WAX, JULY 10, 1964
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
FRIDAY, JULY 10, 1964 TIlE MICHIGAN DAILY PAEtW! YWU~RV
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Exiting UN Puts Congo in Stabilized Crisis
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
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MLSM/L£5S AP Newsfeatures
By RICHARD F. NEWCOMB
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
stone, I presume."
Henry Morton Stanley stood
upon the shore of Lake Tanganyi-
ka nearly 93 years ago and ut-
tered the famous phrase.
Directly across the lake to the
west was a vast, unknown land
of mountain, jungle and mighty
rivers. It is unknown no longer.
It is the Congo.
Stanley roamed the Congo for
20 years, the Belgians ruled it for
more than half a century and on
June 30, 1960, it became an in-
dependent nation. Chaos followed.
The United Nations stepped in
almost immediately and for the
next four years the Congo was a
battleground, nationally and in-
Dozens of warring tribles, with
no common customs, language or
interests, resumed ancient battles
for local supremacy. Moise Tshom-
be, president of Katanga Prov-
ince, attempted to secede with
his whole province, the richest
area of the Congo. He nearly suc-
ceeded, but was finally forced to
flee into exile in Europe.
The Communist world refused
to support the United Nations ef-
fort in the Congo. For a time,
another Korea or Viet Nam seem-
But the United Nations stayed
in the Congo, and at one time
had 20,000 troops from more than
20 countries committed. In four
years, 126 men of the UN force
were killed in action. Not the least
of these was Secretary-General
Dag Hammarskjold, killed in a
plane crash in September 1961,
while on an inspection tour of the
On June 30 this year, the last
of the United Nations troops with-
drew. Its four-year presence in
the Congo-military and techni-
cal assistance-had cost $435 mil-
lion. Over 40 per cent of the
money had come from the United
States. The Soviet Union refused
to pay a penny.
What had the money and the
Edmund A. Gullion, who was
United States ambassador in Leo-
poldville through most of the per-
iod, said the United Nations ef-
fort had prevented a new Ko-
rea, spared the Congo from a hot
war and helped hold the nation
of 14 million people together.
It had also, he said, angered the
Soviet Union but possibly saved
the United Nations from the same
fate as the League of Nations.
As the new era opens, this is
the situation in the Congo.
Tshombe, so recently anathema,
has returned from exile and will
be installed as premier by the
current central government of Pre-
mier Cyrille Adoula. "King" Al-
bert Kalonji of South Kasai is
also back from exile. Antoine Gi-
zenga, a leftist leader, still lan-
guishes in an island prison in the
Congo River but may soon be re-
leased to join the central govern-
There are tribal wars in the
provinces of Leopoldville, Kivu.
Katanga and Oriental. The Chi-
nese Communists, from their em-
bassies in neighboring countries-
at Brazzaville in the west and
Bujumbura in the east, are en-
couraging leftist forces inside the
Congo. There is, however, no co-
hesion between the uneasy tribes
and no central direction is possi-
ble at the present level of politi-
On the more encouraging side,
the nation's finances are slowly
improving, the Congo army of 35,-
000 has been strengthened, and
the central government has the
moral backing of most other Afri-
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FRIDAY, JULY 10
Audio-Visual Education Center Film
Preview-"Chicago: Midland Metropo-
lis" and "The Hole": Multipurpose Rm.,
Undergraduate Library, 1:30 p.m.
Cinema Guild-Douglas Fairbanks in
"The Mark of Zorro"; Buster Keaton
in The Paleface"; Harold Lloyd in
"Never Weaken": Architecture Aud., 7
and 9 p.m.
University Players, Dept. of Speech
Production-Tennessee Williams' "Sum-
mer and Smoke": Lydia Mendelssohn
Theatre, 8 p.m.
School of Music Degree Recital-Dan-
iel Smith, organist: Hill Aud., 8:30 p.m.
I.S.T. Special Summer Lectures --
Dr. Ian M. Mills of the University of
Reading, England, will speak on
"Theory of Molecular Force Fields and
Molecular Dynamics"-Lecture Five to
be given on July 10 at 1 p.m. in Rm.
1400 of the Chemistry Bldg.
Astronomical Colloquium-Fri., July
10, 4 p.m., Room 807, Physics-Astronomy
Bldg. Stephen P. Maran, Dept. of
Astronomy, will speak on "Nova Her-
Doctoral Examination for James 011-
ver Brooks, Mathematics; thesis: "Clas-
sification of Representation Modules
over Quadratic Orders," Fri., July 10,
3018 Angell Hall, at 3 p.m. Chairman,a
D. G. Higman.
Doctoral Examination for Michael Ed-
ward Brown, Social Psychology; thesis:
"Identification, Integration, and the
Conditions of OrganizationalvInvolve-
ment," Fri., July 10, 7611 Haven .Hall,
at 1 p.m. Chairman, Daniel Katz.
Admission Test for Graduate Study
in Business: Candidates taking the Ad-
mission Test for Graduate Study in
ed to report
Sat., July 11, are request.
to Room 130 Business Ad-
Bldg. at 8:45 Saturday
Graduate Outing Club, Hiking and/
or swimming, July 12, 1:45 p.m., Rack-
ham, Huron St. Entrance.
ham, Huron St. Entrance.
Shows Start at
1:30-4:00-6:30 & 9:00
2nd Week I
,% -- OF,
... . ter.
THIS IS THE CONTROVERSIAL CONGO. Henry Stanley stood only a lake-span away from it 93
years ago when he met Dr. Livingstone. The Belgians ruled it for over a half century. And then on
June 30, 1960, it gained its independence. But the Congo's troubles were not over. Adoula and Tshom-
be squared off, a UN Peace Force intervened, and a stabilized crisis was formed. Now that the peace
force is gone, stability may totter, then crack
NOW'TILL JULY 114
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