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July 20, 1963 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1963-07-20

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Seventy-Third Year
T'ruth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

DAY, JULY 20, 1963


Race Problems of Albany
Typify Those of South

Y3: ." i7"br~Z
c a~ x: ,Et r a ti i > , r . .f i
,f:t m'Y «6 1 rp F fr~ttxY f . q 79-

DESPITE THE indignant if not clearly out-
raged tone of the recent series of editorial
features written for this paper concerning
Albany, Ga., it should be noted that the intent
of the series was not to voice screaming dis-
approval of a solitary city. Albany is, rather,
merely a case in point-a representative pic-
ture, although not entirely so, of the racial
situation- common to many places in the Deep
South today.
Unfortunately, much of the information
coming from this one trouble spot could just
as easily pertain to Savannah, Ga., Cambridge,
Md., Charleston, S.C., or even several cities of
the North. A common, and perhps justified,
question asked of Northern reporters investi-
gating the Southern cities is, "What do you
want down here? Why don't you settle your
own problems back home?" Indeed, this would
be a particularly penetrating inquiry were it
not for the fact that the South appears so
blatantly outspoken on, unwillingly involved
in and adroitly evasive of the kaleidoscopic
question of civil rights.
It is outspoken in its segregationist policies
and, actions yet evasive in the sense that it
seldom takes the necessary responsibility for
coming directly to grips with the problem-or
even, for that matter, admitting seriously that
there is a problem.
ECAUSE OF its perhaps unique law en-
forcement system -and the far reaching
effect on the Negro community, Albany lends
itself to an enlightening study of the Southern
Negro and his role in a- constantly ripening
struggle to end racial inequality in'this country.
The foregoing is submitted in an attempt
o answer the probable question, "Why, Al-
bany?" A more pertinent question further
would be, "Why the series?"
The importance of the Albany study tran-
cends a portrait of a city with one foot in in-
lustry and the other planted firmly on the
face of the Negro. It serves to illustrate graph-
cally, although unhappily, the very condi-
ions - regardless of the extremes discovered
here - which have fermented the entire issue
>f civil rights and civil liberties and brought it
, tthp headlines of both the domestic and for-
ign 'press. In a sense it points up the need,
iot only ,for. the South but indeed the -wholoe
Suntry, to re-evaluate its present position re-
#ding the 4aic foundations of liberty and
ESE VERY foundations are almost entirely
lacking in the city' of Albany. Overall social
irogress, despite the short range progress of
he Albany Movement and its fight to end
acial suppression, is at a standstill with re-
ard to the South and moving backwards with
egard to the ideals of this country.
The slothful pace of most of Albany's judi-
lary in cases pertaining to civil rights is
urther evidence of the city's unwillingness to
eke a rational stand on the matter. A re-
pected legal figure from Albany's South Side
regro section has quipped, "Any time a Negro
s on trial you have a civil rights ease."
The strongly illegal and now entirely be-
evable charges of police brutality in Albany
re evidence of the lopsided yet effectively
rushing wheel of discriminatory law enforce-
CIE UNITED STATES can no longer display
crass ignorance nor cowardly evasion of a
atter~ which affects the course this country
to set in attaining any aspirations toward,
r semblance of being, a truly free nation.
With demonstrations and occasional out-
reaks of violence, the press for racial equality
as graduated from test track to, the trial
eats of a vital race against time, to the degree
iat no responsible citizen can remain unaware
even unconcerned about it. Whether or not
ie final lap is a dead heat or a victory for
>th races is, naturally, left up to the nation

Federal Research
Brings Problems

as a whole-it is not an affair to be relegated
to scattered bickerings of uncoordinated groups
of "integrationists" battling it out with "segre-
Without the cooperative interest and voice
of all citizens, and by this it is meant a voice
clearly toned with honest and objective re-
appraisal, the home stretch may be littered
with the wrecks of half-planned "solutions":
the final result being a United States crippled
by a flooded engine.
CENTURIES AGO this problem did not carry.
the weight it has at present. Nations merged
almost completely over several generations
without anyone giving it much thought.
Now however, the technological advances of
the present century have accelerated the pace
of American life and social change, resulting in
a minority race which will not wait many more-


T HE UNIVERSITY s e e m s to
have made a pragmatic peace.
with two of the most vexing ques-
tions facing research in physical
sciences - the ethics of defense
work and secrecy-while a sister
university-the University of Chi-
cago-is wrestling with its con-
science on them.
Chicago's plight came to light
in late May, when Prof. Lucien M.
Bibermann angrily resigned from
the institution, charging that Chi-
cago was insufficiently supporting
efforts to gain the necessary de-
fense contracts needed for his re-
"I think the university's involve-
ment in the development of atomic
energy left a deep scar on the
moral fiber of this place from
which it never has recovered. I
do not believe that'they wish again
to get involved in developmentss
that are for the military.",
The first successfully controlled
chain reaction occurred in an
atomic pile under Chicago's Stagg
Field in 1942, paving the way for
the development of the atomic
CHICAGO IS a member of the
Institute for Defense Analysis
and ranks eighth in the nation in
research grants received from the
federal government. The de'fepse
department and related agencies;
provide the bulk of this money..
Prof. Bibermann's superior, di-
rector of the applied research lab-
oratories, explained that Chicago
disliked having defense work in
peacetime because it requires sep-
arate. guards and other special
These comments point up some
of the dilemmas in defense re-
search. While most research deals
with theoretical concepts, these
can easily be turned by other
scientists a n d engineers into
death-dealing weapons systems.
Further, the needed secret ap-
paratus and classified- reports .
places a great burden on univer-
sities. Elaborate security precau-
tions must be established. Re-
searchers and graduate students
must get clearance, locks must be
put on file cabinets, guards must
be hired and whole research com-
plexes must be fenced off.
* * *
SOME OF the more philosophic
scientists have been concerned
about the death-dealing potential.
-of their efforts. This worry is par-

Pu r enL zoir te ust time last
* * *
Technology acting director Prof.
James T., Wilson of the geology
department lumped defense re-
search and applied research to
almost-identical categories, say-
ing the University will accept
theoretical research that provides'
studies and theses for gi'aduate
Just as a testing laboratory
provides little new knowledge, so
does the operation of a heavily-
secret' military-research installa---
tion or the development of mil-
itary hardware. Thus the Uni- !
versity avoids such research and
does not run a Los Alamos.
The Phoenix.Project is designed
for exclusively peaceful use of the
atom, but it allows its reactor to
be used for the irradiation of
materials used for other's defense-
oriented protects.
IST IS "willing to live with
classified material" as long as it
does not impede research.
This pragmatic approach of
avoiding the extremes of military
commitment, but adjusting to it.
in moderation pays rich dividends,
both- in knowledge and funds to
the University.
Continued large-scale participa-
tion allows University scientists
to be in the forfront of the phys-
ical sciences.
But this is avoiding the moral
issue of defense research. What
good is defense research when its
products may destroy the society-
that makes the University's wide-
rainging research program possible
and 'allows for the freedom of
thought that best stimulates imag-
ination? The University's exten-
sive peace efforts in the conflict
resolution center and the Mental
Health ,Research Institute-negi-
lible compared to the defense
effort-does not make up for this
blind pragmatism. The moral issue
deserves further thought.

ticularly acute at Chicago with its
long humanistic history.
Secrecy is a great impedement
to information and the invasion
of personal life required in clear-
ance investigation is distasteful.
The University-a yearly recip-
ient of $15 million from the de-
fense department-takes a more
pragmatic view. It seemingly wel-
comes defense department work,
yet proudly boasted that other fed-
eral agencies spent more at the.
University than the defense de-
'artm~n tr f fie it-la


Decision Hurts- Democracy


generations to achieve its rightful place in
society; an American society is capable, at
present, of undergoing such a revolutionary
process as that of granting the Negro his civil
rights and liberties, removing seemingly in-
surmountable barriers of hate and prejudice
against him and even assimilating him and
his culture.
The real issue, then, if it can be assumed
that Americans seek such social change at all,
is that of means to an end.
Ideally, the matter could be settled peace-
fully at the state level and even more ideally,
there would be little need for sit-ins, freedom
rides or demonstration, peaceful or otherwise,
as implements whereby the Negro gains recog-
R EALISTICALLY,' however, the situation is
far beyond that. Moreover, it has progress-
ed (or regressed) to the point where, unfor-
tunately, the Federal government feels ob-
ligated to legislate the social change. Admit-
tedly Washington has previously enacted "so-
cial" legislation such as the graduated income
tax, social security and prohibition. Some of
it' has been repealed, such as prohibition, while
most of it has remained-but it is necessary to
note that until President Kennedy's present,
civil rights bill, the enactment of such meas-
ures has not been aimed directly at forcing the
United States to change both its way of life
and its outlook.

rpHE MILITARISM that wounds
American democracy has now
cut deeper with defense secretary
Robert McNamara's orders on
civil rights demonstrations.
McNamara ruled that military
personnel "may not under any
circumstances participate in civil
rights demonstrations" when the
following, conditions exist: 1) Dur-
ing hours when they are required
to be present for duty'; 2) When
they are in, uniform; 3) When
they are on military bases; 4)
When their activities constitute a
breach of law and order; 5) When
violence, is reasonably likely to
McNAMARA was reacting to an
attack by segregationist Governor
George Wallace of Alabama, Wa-
lace had attacked an Air Force
policy that said its servicemen
could participate In civil rights
demonstrations provided that they
were off duty, in civilian clothes
and that there was no danger of
injury to themselves or of dam-
age to government property.
The Air Force policy was re-
strictive enough as it was; Mc-
Namara's orders further impede
the right of Americans to par-
ticipate in democracy. The success
of American democracy depends a
great deal on the extent of citizen
awareness of public issues, of
citizen commitment to sound pub-
lic principles, sand of citizen par-
ticipation in public affairs. Mil-
itary men are Aherican citizens
and should be given the equal
protection of the law as reflected
in the due process and Fourteenth
Just because a man is drafted
into Universal Military Training,
his duty as a citizen to participate
in American democracy is not less-
ened. American democracy re-
quires political parties, m a s s
media, ballot boxes, open forums
- a n d demonstrations, whether
they be pro or anti on any subject.
Demonstrations serve to promote
awareness of the issues, commit-
ment to principles and partici-
pation in affairs.
* * *
THE FOUNDING Fathers noted
th importance of demonstrations
when they wrote in the very first
amendment to the Constitution
that "Congress shall make no
law ... abridging the freedom of
speech, or of the press, or of the
people peaceably to assemble and
to petition their government for
a redress of gilevances." If it is
unconstitutional for Congress t
make a law abridging freedom of
assembly, the legality of the Ex-
ecutive Department issuing orders
abridging this freedom is at least
questionable if not also uncon-
The defense secretary's orders
also abridge the right of Ameri-
cans caught in Universal Military
Training to "petition their gov-
ernment for a redress of griev-
ances." That is what the civil
rights demonstrations mean; all
over America, people by their
demonstrations are petitioning
Congress to pass effective civil
rights legislation. Thus, McNa-
mara's orders damage not one but'
two civil liberties.

people." This is a cardinal prin-
ciple whidh is also eroded by Mc-
Namara when he declares that
military discipline is paramount
over the right of the individual
to participate in nonmilitary
* * *
sets for a curb on participation in
demonstrations deserve analysis
1) During hours when military
men are required to be present for
duty. The word duty in this case
refers to a military obligation; and
while an argument could be inade
for militarism as a prevention of
subversion from without,an argu-
ment could also be made that mil-
itarism subverts American de-
mocracy from within. A military
duty can have good and bad ef-
fects. But even if it had only good
effects, would not a civilian duty
-the civilian duty to participate
in American democracy-be more
basic? In government the..super-
iority of the civilian over the mil-
itary is supreme; in citizenship
the same should hold true.
2) When military men are in
uniform. It could be argued that
the military as a police enforce-
ment agency might be hampered
if its neutrality were clouded. But
the participator in a demonstra-
tion is not representing the Armed
Forces; he could not begin to
represent the vast diversity of
opinion and policy found in such
a huge establishment,
* * *
on military bases. Here would be
a real clash of Freedom and
Authority. The forces of Authority
ruled the world and its nations
for cenuries and epochs; now the
forces of Freedom have emerged
in a limited extent in a few spots
in the world. The stirring words
of Jefferson, the expanding en-
franchisement of Jackson, the
,nobling ethics of Wilson, the hard-
hitting libertarianism of Truman
-in general the growth of Amer-
ican democracy-should spread
everywhere, including the military
establishment. Demonstrations on
military bases would work wonders
for a hangover of the Middle Ages.
* * *
4) WHEN THEIR activities con-
stitute a breach of law and order.
But does not civilian law and
civilian authority take care of
this?Civilian authority is superior
over military authority in govern-
ment and the same should go for
W E HAVE NOT seen it made
clear how the peace move-
ment and the desegregation move-
ment might work together effec-
tively. Certain individuals, of
course, are active in both move-
ments. Both are liberal causes.
But there seems no particular
reason to expect the Negro to
develop a special interest in the
peace question. He is, understand-
ably, putting his time, money and
energy into the racial struggle.
Moreover, he probably has diverse

the activities 'of citizens. Further-
More, law is not as stiff as un-
educated men think, nor as fluid
as educated non-lawyers think;,
it. needs the prodding and the
cases provided by occasional acts
of peaceful civil disobediance.
5) When violence is reasonably
likely to result. This condition has
pragmatic benefits in that it pro-
tects the safety of demonstrators.
But this protection is& offered in
the same way the Monroe Doctrine
was offered the Latin American,
countries-constituting and um-
brella held over one's head not
when it is raining but when it is
"reasonably likely" to rain. And
one can't even hold the handle of.
the umbrella. It was small wonder
that the. Monroe Doctrine irritated
Latin America, and it would also
be a small wonder if military men
become irritated by McNamara's
McNamara urges "every man
and woman in uniform to conduct
himself accordingly." This is a'
good suggestion in that every man
and woman in uniform as well as
every man and 'woman not in
uniform should conduct himself
according -to the practices of
American democracy. One of these
practices, engrained in the Con-
stitution and re-emerging today
as a viable force of American
democracy, is the demonstration.,
Military men, like civilians, should
make maximum use of this means
of communication and commit-
ment. Military men, like civilians,
should demonstrate not only for
civil rights but also against Mc-
Namara's edict.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
was received by the Washington Post
from Sen. Clark.
To the Editor:
IT WOULD BE a great pity if
Walter Lippmann's excellent'
column of July 4, "Strength to
Govern Well," were to pass with-
out the commendation it so richly
While I do not necessarily share
his priorities, I wholeheartedly
support Mr. Lippmann's proposal
for a rule which would force the
Senate and its committees to act
upon important administration
proposals. In the last Congress,
and again in this Congress, I
introduced a resolution (S. Res.
42) which would require each
standing committee of the Senate
to considler any administration bill

TO n,. Edo,

referred to it ' within a reason-
able time prior to July 4, and to
report its recommendations for
or against enactment tothe Sen-
ate so that the Senate as a whole
will have a chance to act upon
it before the end of the session
in which the bill was offered.
This proposal, along with num-
erous others, is now pending be-
fore the Senate Rules Committee,
and two days of hearings have
already been held. I hope that
these hearings will continue, and
that a number of the more im-
portant rules change proposals
now pending will be favorably re-
ported to the floor of the Senate
before much longer. It is later
than many think.
--Sen. JosephS.'Clark (D-Pa)


Namaa'sedit. o cosidr ay aminstraionbil -Sn. osep S.Clak (-Pa

Wall-To-Wall Under-The-Carpeting


RKANSAS Attorney General Bruce
has once again invoked the cryc
nist" against those who disagree
iefs and desire freedom and equalil
3ennett did not call Martin Luthe
mnmunist, he just said that he a
h them.
Along this line of reasoning, Bennett
uld be investigated on account of th
comes from.

Such coercive steps to help the Negro, and
e Bennett he has admittedly asked for them, will prob-
of "Com- ably never change the outlook but will rock
with his the foundations of our way of life. They may,
ty for all. in fact, produce more animosity toward the
r King a Negro and serve only, to deter his progress,
associated however slow, to gain what is rightfully his.
What is most needed is not Federal inter-
V's loyalty vention which inches boldly out on a shaky
he society limb of the Interstate Commerce clause, but
an increase in enlightened city and' state lead-
-A.O. ers who are willing to responsibly evaluate the
present problem in realistic and permanent
terms and initiate action at their own levels.
1T WILL BE noted, however, that should the
flow of the racial crisis at a future date
explicitly demand such action by Congress,
there is still a last chance for the states to
Co-Editor aquit themselves with some degree of maturity.
orts Editor While Kennedy's bill makes specific proposals,
rts Editor it carries no specific penalties, thereby leaving
ghnt Editor
ght Editor the matter to the courts of the states-which
ght Editor could still take the initiative to fulfill its ob-
ght Editor ligations to humanity.

{ l
. h ~
"trr .f ".

Editorial Staff
PALD WILTON.....................
SLIP SUTIN ....... ...........
7E GOOD ........................ Co-Sp
hRLES TOWLE............Co-spo
rH HETMANSKI .... ............... Nip
)REW ORLIN...................... Ni
N TENANDER....................Nig
VEIL BERKSON ...................... Ni



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