as a matter of right.
The AHC feels that the coun-
try can afford to do this because
the nation's automated industrial
capacity and extensive use of
commercialized machines will fur-
nish a superabundance of goods.
But it also feels that the coun-
try must guarantee a basic in-
come, since there will be pre-
cious few jobs available when the
machines have virtually pre-empt-
ed the human labor factor in pro-
duction.
With a guaranteed income writ-
ten into the structureof an auto-
mated society, man at last would
be able to pursue individual in-
terests and personal development
-through "serious activity with-
out the pressure of necessity," as
Paul Goodman puts it.
CRITICS ARGUE that man is
not at all prepared to handle such
a situation. He would degenerate
mentally; he would become lazy;
there would be no one left to man
the machines that produce the
goods that would still have to be
produced.
And the critics are right - as
long as they speak of man as we
know him today. For modern man
by and large has lost the capacity
to express himself as an individual
-that is, if in the first place, he
knows of what his individuality
consists.
The essence of the personal de-
velopment of virtually everyone ex-
cept artists, professionals and
higher management is that very
early in the game-while the fu-
ture laborer or clerk is still young
and in school-a man's whole ori-
entation ceases to be toward what
he personally wants to do and goes
off on the tangent of what he
must do. And what he must do,
if he is to survive, is find a job.
* * *
FORgARTISTS,mprofessionals
and higher management, the ac-
tivities leading to personal fulfill-
ment usually coincide with those
leading to income. Those activi-
ties cannot, therefore, be term-
ed work, as defined above.
For others, however, the story
is very different. These are the
people who are not lucky enough
to grow up in the kind of social
environment - home, community,
school-that generates a desire for
self-fulfilling activities. Often they
must begin working very early in
life. The cultural atmosphere
around them, even if it is not to-
tally degenerate and centered on
belonging to gangs, being tough

and avoiding parental lashes, rare-
ly allows the individual to think
about what be wants to do, to
explore possibilities, to learn, to
discover.
So the future laborer or clerk
grows up preparing for work -
but by default, because he has
not been aware that he could do
something else, because he has not
been aware of the requirements
and potential rewards of self-real-
ization. And in not being aware
of these possibilities he shrinks
his horizons and expects no more
of life than grinding away at
earning a living.
JUST WHY this process occurs
among those who end up as la-
borers and clerks and not among
the rest of the population is a
function not only of social con-
ditions but of the kinds of activi-
ties involved. Artists, professionals
and management tend to create
the kind of environment which
breeds artists, professionals and
management, and the same is true
among those in the other cate-
gory.
This is not to say that every-
one in higher-level jobs feels him-
self fulfilled and everyone in low-

abhorrent amount of time and en-
ergy is wasted because it is not
spent in a worthwhile fashion
from the individual's point of
view.
If the activity is at all worth-
while, it is only because it fur-
nishes society with goods and pro-
vides the person with subsistence.
But a person working for physi-
cal subsistence is qualitatively
very different from an individual
engaged in expressing basic de-
sires.
Yet it is essentially because man
is not now prepared for leisure
that the AHC proposal to under-
write his activities would fail if
enacted right now. By the same
token, however, such a proposal
will very soon become absolutely
necessary. And if it is correlated
with the vast social changes which
it requires, our society could at
last realize the goal it has always
professed: the highest possible de-
velopment of the individual.
THE VERY CONDITIONS that
now militate against the guaran-
teed income are precisely those
which must be changed. Without
any social planner lifting a fin,
ger the nation isralready far on
the road to eliminating the neces-
sity for work. Now the nation
must begin the energetic process
of preparing its population to take
advantage of that change.
The effort is primarily educa-
tional. But it also entails improv-
ing our cities, public facilities and
housing. These institutions must
be changed so that they no longer
present the kind of external con-
ditions which can so effectively
intimidate the individual's desire
to reach for personally satisfying
ways of thought and directions of
activity.
THE EDUCATIONAL system,
on the other hand, will be viable
only if it shifts its emphasis com-
pletely-from educating teaching
skills to allowing free expression;
from urging development of what
a person is best in-since he would
presumably be able to earn the
most money that way-to finding
out what would make the individ-
ual happiest, whether it is his
outstanding talent or not.
More than this, however, the
educational system would-at least
at first-have to become a major
force in stimulating the individ-
ual to explore all the avenues
with potential to stir his excite-
ment, enliven his mind, bring
him satisfaction.
At base, the change required is
in man's conception of himself.
If and only if these changes
can be made, the AHC envisions a
future in which there would be
enough to go around so that men
could do pretty much what would
most fulfill them. To a great many
the most fulfilling activity would
be productive - that is, directly
connected with the making and
distributing of goods and serv-
ices.
* * *
FOR MANY OTHERS, however,
the activity would be less produc-
tive in the goods-and-services
sense. It could be almost anything
conceivable, from social work to
writing, from travel to study, from
tinkering with gadgets to building
a house or just sitting back and
thinking.
Those not earning what is now
thought of as an income could al-
ways have their $3000 a year. But
they could have more, if they
wanted, for there is every reason
to assume that a society based on
individual creativity would value
it highly enough to pay for it-
something that is rare today.
Antoine de St. Exupery wrote in
"Wind, Sand and Stars" that it
was not the poverty of the poor
that disgusted him but the "little
bit of Mozart in each one" that
had died. It is the AHC's funda-
mental assumption that every
man possesses vast potentialities,

not merely for doing more work
but for contributing to the en-
richment of the whole race. And
even more important, he has the
potential, in the process, to con-
tribute infinitely to his own reali-
zation.
* * *
THE CRITICS of the AHC state
in effect that only through what
is traditionally called work is this
potential realized. If that is true,
it is true only for what we have
traditionally called man. Yet tra-
dition does not do man justice.
The second basic criticism of
the AHC proposal is equally un-
founded. For it is not necessarily
true that society would, in fact,
be left with no one to produce
what is to be distributed.
There are a number of reasons
for this, all of them again re-
quiring that the AHC proposal be
put in a future and not a present
context. Fundamentally, there will
never be a shortage of men with
the desire to earn more than $3,-
000 a year. Nor will computers and
automation eliminate every kind
of activity that currently gener-
ates income. Even if computers can
eventually make all our decisions
and machines produce all our

their rewards would be the satis-
faction their efforts preferred. It
is only work, as I have defined it,
which can breed such resentment.
Or, if you like, every man could
be required to put in one year
out of five or ten working directly
in the goods-producing sector of
the economy. He would still be
significantly freer than he is now.
In any case, it is also reason-
able to assume that technology,
which has never yet halted its
inexorable march toward greater
rationalization of processes and
improved machinery, will continue
to reveal cheaper ways of extract-
ing ores, building buildings, mak-
ing goods and solving problems.
Just how much human "work"
will be required anyway?
* * *
FURTHERMORE, the private
economic sector would become
much less significant than it now
is. As Robert Theobald, one of
the AHC statement signers, puts
it, "Our scarcity is . . . not one of
work that needs to be done." In-
deed, there are fabulous unrealiz-
ed needs in the public sector, not
only for America alone but for the
whole world.
But the import of what the
AHC has conceived does not con-
sist in the ability of the proposal
to withstand its critics.
If the AHC analysis of economic
conditions is not fully true now,
it will be shortly. If its proposals
are unworkable now, they will be
shortly. If nothing is being done

about them now, something must
be-and quickly,
F * *
our technology is pushing ahead
at a faster and faster pace; it
has been ahead of man's ability
to cope with it ever since the In-
dustrial Revolution. Now, however,
man is beginning to become pain-
fullyaware of the discrepancy be-
tween that which technology
promises and what society is cur-
rently able to derive from that
promise.
Numerous action groups that
were once concerned solely with
Negro civil rights recently recog-
nized the essential connection be-
tween the Negro's demands and
economic conditions and the es-
sential unity of demands among
all poor, regardless of color. The
labor unions are thinking and bar-
gaining in increasingly broad
terms: 13-week vacations for
steelworkers, a 25-hour work week
for New York electricians, the
halting of the assembly line in
Detroit automobile plants while
workers take their coffee breaks.
THOSE WHO BELIEVE in the
validity of the AHC analysis and
the value of its conception of the
future will not let society con-
tinue bnugling along with short-
sighted, disorganized, token efforts
at change. Yet their most diffi-
cult task will be getting people
to understand the proposal and
admit not only that there is no.

other solution to the problems we
face but that this solution has its
own inherent value.
That value lies in bringing the
100-year-old dream of liberals--
Marx's "from each according to
his ability, to each according to his
needs"-to social conditions that
will at last allow it to work. For
when Marx wrote there was no
possibility of actually providing the
goods that each man would need
to subsist. Nor was there possi-
bility of actually freeing man from
*work" and thus freeing him
from resentment for the fact that
others might not be engaged in
activities quite as directly produc-
tive as his.
IN THE VERY NEAR future,
however, the stage will be set for
the realization of those possibili-
ties. But it be only the stage.
Immense human effort will still
be required: man will have to
create conditions in which indi-
vidual attitudes toward work and
self-fulfillment will coincide with
what society has to offer and with
what is possible for its members.
But the struggle can be won.
The stakes are high. They are not
merely negative-avoiding the ca-
tastrophe of millions of unem-
ployed starving in the most afflu-
ent nation on earth-but positive
as well.
What is at stake is the Mozart
in each of us: there is finally
hope of a world in which it can
prosper.

IRISH HILLS PLAYHOUSE
Valuable Theatre Training

"Small World, Isn't It?"
S'*o
-..
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r6
rO, r
a" CEt + tR r-, t-m

EDITOR'S NOTE: This initial ar-
ticle in a series of seven discusses
the value of the Irish Hills Play-
house and includes a review of "The
Taming of the Shrew." Later articles
will review "Twelfth Night," "The
Comedy of Errors," and "Macbeth,"
discuss stage management and cos-
tume design at the playhouse, and
interview various members of the
company and its director.
George White is the editor of
Generation and the New Poet Se-
ries.
By GEORGE A. WHITE
ART MAY BE flourishing in
America, but it is dying in,
Irish Hills. For only 40 minutes'
drive through rolling hills from
Ann Arbor or half an hour from
Jackson seems too great a dis-
tance for the portion of each
populace interested in drama.
If it were the death of an un-
interesting unpolished group, one
could understand. If it were in
the midst of general disinterest
in the theatre, or worse yet,
Shakespearean drama, one could
lament, but still understand. But
in a period when general in-
terest in the arts is at an all-
time high, when artists of all
media are becoming more and
more known and appreciated, when
the economy is booming, it is
perplexing and deeply troubling.
I think the root of this prob-
lem lies in the nature of the "gen-
eral" interest in the arts, in the
reasons for the so-called "mass
culture" that is making itself
more and more evident.
* * * '
MASS CULTURE is the exclu-
sive property of a collective group
of Americans who have been lib-
erated from tedious jobs, who
have received wages high enough
to allow them luxuries such as hi-
fi, tickets to plays, movies, and
the like and most important, time
to experience them. Their inter-
est is neither deep nor genuine,
it is the result of artificial prop-
aganda in the mass media, the
oracle for newborn culture-seek-
ers.
The role of this media is vital
and what is worse, they know it.
Like the President his nation, so
the newspapers, magazines and ra-
dio educate "their" people. Their
nit-picking reviewers tell exact,
ly what is "wrong," who or what
is "honest" and the like. In real-
ity, they do not educate. There
is no set of principles to be com-
municated, no dialogue and ques-
tions between teacher and pupil,
only a blaring voice and pointing
finger of the "divine" shouting
Yea! and Nay!
Working with such a weak foun-
dation, the mass media sways its
audience at will. It creates its
own gods and goddesses, blesses
or condemns each new technique.
And every once in a while it sets
up its own Miss America Contest,
tossing the gauntlet to each seg-
ment of the artistic community
and asking for a "champion," a
king: Who will replace Frost?
Cummings? Faulkner? Who is be-
hind Picasso? Now that Bruno
Walter is gone, who will take his
place?
Such talent contests are the cre-
ation of pseudo-artists-snake-oil
publications men. That they exist
and are zealously supported sug-
gests the depressing magnitude of
the problem.

fadism. And fadism in the arts
is strongly akin to suicide for the
artist.
The real danger of such media
is that while they are capable of
"making" gods overnight - Joan
Baez, Bob Dylan, Andrew Wyeth,
John Cheever-their silence is ever
more powerful. An artist asks only
that what he creates has life, that
contact with it does something to
the person on the other end. When
the result of his dialogue is sil-
ence, he experiences his most ex-
treme failure-he has no "being"
as artist.
It is this sort of death that
nightly touches each member of
the Irish Hills company. For each
member of that playhouse is a
part of the most valuable thing
that is connected with drama-the
community of artists.
* * *
THE PLAYHOUSE houses some-
thing valuable not only to the
theatre as an institution of the
arts (an individual company apart
from university or community con-
trol-not humbling itself, waiting
hat in hand for support each
year), but perhaps more import-
ant, it is a training ground for
young actors and the whole peri-
phery of acting necessities-stage-
hands, lighting and music direc-
tors, costume and set designers-
apart from a sterile academic at-
mosphere.
Central to its training value is
the fact that it is a theatric com-
munity: dynamic interaction be-
tween raw apprentice and season-
ed professional, actor and director,
mechanic and performer takes
place. This, more than anything
warrants saving because it is with-
in such a community that the

Unfortunately, the reviewer ar-
rived late and climbing out of the
car, thought he had stumbled in-
to the middle ages, for at the
door of the playhouse was a rag-
ing redhead in Elizabethan garb
(Brook Maddus) bawling, kicking
and scolding a somewhat dazed
and tipsy tinker (Phillip Piro). In
her exhuberance or zest for real-
ism, this wild hostess missed one
swing at the tinker and nailed
the entrance window.
Stepping over the glass, and
finally finding seats, I was struck
by the unique design of the "trans-
picuous" stage-two-sided with the
audience seated on rising levels
of the opposite sides. Even sit-
ting at the topmost seat, viewing
was perfect and voices neither
echoed nor were blurred.
* * *
I WANT TO GO all out for the
performances of three: George
Wright as Petruchio, Judith Ann
Holmes as Katherine, and bearded
Fred Walter as Grumio. As a
shrew-tamer, Wright had a stage
presence, a sense of timing and
"rightness," that can only, . in-
accurately, be described as poise.
Master of the absurd incident,
each action, each speech, showed
an inflection that built each scene
to shaky proportions, toppling
it with a touch.
Miss Holmes was perfect oppo-
sition, matching Wright in wit
and timing as well as the Nancy
Marchand-Ellis Raab combination
of Beatrice and Benedict in last
year's APA production, "Much Ado
About Nothing." Spraying each
loud sentence, Walter showed un-
derstanding of Shakespeare's com-
ic. His movements were heavy;
his language slurred and blunt.

"KISS ME KATE!" George Wright, left, as Petruchio, attempts
to kiss Katherine, played by Judith Ann Holmes, in the delightful
comedy, "Taming of the Shrew," at the Irish Hills Shakespeare
Festival. Production continues in repertory throughout the summer.

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