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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
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Y, FEBRUARY 22, 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: LANE VANDERSLICE
Burying Head. in Sand
Cannot Prevent Rockets Above
USSIA IS AHEAD in space. Will these fate-
ful words have to be spelled by Soviet
ckets on the moon before America's top lead-
s face the realization that the United States
Des not still maintain a lead in space?
Only lesser officials have come out saying we
*e behind. Last Friday, Dr. Hugh L. Dryden,
eputy Administrator of the National Aeronau-
cs and Space Administration said to Congress
at the Russians have the capability of sending
manned missile on a round trip into space
fore the United States. A statement such as
is one might have accomplished something
)nstructive had President Dwight D. Eisen-
:wer said it publicly, but since he didn't it
ill undoubtedly have little impact on the
The country has refused to become shocked
- bothered by facts of Russian superiority in
ie field of missile development. Even the early
ccesses of the Russian's Sputniks failed to
ir the United States to a point *where there
could be demands on a speedup in the missile
. u.... .. . .... ,.. .. ,....,y- _ ,...r -
S COTCH. ..STRAIG]
BECAUSE of the nature of the state's largest
source of income,, those who appropriate
money to the University frequently think of it
in purely industrial terms.
They think of efficiency, plant, the eight-hour
day-in short, the method of producing the
most (the greatest number of students) for
Understandably, this irritates people con-
nected with the University, because they see
their mission in considerably less crass terms.
YET, MAYBE it is about time that the tables
were turned, that the University started
using those terms itself-that with the current
appropriations of the State Legislature the Uni--
versity is actually as inefficient as can be, that
it is spending capital rather than income, and
one can draw on capital for so long before there
is nothing left.
An industry can for a short period of time live
off its capital. The harmful effects are subtle,
and frequently cannot be detected. But the
industrialist wakes up one morning to find that
he has nothing left:.
The same is even more true for a University.
The University's' product is much less tangible
than that of an automobile firm-and it is
more difficult to tell when a University is doing
a good job, and when it is not doing quite as
The University is not producing automobiles,
but if it does its job well it is not producing
diplomas either.. If should be producing -the
mature tough-minded, individual thinker who
will mak'e the valuable citizen.
THE UNIVERSITY'S greatest single capital
resource is the faculty. A good faculty mem-
ber represents a major investment of the Uni-
versity. As' a machine -produces parts which go
:to make up the automobile, the good faculty
member helps to develop the proper product
of the University.
But no industry worth its salt is satisfied
with theniachines it has. It is continually doing
research to improve them, it is trying to find
better replacements as the old ones wear out,
and if not better ones, those which are just as
good. The industry makes the most it can from
the best machines. But the most here means
that the industry runs the machine at the speed
at which it is most effective. A lathe is not run
so fast that it breaks the cutting bit, or fails
to give the proper finish.
All this holds true for a University as well.
Here again, because the product is less tangible,
the signs are also less tangible.
AUNIVERSITY is as good as its faculty and
can never be content with what it has. The
faculty members themselves must be given time
to do research, to improve themselves and hence
to do ,a better job. Further, as the older men
retire, bright young ones must be trained to
take their place; and when men leave, replace-
ments must be found.
+ '~fly u
program. For some reason, possibly founded on
a strong sense of nationalism, most Americans
seemed to feel that the small Explorers and
Vanguards that were finally tossed into space
equalled the massive Soviet satellites already
ORE OF THE BLAME must fall on top
officials in the Republican Administration.
Consistently they have belittled Soviet missile
achievements while building up those of the
United States. Even when the Russians man-
aged to send up a satellite containing a dog, the
Administration branded it a publicity stunt,
with little real value to science.
For the United States to regain the scientific
lead it once held, it will first be necessary to
face up to the reality of the present situation:
the Russians are ahead in several aspects of
the space race. As long as this admission is not
-made, the United States will continue to fall
farther behind Russia.
H[T By Richard Taub
In addition, each faculty member must be as
efficient as he can. But efficiency here does not
mean turning out the most students-it means
turning out the most best students.
THE LEGISLATURE by a paltry appropria-
tion not only forces the University to deplete
its capital, but also forces it to be inefficient in
Fewer faculty members means that classes
are larger. Five more students in a class may
mean that the teacher will decide not to assign
a term paper to the class-it may mean that he
will be forced to give a less rigorous examina-
tion because it is easier to read, or he may
neglect the task of correcting papers to a reader
who is not nearly as good as he is.
Increase the size of the class, or increase the
class load,,and the faculty member not only has
less time to do research, but less time to spend
with each student-less time to talk to him
in his office perhaps. And yet, just as tests
and term papers did, the time a teacher can
spend with an individual student may make
a major contribution to that student's develop-
Give the student more courses per semester,
so that he spends more time utilizing the plant,
and he has less time to think, read, and grow,
The difficulty about all this is that the "added
value" the University gives to the student is
hardly measurable at all. But it is there! Just as
surely as that grotesque, big finned monster
parked out front is there.
'CUTTING CORNRS to cut costs makes no
more sense in the academic world than it
does in industry.
Of course, sometimes a cut which seems
detrimental may in fact turn out to increase
efficiency. For instance, the reduced budget in
the general library led to open stacks for all
It may have appeared "more efficient" to
have tan coated lads scurrying about the stacks,
quickly sending the books by conveyor to the
waiting student at the desk.
But it really may be more efficient, in the
University's terms, to allow the student to won-
der about the poorly ventilated narrow path-
ways, to find some unlooked-for book and sit
cross-legged in the dimly lit corridor while the
time races by. He may never even get the book
he wanted, but this is really more efficient.
But it is also more efficient to have millions
of books in the library, even if many of them
don't get read in five years, or even ten.
For as any industry tries to have the widest
variety of necessary resources at its command,
so must the University.
Cutting down on University appropriations,
so the University "makes better use of what
it has" may be good up to a point, but after
that, it can lead to bankruptcy.
New Books at the Library
Gordimer, Nadine-A World of Strangers;
N.Y., Simon and Schuster, 1958.
Jackson, Shirley-The Sundial; N.Y., Farrar,
Straus & Cudahy, 1958.
Lin Yutang-The Secret Name; N.Y., Farrar,
Straus & Cudahy, 1958.
Morris, James-South African Winter; N.Y.,
Pantheon Books, 1958.
Overstreet, Harry & Bonaro-What We Must
Know About Communism; N.Y., W. W. Horton,
Samuels, Ernest-Henry Adams; Cambridge,
Belknap Press of Harvard Univ., 1958.
Sansom, William-The Cautious Heart; N.Y.,
Reynal & Co., 1958.
R .rin~nA ifv, R_ Thla Prvd .. sssA
OFF CAMPUS, WINTER STILL RETAINS ITS CHARM-A FARM ON GEDDES ROAD
DULLES AND THE COLD WAR:
The Changing Balance of Power
THE GROWING PRESSURES:
individual Last Defense
Against Materialistc Tide
By MICHAEL KRAFT
Daily Editorial Director
N A WORLD of practical concerns, where success finds its measure
in recreation rooms and new automobiles, the academic community
usually prides itself, almost snobbishly, in its position as an island of
Slowly but surely, even these outcroppings are being eroded by the
endless rains of expediency. The universities and colleges are losing,
if indeed they ever had it, their position of uniqueness in a world where
those activities considered most important are the ones with the most
To be sure, people still explore in doctoral theses such things as
"The Organization, Administration and Training of the United States
Volunteer Militia, 1792-1861" or "El Tema Sel Pirata en La Novela
And traditionally, those who want to measure their success in gold
have been welcome to the scales. The Islands of idealism could provide
havens for those who seek to live and work for something they consider
more important, as monasteries provided a more secluded atmosphere'
in the past.
BUT MODERN transport~tion and communication work' wondeis.
What the sneers of the muttonheads and the practical people have been
unable to do ever since ThomasHuxley derided "mere intellectual edu-
cation" back in 1880, the practical business of "self defense"' is about
to achieve. Tremendous pressures, much of it in the nearly unresistable
form of "patriotism" are crunching the ideals of a liberal education and
the pursuit of what is interesting but not practical.
* , , *
ACTUALLY, the deterioration has long been evident and the ideal
that universities are idealistic may have never been attained.
If members of the academic world are really so unconcerned about
money, there would be little resulting concern about faculty salaries
and raiding between staffs. And the academic world always "enjoys"'
its own form of materialistic standards. Students are measured in grade
points of average and faculty members in pages of publication.
But more recently, the pressure is wearing away even the ideal of
"knowledge for its own sake." The recent proposal by a state legislator
that students help finance a bond plan for buildings by post-graduation
payments because they'll be making more money, and after all, educa-
tion is an investment, only reflects a prevalent attitude toward a college
* * * *
ONE STATE SCHOOL, which perhaps has never really prided itself
on a liberal approach, has already succumbed. D. B. Varner, chancellor
of the Michigan State University Oakland, a branch opening this fall
near Pontiac, announced last week that the 600 members of the initial
freshman class will not be required to take Freshman English. The
following is reprinted from the Thursday issue of the Pontiac Press:
"'I know this would be a radical departure from traditional college
curricula and perhaps is a controversial step. But if the students don't.
know their native tongue after using it for 18 years, it's too late for us
in college to teach it to them.
"'the cost angle has been figured in too, Varner said.
"Educational dollars are scarce nowadays. We don't want to spend
them teaching students what they should have learned before they
came to us.
". . .students, he said, will frankly be encouraged to study Russian
as a foreign language.
"Speaking realistically. the study of Russian must be emphasized if
we are to make a real attempt to equip our college youth for the years
* $ * *
IGNORED OF COURSE in the desire to save educational dollars
is that, at least for some, Freshman English is the first time the student's
thinking and writing undergoes close examination. "Speaking realisti-
cally," most high school students have had little exposure to thinking.
MSU's choice of equipment for the years ahead is positively frightening,
But as with Rep. Bowerman's proposal for study now, pay later, this
is only a reflection of a commonly shared approach ... namely that
education is a process one hurries through, taking the most "realistic"
Unfortunately, the mounting pressures of practicality are increasing
EVEN THE MOST determined resistance cannot completely ignore
the barest needs, that of making enough money to afford the luxury of
intellectual inquiry. But without a continual image of something worth
enjoying for its own sake, there is little fun in being practical . . . there's
nothing left to work for.
However, only people, not governments or administrations are
really concerned about the "full" life. Thus, the last bulwark of educa-
tion for its own sake lies within the individual student who is determined
to explore as much as possible as deeply as possible whenever possible.
Unfortunately, the world's increasing specialization and pressures
is decreasing the realm of possibility, As education expands 'as a national
or practical necessity, it shrinks as an individual pleasure. And when
the idealism crumbles, so does part of man himself.
By JOHN M. HIGHTOWER
Associated Press News Analyst
W ASHINGTON - The great
problem which John Foster
Dulles - or his successor at the
State Department - must face in
the next two years is the changing
balance of power btween Russia
and the United States. In indus-
trial and space-age military pro-
duction, the Soviet Union is mov-
ing up very fast.
Since the beginning of the cold
war, United States political and
military policy has been used on a
power balance in favor of the
Western allies. The basic assump-
tion has been that Russia would
use its military power to promote
political expansion if it dared, but
it didn't dare. In January 1954
Dulles gave this concept a name:
About 1 months ago concern
over the reliability of this doctrine
as a mainstay of world peace
spread through the western camp.
There were three reasons. In Au-
gust 1957 Russia announced suc-
cessful testing of an intercon-
tinental ballistic missile. On the
following Oct. 4 it launched its
historic Sputnik, the first man-
* * *
THE UNITED STATES military
response to these Soviet achieve-
ments has been to begin putting
nuclear missiles into NATO terri-
tory in Europe, where Allied gov-
ernments agreed to receive them,
and to speed up missile and de-
velopment production programs
and ICBM bases in this country.
Within a few years the great pow-
ers will have ample weapons on
both sides to destroy each other
overnight, with an initial advan-
tage accruing to the attacker.
The direct answer to this condi-
tion of peril seems to be some form
of disarmament backed up by in-
ternational inspection against sur-
prise attack. Dulles and President
Dwight D. Eisenhower along with
Allied leaders have tried to nego-
tiate disarmament pacts with Rus-
sia. But all efforts have failed to
date because Soviet leaders charge
that any inspection system which
would be effective in Western eyes
is merely a device for spying in
In October 1957, after the first
Sputnik spun into orbit, Dulles
alerted his associates in the State
Department to watch out for
Soviet probings of Allied unity and
security around the world. They
did not have long to wait. Premier
Nikita Khrushchev's first move
was to try to force a summit meet-
ing. The belief here was that he
aimed at maneuvering the West-
ern powers into recognizing Soviet
domination of Eastern Europe, in-
cluding East Germany.
IN MEETING this crisis Dulles
followed a philosophy he expound-
ed early in his term as Secretary
of State. It has come to be known
as "brinkmanship" after he talked
in a magazine interview about the
necessity of going "to the brink"
of war in order to make another
nation back down when it threat-
This has been a consistent theme
in all his talk about the basic
policy of the United States in the
"Free people," he said in May
1954, "will never remain free un-
less they are willing to fight for
their vital interests."
"It is our policy," he said in a
speech last December, "to check
said in February 1955, "I believe
it will come - when Russians of
stature will patriotically put first
their national security and the
welfare of their people. They will
be unable to have that security and
that welfare subordinated to the
worldwide ambitions of interna-
"If their point of view should
pyevail, then indeed there could
be a basis for worthwhile negotia-
tion and practical agreement be-
tween the United States and the
AT A RECENT news conference,
however, Dulles dealt with the
other side of the coin. He said the
move by the Soviets beginning last
November to oust the Western
powers from Berlin demonstrated
that they cannot be trusted to
keep agreements. But agreements
with the Soviets are acceptable if
they can be made self-enforcing,
he added, and the Western powers
must explore every opportunity
for making such agreements as
One of the most persistent criti-
cisms of Dulles is that he has not
been willing to negotiate enough.
He usually has sought evidence of
serious intent on Russia's part be-
fore going to the conference table.
And he has worried about the risk
of being pushed by peace-hungry
public opinion over the world into
"One ever-present danger," he
said in November 1954, "is the
danger of being fooled into drop-
ping our guard before the peril is
Last month, discussing Soviet
demands for negotiations on Ger-
many, he put the same idea this
way: "I have seen nothing so far
which leads me to feel that there
is a genuine desire to end the cold
war. There is a eery strong desire
to delude us into thinking the cold
war is ended."
Dulles has given United States
foreign policy the deep imprint of
these ingredients of his own think-"
ing-long-range hope about win-
ning out in the end, eternal vigi-
lance against being lured into an
unworkable agreement, and the
will together with the arms to
fight if Russia's challenge ever
goes that far. These fundamentals
will carry over into the coming
years whether his hand or another
charts the course.
REACH CYPRUS AGREEMENT:
NATO .breach Healed
By PETER DAWSON
Daily Staff Writer
OVERCOMING Archbishop Makarios' last-minute objections, last
week's London round table on Cyprus completed the general ar-
rangements for an independent republic of Cyprus.
The terms of the agreement are a fairly even compromise among
the demands of Greece, Turkey and Britain. Greece and the; Greek
Cypriots gave up in September their demand that Cyprus unite with
They are also allowing Britain to retain sovereignty over the ter-
ritory of her military bases instead of having to merely lease them.
As for Turkey and the Turkish
Cypriots, they have abandoned
their insistence that the island be
partitioned if the British leave.
They had insisted on this out of
fear that the Greek Cypriot ma-
jority might dominate them:
Britain is giving up a Crown
Colony. Yet she is keeping her
military bases, the only ones she
completely controls in the east-.
* * *
ARRANGEMENTS for the legis-
lature, a unicameral one, give the
Greek Cypriots a clear majority-
70 per cent of the seats. Yet the
Turkish Cypriots will have fuller
representation than the Greeks,
for they make up only 18 per cent
of the island's population.
Cyprus will have a Greek-
Cypriot president and a Turkish-
Cypriot vice-president. The latter
will be able to veto policies af-
fecting Turkish security and the
Turkish Cypriots. How well these
officers will work together re-
mains to be seen.
If the republic is successful, it
will mean the permanent end of
almost four years' terrorism on
the island. More important, it will
heal the breach between Turkey
and Greece, which has substan-
tially weakened the eastern arm
THE REPUBLIC will have no
easy time of it. Dissension with-
in the government may handicap
it. Opposition to its policies may
give it trouble too. Greek Cypriots
will be disappointed not to get
union with Greece. Turkish Cyp-
WASHINGTON -General of the Japanese were then be
Army George C. Marshall pis in the Pacific as the Ge
sick with a great sickness and with beating at us, with a
his life a gallant and a lost era is evil, in Europe.)
coming to its close. This was the They said later-the
era of the second World War, in ticians of the Repub
which Marshall, without ever hav- wing said it-that M
ing a field command at all, served gone to promote come
so nobly and so well. to push into an abyss t
He was the Secretary of State and the last power ofc
who gave his name to the Marshall in the far Pacific,
Plan for the postwar recovery of China.
Europe. He served also as Secre- They called him, Mar
tary of Defense. But before this terrible things; I rem
he had been Chief of Staff of the the then Senator Will
United States Army. And, though of Indiana called N
this post in Washington's hier- front man for traitors
archy was far below the others he lie."
had held, it was this post which This was perhaps
most of all he honored in his brutal thing ever said
private thoughts. 'history of passionateX
This was the man-this rather
thin and grey and coldly kind mili.-
tary man - who more than any
other on this side of the oceanx
brought to an end to Hitler and
to Tojo and to all the evil power
that they had represented.
IT WAS THIS man also, with
Will Clayton of Texas, and others 3
now lost from public sight - who
made the plan for which a Europe,
then spent and broken, has nowk
come upon a new life of strength-
11 in Last Fight
gAM S. WHITE
eating at us
he last hope
our last ally
.. . a living
in our long
about a man who was as great a
patriot and as great a gentleman
as we have ever known.
Marshall had given up, to a man
named Dwight D. Eisenhower, the
glory of the top command in
Europe when we were all fighting
Hitler. Marshall, with a quiet and
heartbreaking loyalty to the great
common cause, had stayed in
Washington to be only Chief of
Staff of the United States Army.t
Through these years he had stuck
here at his post, a soldier quietly
doing the best he could while other
and lesser men put their names
and their marksrupon history.
He stayed here and he stayed
with his duty. And the men who
were full of rancor had their way
with him in Congress. They taunt-
ed him, they screamed at him, they
did everything of hate that could
be done against any man any-
Marshall, the soldier, stayed
quiet - and, as always - did the
very best he could.
* * **
NOT IN ALL our history has
one man done, in a military way,
so much for all of us. And surely
never in all our history has one
man been so ill rewarded for all
that he had done.
Now, in the . Army hospital at
Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Gen-
RICHARD TAUB, Editor
E CANTOR.................Personnel Director
K WILLOUGHBY .... Associate Editorial Director
N1 JONES ...............Sports Editor
TA JORGENSON.........Associate City Editor
ABETH ERSKINE ... Associate Personnel Director
OLEMAN..... ..Associate Sports Editor
ID ARNOLD .,...............Chief Photographer