The White Man's Burden
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AY, MAY 6, 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH DONER
Faculty Senate Action
On Loyalty Oaths Justified
?^ l Jr
ACTIONS TAKEN by representatives of the
University student body and the faculty for
the repeal of the loyalty oath provision of the
1958 National Defense Education Act have been
And perhaps the strongest stand urging its
repeal was taken by the Faculty Senate in its
recent recognition of the definitive difficulties
of the provision.
In part, the oath calls for swearing that one
"does not believe in, and is not a member of
and does not support any organization that
believes in or teaches" the overthrow of the
The Senate claimedl that most faculty mem-
bers would then be unable to sign the oath if
the government were changed greatly, because
they would support its forceful overthrow.
Second, the Senate questioned the interpre-
tation of a "belief in" such an organization
without action. They held that this "belief"
should no more be the test for receipt of loans
and fellowships from the government than for
the imposition of punishment.
The Faculty Senate-was not alone in its ar-
gument, although it perhaps was more percep-
tive than other organizations in attacking the
provision on the grounds of weaknesses in
Recently, the President and Vice-President
of the United States National Student Asso-
elation objected on similar grounds. Aside from
conscientious objection to oaths, there might
be "perfedtly loyal students or faculty mem.
bers" who would hive "serious apprehensions
By NAN MARKEL
Daily Staff Writer
as to the possible interpretations of the sec-
tion," they said.
Also, such oaths have been attacked for be-
ing more than subtle inferences about faculties,
academic freedom and higher education at
Student Government Council called them an
"infringement on academic freedom" because.
they "exercise a restraint on free inquiry."
USNSA tagged oaths "a particularly flagrant
example of federal control of education."
More important, they recognized the "insult-
ing and unjustified implication" of requiring
members of the "academic community" to
swear loyalty when such action is not required
of recipients of other federal grants.
The third grounds are more idealistic, and
were deaft with by both the Senate and the
USNSA. Both intimated that the requirement
of the loyalty oath meant more than acknowl-
edging the weakness of our democracy, but also
recognizing the threat of Communism.
The Senate said that the belief in the super-
lority of democracy is best communicated by
free exchange of ideas and thus the oath, in
stJiling this belief, weakens this superiority.
USNSA claimed democracy was impeded be-
cause such requirements "tend to set a cli-
mate of opinion, to inhibit discussion, and to
cause unnecessary caution in the support of
perfectly valid organizations and objectives."
"Democracy is something you can measure,"
Harry Golden told an audience of University
students and faculty Monday.
Loyalty oaths make a poor yardstick.
-NORMA SUE WOLFE
NONE OF THESE are great works of art. They
are really no more than frank representa-
tions of moral or social problems. September
Morn is nothing more than an artist's impres-
sion of beauty. And the boys who went to "Time
of Desire" for a racy evening were not satisfied.
Why should these works have been banned?
Their supposed obscenity can only be attributed
to a curious inversion of American taste which
has been shaped to accept the unacceptable
when sugar-coated, and to reject the truth
when firmly stated.
It is ironic to realize that only through re-
jection were they made important.
THEY OUGHT to see a good psychiatrist.
And as a matter of fact, since last week, several psychiatrists have
been looking at them. The state legislators' behavior, these anonymous
psychiatrists say, is abnormal.
Three Detroit psychiatrists and two psychologists, whose analysis
has been passed on in a Detroit newspaper, suggest that the legislators
are psychotic. Conflict between the Republican lawmakers on one side
and Gov. G. Mennen Williams and his Democrats on the other side has
intensified to the point where the antagonists see only their hatred.
Both are continually frustrated by the opposite party's tactics, and the
reaction in both camps is merely the overwhelming desire to hit back.
Nothing is important to the legislators except the conflict; the
psychiatrists note. The welfare of the state, duty to constituents, all
is forgotten in intense blinding hatred.
A new leader may result from the conflict, they say, and he won't
necessarily be a good one. One analyst explained, "In groups, the be-
havior of the group falls to the level of the leader who will deviate
most from normal-the level of the one with the greatest hostility."
Deadlock could be resolved with the emergence of this new leader.
If psychosis in the legislature continues to disease what one psychiatrist
called its "provincial and in some respects naive" members, the new
political leader is in the making.
MEANWHILE, IN IONIA, Michigan, the hospital for the criminally
insane is suffering from a severe overload. With no pay a reality, its
supervisors have set a ceiling on number of patients to be admitted-
despite the numbers that are every day committed to the place from
courts of law and prisons.
The hospital is operating with two psychiatrists and- three physi-
cians, which its staff says should be at least doubled to provide adequate
rehabilitation. Further, 1,483 patients are crowded into facilities de-
signed to handle 1,223. Officials say they hope the already tense situa-
tion does not become explosive.
COULD BE THAT the people in Lansing are not looking out for
their own better interests.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Statements on SGC
'y CAPITAL COMMENTARY:
New ove P aganda Drive
3 By WILLIAM S. WHITE
-- The ill-con-
[HEY WERE LINED up beyond the exit at.
the Cinema Guild Saturday night. Crowds
f. stag males had come to see "Time of Desire,"
rimarily because it had been banned in Ann
rbor shortly before.
The ones who had come to see obscenity were
isappointed. The film was delicate and well-
andled. It sold because it had been banned,
s art has always been easily sold when banned
y the local authorities.
Banning helped sell September Morn, a pic-
ure of a nude woman which was skyrocketed to
iccess by a clever press-agent wh6 managed to
rouse the Bostoncensors. It helped sell Lady
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
ySuccess and Failure
By WALTER LIPPMANN
ceased actions 0 fSoviet-bloc
spokesmen here are making it
plain that Moscow has loosed a
major propaganda offensive to dis-
credit the Big Four foreign mini-
sters' conference before it meets.
There are three easily identified
preliminary targets. The first tar-
get is the whole traditional process
of Western diplomacyiron Cur-
tain diplomats are saying in effect,
that the world has no further real
use of foreign. ministers. They are
arguing first that all present East-
West issues, like the Berlin crisis,
cannot be settled by negotiations
among foreign ministers but only
at summit meetings of heads of
state. And they are going on to
suggest even that all subsequent
issues of consequence also must
have a single place of settlement,
The second target of interna-
tional communism's campaign is
all "military thinking"-including,
for the moment at least, even So-
viet military thinking: The line
is that all military men are quite
out of date because scientific and
intellectual advances have outrun
The third target is a single per-
son, our new Secretary of State,
Christian_ A. Herter. Soviet-bloc
officials are pointing to him as one
foreign minister who, perhaps
more even than all the others
"lacks political power." The fact,
of course, is that this is extraor-
dinarily untrue. Mr. Herter's base
of domestic political support is ac-
tually the greatest of any Secre-
tary since Cordell Hull in the days
of Franklin D. Roosevelt. (Perhaps,
parenthetically, this is exactly why
Soviet-block spokesmen are urging
the exact reverse.)
S * *
THIS PSYCHOLOGICAL cam-
paign is being directed not pri-
marily at the public but rather,
toward Washington officialdom,
the press and opinion-influencers
in general. Soviet-bloc diplomats
are making themselves extensively
"available" in off-the-record gath-
erings to which they are speak-
ing with unusual care and preci-
sion and, under obvious prior in-
Toward the people generally,
meanwhile, international commu-
nism is turning an increasingly
"reasonable" face. No doubt this
is because international commu-
nism wishes to keep the people's
trusts in what is clearly the only
'N COMMENTING on the approaches to
Geneva and to the summit there is a tempta-
on. to which all of us are subject. It is to apply
oo soon and too often the test of success or
ailure. The-negotiations which have now begun.
ill last for, a long time. They could last for a
eneration. In the course of that long time
here will be many changes which cannot now
e foreseen clearly. For what is being begun now
y the statesmen of the older generation will
robably not be concluded until there is a new
There* is no present prospect, that the nego-
ations will "succeed," if by that is meant that
hey will produce a final settlement of the Ger-
tan problem. On the other hand, there is no
rospect, it seems to me, that they will "fail,"
by that is meant that there will be no more
egotiations and that this will be followed by
>me sort of mobilization for war. We must
d ourselves of the rubber stamp notions of
iccess and failure. The German problem is at
resent insoluble. No theoretical solutionof it
ould be worth a great war to either side, and
oth sides know that the question could not be
ttled by a war. The world has to live with
he German question, producing as best it can
nd from time to time a modus vivendi with-
it any serious expectation of a settlement.
'HE GERMAN question lies in the fact that
the German Reich, as- founded by Bismark
1 1871, has been partitioned as a result of the
efeat of Hitler. Berlin, which was the capital
the old 'German Reich, has itself been par-
tioned. The partition of Germany is the con-
quence of the second World War, and it
uld become the cause of the third World War. .
We ask ourselves, could the partition of
ermiany have been avoided? No one knows the
aswer. For this is just about the "iffiest"
RICHARD TAUB. Editor
CHAEL KRAFT JOHN WEIGHER
itorial Director City Editor
LLE CANTOR.............-...... Personnel Director
AN WILLOUGHBY ..... Associate Editorial Director
AN JONES....... Sports Editor
ATA JORGENSON ..... Associate City Editor
,IZABETH'ERSKINE ... Associate Personnel Director
question in world affairs. What we can say is
that the Red Army coming irom, the East,
the Allied army coming from the West. met
in the middle of Germany. They would not
have met if Hitler had not attacked Russia
and brought her into the war. They would not
have met if the Allies, including the United
States, had been strong enough to occupy the
whole of Germany before the Russians got
there. The fact is, however, that they did get
there and that the West got there and that
was how Hitler's Reich was conquered.
WAS PARTITION the necessary and the in-
evitable result? Here again all is "iffiness."
Was it from the beginning the Soviet intention
to dismember Germany? Or would the Soviet
Union once upon a time have settled for a neu-
tralized and lightly armed united Germany,
hoping, of course, that the German Commu-
nists would infiltrate the German socialists, and
eventually rule the whole of Germany? On
the other hand, were the Western Allies wise
in thinking that this risk was so great that, in-
stead of working -for an evacuation by the Red
Army, they insisted upon the rearmament of
Western Germany in alliance with their own
forces? Questions such as these are no longer
real questions. Europe has out-lived them and
what we are now facing is the historic fact
that there are Two Germanys and two Berlins.
the German crisis of today is the crisis of the
adjustment of the great powers to the parti-
tion of Germany.
The adjustment will be a very complicated
experience. For the partition of Germany is as
great an historic event as was the unification
of Germany under Bismark. The adjustment to-
this historic fact involves on both sides of the
Iron Curtain some kind of recognition of most
unpalatable facts. On the Western side it in-
volves a recognition that there are two German
states. On the Russian side it involves a recog-
nition that there are two Berlins, and that West
Berlin must remain a part of the Western com-
The acceptance of these unpalatable facts,
and their recognition in legal instruments
which are enforcible, will be the core of the
coming negotiations. The object of the nego-
tiations will be a modus vivendi which, while it
recognizes that there is in fact a partition of
Germany, keeps alive the right and the hope
of an eventual reunion.
(c) 1959 New York Herald Tribune Inc.
kind of East-West solutions the
Soviet bloc now really intends to
accept-that is, solutions at the
Not often, however, if ever, have
Soviet spokesmen in semi-private
talks shown so brutal a candor as,
they are showing now. They are
giving notice to Secretary Herter,
and other Western leaders now in
Paris to prepare for the foreign
ministers' conference, that if the
conference reaches any success it
will be a complete accident, if not
This is not the least of the rea-
sons why all concerned at Paris,
are making such earnest efforts to
heal all Allied divisions on the
proper approach to the Russians.
OF THE present three-headed
Soviet-bloc approach. itself, the
most arresting point is the way its
spokesmen are dealing with the
"military thinkers." For a long
time, it will be recalled, the very
highest Soviet figures, including
Nikita Khrushchev himself, spoke
boldly of Soviet missiles as offering
the most undebatable reasons why
the West must come to terms. Now,
the Soviet story is the reverse.
Now, the story goes like this:
The "real danger" to mankind
does not lie in "any" weaponry.
Rather, it lies only in the failure
of political leaders to keep up with
scientific advances. Thus, we must
beware the "military thinkers."
For these are trying to hold good
policy, meaning "peace" policy,
down to their own outmoded no-
So, in summary, these are the
1. To takehworld diplomacy for
good out of the relatively calm and
professional atmosphere of foreign
ministerial negotiation and to put
it all in the hands of a succession
of summit metings. Summit meet-
ings, any and all of them, will be
more subject to the world's emo-
tional pressures if only because
any free leader will find it hard to
say no to popular hopes under the
white, constant light of total pub-
2. To make the West no longer
willing to listen to what are, after
all, its ultimate experts in the
science of survival, the military
(Copyright 1959, by United
Feature Syndicate, Inc.)
To the Editor:
IN THE DEBATE, "Should SGC
Be Abolished?", I did not advo-
cate replacing this body with a
Hyde Park, as The Daily reported.
I was also careful not to mention
England in connection with this
recreation-garden. I did advocate
abolishing SGC altogether, believ-
ing that no vacuum would be
formed thereupon. This campus is
full of laws and institutions; dis-
solving SGC would amount to a
healthy appendix operation. This.
is a position to be taken by re-
sponsible students on campus, and
not by a "foreign anarchist" - as
I was painted.
As stated by a Council member
participating in the debate, SGC
"upholds the rules . . ." set by the
Regents. This body governs only,
because the administration gave it
permission to 'uphold' some Uni-
versity laws, and not because it
has a democratic voting body be-
hind it. On this campus, members
of "Judic", maintain the drinking
regulations (which they them-
selves might not believe in); SGC
enforces other superimposed Uni-
versity laws, yet undefined.
Deep psychological m o t i ve s
drive students to run for offices-
ego-boosting, excess energy
Students thus motivated have pro-
duced debates, SBX, plays and
balls. We should thank these con-
structive officers. . However, if
people run for "glorified police-
man" offices, as members of Judic
.or SGC, let-the University's regu-
lators thank them. As a student,
I do not feel democratically rep-
resented by a body trying to force
laws imposed from outside - by
the Regents - upon me.
Further, if SGC did not uphold
any rule, the campus would not
suffer. We are in the process of
looking for the territory where the
Council could govern or control,
whereas the campus is still quite
disciplined. It could be my "for-
eign anarchism" which drives me
to state that the process of first
electing officers and then forming
their offices, is slightly illogical.
-Michael Bentwich, Grad.
Radicals . . .
To the Editor:
GOD FORBID that there should
be "radicals" on campus and
since the All-Miglty seems to have
been negligent in his duties, it has
been proposed that the adminis-
tration assume them. To facilitate
this, we recommend the following
steps to be taken in removing this
threat to our "present excellant
reputation as an educational in-
1) All student organizations
should be banned; an early curfew
set and a prohibition be placed:on
all gatherings in excess of four
2) The student body ought'to be
restricted to those who come from
a true conservative background,
(i.e., parents who voted for Al
3) All courses encouraging origi-
nal thinking should be dropped
and curriculum be limited to.sci-
ence and the reading of Time
4) Foreign and out of state stu-
dents ought to be excluded as they
may spread subversive ideas about
the broader nature of a univer-
5)- The Bissel brothers must be
exiled to East Lansing and/or be
hung in effigy on the Diag.
6) And all students should be
compelled to read "Masters of
Deceit" by J. Edgar Hoover and a
forthcoming article by Mr. Ohlson
Jr. entitled, "Freedom of Speech
in a Democracy
Should this arogram fail to ap-
neal to the administration, we sug-
gest that Mr. Onison be sent back
to grade school to learn the ele-
mentary workings of the ;demo-
cratic process which he apparently
hae never learned.
-Arthur Rosenbaum, '60
-Martin Hoffert, '60E
Definition . .
To the Editor:
MR. OHLSON'S recent definition
of the term "radical" is in
itself quite a radical departure
from anything heard in some time.
If one accepts his statement that
anyone who takes part in pressure
group activities is per se a radical,
then it is inescapable that we must
consider the Natiohal Association
of Manufacturers, 'the National
Chamber of Commerce (and the
Junior Chamber), the American
Medical Association, America's In-
dependent Light and Power Com-
panes, the old America First, and
a countless listof comparable or-
ganizations as the most radical of
-John Woodruff, '60
Passover . .
To the, Editor:
BEHOLD ! Passover has come to
campus. It is nice to see that
the Quadrangles are so observant
of religious holidays. For example,
every Friday, like clockwork, we
eat fish, like it or not. During the
lenten season as little meat as pos-
sible and necessary to, keep body
and soul together are dished out.
Now, in the.important season of
Passover, the Quadrangles have
again thoughtfully provided- for
the religious observance of their
residents. For what to our wonder-
ing eyes should appear but a min-
iature tray and some real, honest-
to-goodness matzoh as we went
through the dinner line, How
Perhaps to make sandwiches
with the pork chops that were
.. . launches drive
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:.
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
NEGOTIATIONS between labor
and management in the Amer-
ican steel industry have a direct
bearing on the nation's interna-
Here's how it works:
Labor contends that it must
have higher wages and other bene-
Management claims these can
be paid only through higher prices.
The government claims that ris-
ing steel prices would inevitably
be the beginning of another round
of wage-price increases across the
nation contributing to inflation.
This would aggravate other
One of these problems is that
high American prices have caused
a sluggishness in world markets
for American exports.
At the same time the United
States ever the years has been
gradually opening its doors to
more products from other coun-
tries. There is a desire to strength-
en America's allies for the cold
* * *
NOW TTWRF IS nn imhhgannc
States are therefore afraid that
the United States, to prevent any-
thing like a crisis from developing,
might cut import quotas and take
other steps to balance her trade
These possibilities have been a.
major topic of discussion abroad
Both the spirit and the ability
needed to meet common front
obligations will be affected by the
* * * *
THE STEEL negotiations come
just a few days after economic
experts meeting under the aus-
pices of Columbia University raised
questions as to whether inflation
in an expanding economy is as
attributable to the wage-price
spiral as to more fundamental
Some have begun to ask if the
spiral itself is,not inherent in an
economy with consumer demand
for increases in plant capacity to
be paid for out of prices.
Some also are asking whether
one cause may be a heavy world
investment in wasteful products-
war materials which must be soon
replaced as obsolescent without