THLE MIChIGAN DAILY
Students' decisions on career
choice often are the result of de-
fault or denial rather than con-
scious choice, a' 'sociologist re-
ported here recently.
Most graduate students in
physiology, Howard Becker illu-
strated, originally wanted to be
doctors. When their applications
to medical school were not ac-
cepted, however, they became am-
- bitious in new directions, seeking
to become academic men, re-
searchers or department chair-
Abandon Choice Quickly
Philosophy students, the Com-
munity Studies, Inc., researcher
continued, chose their field not
because it was what they wanted
very much but because it seemed
the least restraining academic
Mechanical engineering stu-
dents, in contrast, chose the field
consciously but were quick to
abandon it if an opportunity to
move into the upper echelons of
'In each of these three fields,
Becker said, younger students de-
veloped their concepts of accepted.
professional goals with the guid-
ance of students and instructors'
in the same field.
Speaks at Conference
Becker was speaking at the
final session of a conference one
household decision making span-
sorted by Consumer Behavior, Inc.,
a non-profit organization, and the
Committee on Family and. Eco-
nomic Behavior of the Social Sci-
ence Research Council.
Decisions on spending are more,
often shared in middle class fam-
lie's than in those of the upper
or lower classes, a Columbia Uni-.
- versity sociology instructor indi-
cated here in a second speech;
Prof. Mirra Komarovsky, chair-
man of Barnard College's sociolo-
gy department, explained that
poorer families have less flevi-
bility of budget and few decisions
remain. Wives make most "de-
cisions" 4n' these families because
they buy food and clothing.
Fewer Decisions Made,
Middle or upper class women,
on the other hand, make fewer de-
cisions alone. But the reasons dif-
Middle income families are pre-
sented with many alternatives,
often crucial to their social posi-
tion. For this reason. husbands
and wives consult one another.
Those in the top income brack-
ets need to divert less income to
maintain social status. More, of
their desires can be satisfied, Prof.
Komarovsky pointed out, and
moreover husbands and, wives.
have. specialized interests.
Sa ys spies
WASHINGTON ()-The army's
research and development chief
yesterday credited Soviet techno-
logical success more to spies than
Lt. Gen; Arthur G. Trudeau, a
former chief of army intelligence,
said he wished he were free to
speak even more strongly about
Soviet industrial espionage, "using
some recent cases we know of."
His remarks were made during a
talk to a convention of the Ameri-
can society for industrial security.
Use Espionage More'
"I say without fear of contradie-
tion," Trudeau asserted, "that the
advanced state of the Soviet tech-
nology today is due more to the
Soviets' success in espionage and
subversion than it is to their
scientific apparatus, as good as'it
Trudeau asked representatives of
companies holding military con-
tracts to:f (1) tell the government
immediately if secret papers are
mislaid or lost and (2) inform the
government immediately "if you
sense a pattern of an office or in-
dividual consistently asking to see
classified documents which are
outside the normal interest of the
office or individual."
Trudeau said Soviet industrial
espionage is tin two categories,
legal and illegal networks.
Diplomats Use Subversion
The legal, he said, is carried
on by a military -or commercial
attache or a member ,of a trade
commission or visiting cultural
group, all of them possessing diplo-
The illegal operation, Trudeau
said, is one in which an agent
enters the United States under
cover of forged papers.
' The legal agent is able to work
from the cover of a diplomatic
establishment, and if he is dis-
covered, the worst that can happen
is that he may be declared per-
sona non grata or unacceptable
and sent home, the general said.
The illegal agent does not have
protection of his government and
if discovered his government will
disclaim any relationship with him,
the general said.
Use Exchan ge
An exchange program for' the
advanded training of interns and
physicians is now in effect in
18 hospitals in 14 communities
throughout lower Michigan..
The hospitals, which are affili-
ated with the University Medical
Center, can send their trainees
to the Medical Center for special
study. In exchange, the Univer-
sity gains outlets for training its
newly graduated doctors and pros-
Dr. John M. Sheldon, professor
of internal medicine and director
of the Department of Postgraduate,
Medicine, described the four-part
program being followed:
1) Residents from the affiliated
hospitals' studying internal' medi-
cine, surgery or obstetrics and
gynecology may spend their three
year terms at the University Medi-
2) University staff members visit
each affiliated hospital six or more
times a year to examine and evalu-
ate the training programs.
3) Interns -can. spend alternat-
ing six month periods here and at
affiliated hospitals training for
4) Senior medical students may
also work in affiliated hospitals
during their, vacations.
Principle in Use
His principle is now being used
to rid California figs from their
seeds. It is also being used by gov-
ernment agricultural stations to
increase greenhouse tomato pro-
duction by as much as 100 per cent
by spraying the tomato flowers
with indoleacetic acid.
Prof. Gustafson came from Fors-
by, Finland to live with an older
brother in Ashland, Wis., where be
began his unusual educational ca-
"I spent an entire year in the
first grade,"- he stated, "then I
finally learned to speak and write
English and the next year I jumped
Prof. Gustafson then quit school
and worked for a few years as a
cook's helper in a lumber camp
and as a driver and delivery boy.
With the money he had saved by
working he was able to graduate
from Northland Academy and the
University of Wisconsin.
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