"We're Doing 70 and He's Still There"
SeW Y-Third Year
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NOBODY'S FOR SURE:
Politics Wide Open
In Unstable California
Y,'JULY 12, 1963
NIGHT EDITOR: ANDREW ORLIN
U.S. Steps Against Castro'
Wrong Answer to Problem
THE UNITED STATES seems incapable of
learning any lessons from its evperience
The latest move in our campaign against the
Caribbean island was announced Monday. The
United- States government froze Cuban assets
n this country, owned both by the Castro gov-
ernment and Cuban individuals, and also ban-
ned Americans from un-licensed transactions
with Cuba. The measures have a special provi-
ion which exempt Cuban refugees, either in
his country or elsewhere.
In explaining its move the State Department
aid it took the action so that "Cuba will be
denied the use of American facilities for trans-
ers of funds to Latin America for subversive
umposes." The order puts the Cubans in the
ame diplomatic class as Communist China
ind North Korea. The rules applying to the
Soviet Union and the Eastern European coun-
ries are less severe.
THE LATEST STEP is just one in a series
designed to make things as difficult eco-
nomically for the Cuban regime as possible.
'he economic aspect is obvious-funds that
,n be used for subversive purposes can also
uy food and medicines.
But the real problem with this latest step,
nd indeed with our whole series of actions to-
yards Cuba, is that they are attempting to
reat the symptoms of a disease instead of the
auses. It is a little like putting a sick patient
n an isolation ward and then starving him in
he hopes that he will get better. But in the
ase of Cuba the treatment falls down on two
ounts-the other patients are already infected,
nd the walls of the isolation ward are made
Freezing Cuban funds in this country will
rritate Castro more than it will hurt him-he
an always get more money from the Russians.
end Chinese. All the step actually accomplishes
s to add to hte bad feelings between the Unit-
d States on one hand and Castro and his
satin American supporters cn the other.
If Cuba were completely economically, geo-
raphically and culturally isolated then the
tate Department's actions might have a small
hance of success. But the island is not isolated,
is an integral part of Latin America, and
his makes all the difference in the world.
PHE FACTS of Castro's existence have made
a deep impression on Latin America. He has
ffered them an alternative road to economic
development from the American dominated
capitalist oriented path they have been strug-
gling on since their independence. He has.
shown them that there is no reason why Latin
America has to be an American plantation to-
day just because it was one yesterday. He has
shown the Peruvian Indian that there is an-
other way to live besides chewing a narcotic
nut to dull the pangs of hunger; he has told
the inhabitants' of the slums around Rio that
there is a better way to get'food than rumaging
in a garbage dump; he has promised the starv-
ing farmer of Brazil's Northeast region the
land he works, which is now owned by an ab-
sentee landlord who lives in luxury in the big
cities; he has convinced the tin miner in Chile
that the product of his labor should go to
build up his country and not line the pockets
of United States shareholders.,
These and millions of others in Latin Amer-
ica have heard Castro's message and accepted
it. They are preparing ,for the day, which is
not too far off, when Castro type revolutions
will sweep the continent. And unless there is
a radical change in United States policy to-
ward Latin America, their coming will kill
whatever friendship there is left toward us on
the Southern continent.
PRESIDENT KENNEDY ,has called Latin
America, "the most critical area in the world
today." It is critical because. it has the highest
birth rate increase of any area of the world;
because a small percentage of the population
owns most of the land, because people are
starting and see a way out, because the right
to own private property takes precedence over
the right to live, in other words because it is
ripe for revolution.
If there is one lesson we should have learned"
about Latin America it is that we cannot, by
trying to isolate Cuba, turn back the clock and
make believe the Cuban revolution never oc-
curred. We should have learned that the Cuban
revolution was produced by a disease that is
rampant throughout Latin America; a disease
which can only be alleviated by working to lift
the poverty stricken masses out 'of the mud
without worrying about the ruling classes or
American economic interests. The latest step
against Cuba shows that we have not even
started going to school.
A- ;s~ g
s ASAlt G PST-
THE SOUTHERN WHITE:
Albany Ignores Race Issues
By MICHAEL HARRAH
LA JOLLA, CALIF. - This little
city lies quietly, surrounded by
mountains and ocean, tucked away
from the hustle of the City of
San Diego that completely sur-
rounds it beyond the mountain
slopes. And it is just beyond these
mountains that President John F.
Kennedy "kicked off his cam-
paign" a little over a month ago.
Just a stone's throw from Ti-
juana and Old Mexico, this does
not seem like a border area. True
it is in many ways a melting pot
of peoples, just as is the rest of
California, but this area of San
Diego is a political surprise. De-
spite its vast spectrum of inhab-
itants, this is solid Republican
territory, unlike the two larger
California cities of Los Angeles
and San Francisco which are,
politically, quite marginal, and the
California hinterlands which us-
ually vote Democratic.
Observers throughout the state
and across the nation refuse to
abandon California to either po-
Sliticalparty in the 1964 presiden-
tial race. There are too many fac-
tors involved and they are con-
stantly changing. The voters of
California are as unstable as the
Frenchmen. They h a v e been
known to stampede for anyone of
a hundred bizarre reasons. Con-
cluded the Columbia Broadcasting
System recently: "California can-
not be counted until the last ballot
is cast. It could always change, by
a straw in the wind."
AWARE OF THIS, the Presi-
dent of the United States jour-
neyed to San Diego last month--
to the heart of his California op-
position. And he received a Presi-
dent's welcome - awelcome that
carried with it respect for his
office and not friendship for him-
This is a bastion of Republican
strength, and it is loud and ada-
mant. Democrats have sworn to
crack it, but they are privately
quite uncertain that they will be
able to do so. And though Repub-
licans., are not as yet united on
who th e GOP standard-bearer
should be, they seem prepared to
support the conveniton victor, no
matter whom that may be.
This confronts the Democrats
with a difficult situation. Unlike
the GOP, California Democrats,
though in control, are badly split.
True, the state Young Republicans
are firmly controlled by the Rad-
ical Right, while the regular Re-
publican Party is controlled by the
more moderate wing of the GOP.
* * *
MEANWHILE THE rift that
bothers the Democrats has been
subtle, though of late it has been
coning into the open. Gov. Ed-
mund G. "Pat" Brown finds him-
self heading a government virtu-
ally dominated by his own party.
They hold all but two of the state
administrative offices; they con-
trol both houses of the legisla-
ture. Yet the Democrats find high
personages within their ranks
throwing constant roadblocks in-
to the governor's path. Every day
only makes the riftmore complex.
California Democratic leaders
have already indicated they will
stand behind the re-election bid
of President Kennedy; with Rich-
ayd Nixon having departed, Cali-,
fornia Republicans haven't said
much of anything. But it is sig-
nificant that they haven't turned
against any possible candidate.
The conservatives within the
GOP are noisy. Sen. Barry M..
Goldwater of Arizona finds no
small amount of support; but
then several other Republicans
also have announced supporters.
The recent Young Republican con-
clave at San Francisco, supposed-
ly a national convention of YRs
but in reality a Goldwater rally in
disguise, had a profound effect on
Californians. S e n. Goldwater
spoke and the people of Califor-
- - -
AS THIS TIDE of Goldwater
glory sweeps California, not a
trace of reaction can bemseen from
the would-be supporters of Rom-
ney or Rockefeller or any others
now in evidence. But all this can
change; The political allegiances
of Californians is perhaps more
emotional than anything else.
Just as they have been caught up
by the silver tones of Barry Gold-
water today, so could they become
enthralled by their former gover-
nor, Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court E a r 1 Warren or Sen.
Thomas Kuchel or Romney or'
Rockefeller themselves or - yes,
even Richard Nixon.
In fact, at this juncture, only
one thing seems certain. Whatever
the outcome, the fight between
the two parties in California will
be bitter. Republicans claim to be
on the upsurge. There have been
several by-elections to fill vacan-
cies In both the Congressional'
delegation and the legislature. The
GOP has swept all of them. Demo-
crats are smarting at thee small
but bally-hooed thrusts. Republi-
cans meanwhile have not forgot-
ten the drubbing they received last
November. Theirs will be a cam-
paign for more than victory. Re-
membering the "smears" they
charge against Gov. Brown and
the gerrymandering of the legis-
lature and the Congressional dis-
tricts against them, they will be
seeking revenge. Such emotions
run deep and they will not dis-
appear in a year's time.
The campaign will surely be
bitter, though what the outcome
is impossible to tell-now or ever,
right up to election day. Califor-
nia, the nation's largest state
(self-proclaimed) population wise.
is wide open.
AT THE STATE:
"BYE BYE BIRDIE" was pushed
out of the nest too soon.
The excellent satiric potential
of the choreography has been
ruined by heavy-handed treat-
ment and vulgarity.
Conrad Birdie (Jesse Pearson)
is a rock 'n roll singer whose fe-
male fans arise in a state of panic
and pickets when he is drafted.
When a sweet teenager from
Sweet Apple, Ohio (Ann-Mar-
garet) is chosen to receive a good-
bye kiss from Birdie on the Ed
Sullivan show the conflict be-
tween evil (rude, 'lewd and loved
Birdie) and good (Ann-Margaret's
boyfriend Bobby Rydell) begins.
Rydell gets the girl but to the
audience she looks less like a sweet
hometown girl and more like a
local burly queen as the movie
A wide - screen, Technicolor
closeup of a speeding pelvis shows
in a flash of what Birdie is made.
I feel sure some of the dialogue
would be rejected in any decent
If you see "Birdie," don't go
with a date; even for the most
stout-hearted, it's downright em-
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Prayers Raise Problems
IN THE AFTERMATH of the prayer cases,
there is a most important question which
we must ask ourselves. If the constitutional
principle is so clear, why is it that there are
such widespread and persistent attempts to
introduce some kind of religious exercise into
the public schools?
All American churches accept the principle
of the separation of church and state. Only
in fringe questions where there is no self-evi-
dient rule is there difficulty in interpreting the
principle. No church is trying to obtain control
of public education. The reason for the experi-
nents with religion in the public schools is, I
believe, that there is a growing disenchantment
with the results of wholly-secularized education.
There is here much of the hardest problem
of education, a much deeper problem than that
of persuading the country to raise enough
noney to pay for good teaching in adequate
;ehool buildings. It is the problem of what .to
;each about the nature of man and the uni-
verse around him, and how to provide the boy
and girl with governing beliefs that will make
;hem civilized. The proponents of Bible read-
ng and reciting the Lord's Prayer are in vary-
ng measures concerned with the fundamental
problem of a moral and intellectual vacuum
it the center of education. It has been pressed
ipon their attention, not only by delinquency
,nd unruliness among the young, but also b;
imlessness and anxiety among adults.
WHEN THEY introduce a surreptitious and
denatured religion into the public schools,
hey are snatching at straws. The straws will
iot provide the order, purpose and control
hat are lacking. But it would be obtuse to sup-
>ose that there is therefore no real problem
r that the Supreme Court has disposed of
t and that it -can now be forgotten.
There can be, I think, no serious dispute
hat the Supreme Court has defined accurately
he historic meaning of the First Amendment.
Ih the relationship between man and religion,"
ays Mr. Justice Clark for the majority, "the
tate is firmly committed to a positon of neu-
railty." Why? Because the neutrality of the
tate in the fields of religion and opinion are
he terms of peace on which the religious wars
were brought to an end. Only by forbidding the
Late to act in the field of religion could the
ommuniy be saved from the bitter struggle
etween groups attempting to seize the power
f the state in order to settle the terrible is-
uies which had divided Europe.
tradition of the classical and Christian world.
Some were Catholic, some were Protestant,
some were deists, some were in their theology
-unbelievers. But all had essentially the same
THEY HAD BEEN taught and shaped in the
great tradition. They saw, as Father Mur-
ray has said, that within the western nations
there is "A plurality of incompatible faiths."
Therefore, the state must be neutral in the
field of religion. But it never occurred to them,
it would seem, that the public philosophy
which they regarded as self-evident would be-
come lost to educated men.
Because that has happened, the enforce-.
ment of the First Amendment has a different
meaning today tha n at the end of the 18th
Those who are concerned with the content
of secularized public education (and much
private education as well) should look upon
the decision of the court as having closed a
blind alley that led nowhere. The forbidden re-
ligious exercises would not and could not have
dealt with the great moral and intellectual de-
ficiencies of American education. The exercises
were harmless and negligible. But had they
been allowed to evolve, they could have led only
to religious quarrels.
Now that we have finished with th e token re-
form, we must turn our attention'to a great re-
appraisal of the content of American education.
(c) 1963, The washington Post Co.
TOWN AND GOWN came together the other
night when the Ann Arbor City Council's
committee considering fair housing legislation
held an informal, four hour meeting with four
Three of the professors had drawn up an ad-
visory report for University President Harlan
Hatcher in May on the significance of such
legislation to the University. In that report
they estimated that roughly 1500 University
students and/or personnel are hurt by dis-
criminatory housing. On a percentage basis,
they showed the legislation committee, a fair
housing ordinance would be very important to
Prof. Paul G. Kauper of the Law School-a
well-known civil liberties expert-was also pres-
(Second in a Seven-Part Series)
By ROBERT ELLERY
TO THE VISITOR the weather
in Albany, Georgia is too hot
to tolerate. To the native it's too
hot to do much of anything, think
anything or even hate anything-
It's a white man's town, Albany,
and were it not for outside news-
paper headlines it would appear to
be a quiet one. The majority of
the population is white and moves
slowly and relaxedly through the
shopping district completing the
picture of a tranquil and easy-
going town of the Deep South.
Not surprisingly, this picture
Albany paints for the visitor is
the prototype of the image its
white population prefers to have
"It's a pretty quiet place,"'said
one merchant, endorsing the im-
age. But some how Albany isn't
aware of itself.
ALBANY DOESN'T really want
to become aware of itself. The
word status quo is virtually mean-
ingless in that the white citizenry
would prefer to deny its contrast
dependent (change) is anything
more than some inarticulate fear
of the Negro. The greatest num,
bers of the Negro are conveniently
tucked away in a nearly auton-
omous community on the south
side of town, out of sight and, as
nearly as possible, out of mind.
Then why this fear? It seems
that the Negro of this quiet city
wishes to be something more than
convenient, something more than
tucked away. And it is this ubiqui-
tous Negro, that threatens to dis-
rupt the stability of Southern Cus-
In such an atmosphere it is not
difficult to see why conscious rec-
ognition of any "problem" is re-
pressed. It was hard enough to
see Lincoln free 'the slaves from
the vital cotton fields of Georgia
and even harder to admit defeat
in the Civil War. Some still have
IN 1961 the reverie was broken.
There began the Albany Move-
ment for integration, and since
then sleepless nights have not
been uncommon among the whites,
from the storied mansions to the
poorest shacks. Choruses of "We
Shall Overcome," theme song of
the movement, reverberated
through the state, provoking Po-
lice tactics that far outdated the
recent scandal of Birmingham,
But with the aid of a scrupu-
lously pan-glossing newspaper, the
issues could still be evaded; and
who intentionally looks for a
"Not too much trouble," said a
downtown clerk when questioned
about the situation in Albany. And
herein lies the tragedy, for he
wasn't lying. He really believed
it. Lots of people, Albanians, as
they call themselves, believe it.
They have to. It's too hot to
seriously think about it.
* * *
THE NEGRO, the typical Al-
banian will explain, really doesn't
As Deputy Sheriff McDonald so
aptly put it," I'd like to catch MY
down there living in the same
house with those goddam blacks.
And those snicks are lower than
any of 'em."
DESPITE having several things
in common, the Albany white man
is difficult to epitomize. He ranges
from well wishing yet powerless
officials like Kelley to the ex-
treme white supremacist, such as
County Court Justice Clayton
When the baking sun disap-
pears, Albany settles into a humid
'quiet. You can almost hear the
collards and hominy growing. In
a field east of the city limits a
prayer coines eerily over a loud-
speaker, a 25 foot high cross is
set afire and Judge Jones ad-
dresses a rally of the Klu Klux
With all the solemnity and im-
partiality of his office he informs
the hooded brothers of the threat
of the "Nigra."
In a rattling voice 'he calls the
Negro "the lowest order-of man-
kind in this country . . . The goal
of the Nigra isn't integration, it's
"I'll tell you who's behind the
Negro," he croaked. "It's the com-
munists." He goes on to endorse
police brutality in dealing with
A summer storm moves slowly
across the sky, scattering ashes.
from the cross, symbol of the
toothless old bear known as the
Klan, and Albany beds down for
Albany is used to sudden storms,
and like many vicissitudes of
Southern life, ignores this one.
Albany is still white. Albany is
safe from storms.
... addresses Klan
"They've been brainwashed,"
said Albany Mayor, Asa D. Kelley.
* * *
KELLEY, HOWEVER, has been
the man in the middle. In a slow,
ingratiating drawl he verbalizes
the southern moderate viewpoint
and on occasion, goes beyond that.
He sees integration as more or
less inevitable in the South, but
prefers that its fight be carried
on in the courts, not in the streets.
Unlike many of his contempor-
aries, Kelley doesn't seek to evade
the issue. He reportedly said, "In
my judgment the city of Albany
has got to recognize that it has
a problem and cannot solve that
,problem by sticking its head in
the sand and ignoring that prob-
lem. No solution can be reached
unless there, are lines of com-
Albany reportedly attempted to
evade the issue of integration of
the public swimming pool at Tift
Park by selling the city owned
facility to James H. Gray, owner
of the town's one daily newspaper.
This made possible the arrest of
seven Negroes and two whites last
week orj charges of trespassing on
* * *~
EXECUTIVE EDITOR of the Al-
bany Herald, James M. Robertson,
presented a moderate but more
pessimistic view of the situation.
"There is no middle ground left
now where discussions can be har-
monious." He cited outsiders as
primary deterrents to progress.
"We've got a Police chief who
maintains the customs of this
community, and you don't wipe
out a hundred years of social con-
vention just like that."
Any arrangements made, he
feels, 'will be strictly between the
people of Albany and not under
any "duress" of outsiders like
"The Police are constantly ha-
rassed," commented a local sales-
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