By CHARLES KO
"We shall not meet the So-
viet challenge unless we stop
looking at the underdeveloped
nations as military bulwarks
and bastions and adopt a new
and different objective in the
"If the United States wants
to stop the Communists it
must work at winning friends
without asking them to be our
military allies. To overcome
the Soviet's rapid-fire devel-
opment program, this country
must rely on more humane
methods of treating coun-
'tries." --Walter Lippmann
IN HIS RECENT book, "Th'
Communist World and Ours,
Lippmann suggests a policy gearet
more to individuals than nations
A personal touch is implied, bu
unfortunately many of the gov
ernment's aid programs must bi
large scale in nature.
Charles Kozoll is a night
editor on The Michigan Daily.
Behind this approach is the be- innately beneficial, is self-help.
lief that the rehabilitated family These projects are sponsored by
can eventually assume care of the the philanthropic groups but car-
child. Making way for needier ried out in large measure by the
children, the voluntary organiza- local villagers,
tions do not subsidize continually "Self-help . . . Lebanese style"
F! but help individuals to earn their is one example of assistance that
own way Save the Children Federation has
Part of this general fund is also carried on since 1932 throughout
used to continue aiding a child if Asia, Europe and the Near East:
his adopted parent or parents "
withdraw support. Monies can also "In the village of Aktaneet.h.
ZOLL be set aside for emergencies such fathers build a road for their chil-
as the influx of refugees into dren's future, Now, a doctor can
South Korea visit regularly . .. produce can be
To fill the important gap which area, ethnic or religious group or Sot Korea marketed profitably and increased
otnsprtsfrinntoasSome eight million Koreans etdpoialanicrsd
often separates foreign nationals particular cause, or to a wide va- have fled the Communist section revenue will be used to improve
from the mainstream of American riety of interests, of the country, causing a tremen- the village's crop potential. The
life, fifty-seven voluntary organ- The American Bureau for Medi- dous strain on existing relief village of Aktaneet looks forward
izations are working to prove that cal Aid to China and the Amer- agencies. Emergency allotments to a better life for its children,
Americans are interested in other ican Fund for Czechoslovak Refu- have been used to set up refugee through widening benefits of self-
countries, not for their supply of gees are two groups dealing with camps, provide medical facilities help.
oil or their strategic location, but particular foreign problems. and care for the schooling of the The Federation's work in Leb-
for the people who live there. Organizations serving in many children anon has been extremely success-
Coordinating this philanthropic areas will often try to delve into ful because it seeks to alleviate
activity, the International Coop- two general sectors, allowing con- LARGER organizations often di- problems permanently by utiliz-
eration Administration of the tributors to specify use of their rect aid to a school, hospital or ing village labor and resources.
State Department officially regis- donations. missionary. Some 34 countries in Diplomatic observers have found
ters the groups and publicizes The plan which allows indi- the world have homes which are that villages tend to resent Amer-
their work, providing the public viduals or groups to sponsor ba- backed by American funds. ican ways and American technical
with information on how dona- bies, children or schools has the Christian Children's Fund is an experts.
tions could be used. Actual work greatest emotional appeal. Kappa example of a philanthropic group Despite their efficiency, the
is done by the Advisory Commit- Alpha Theta and Delta Gamma which divides its assistance into high-speed methods destroy the
tee on Voluntary Foreign Aid ,sororities are two local groups two areas. Some of the homes are pride that local nationals have in
e which succeeded the President's which have been participating owned and operated by the Fund. their own work. This seems to
War Relief Control Board in 1946. through the Foster Parents' Plan Others are only affiliated with the be the reason why self-help works,
d Steered by federal regulations, Inc. Fund. though it moves at a slow pace
the Advisory Committee checks Choosing a young girl in Greece Affiliated groups are required to compared to the work of technical
t the projects which can involve two years ago, Delta Gamma con- meet standards set by the world- agencies.
- health, education, welfare, agri- tributes $180 anually to her sup- wide organization and are in-
e culture, industry, emigration and port. Kappa Alpha Theta has spected constantly to see that AGENCY advisors facilitate the
resettlement. been caring for a Korean girl for these standards are being met. project by encouraging the vil-
15 years. Amounts donated usually depend lage people to formulate a goal or
ENCOMPASSING some or all of There are many such groups on the location of an orphanage goals and then work to implement
the above categories of assist- which sponsor children and get to (those in economic critical areas them
ance, organizations will probably kinow them through correspond- of the world will receive more aid) The fund may then provide aid
direct aid either to one specific ence over a period of years. Lan- and conditions in the area. with a grant or possibly a loan
- geuge barriers are eliminated by In these areas, a general fund while the village contributes labor
the controlling agency serving as is used for maintenance and con-
translating middle-man. stant improvement of the facili- funds.
ties besides alloting a specific An agreement is then drawn up
INDIVIDUALS unable to support amount per child. Other factors concerning the income-producing
a child often donate to a gen- provide for special help to chil- project. Such contracts have three
eral fund which "aids children dren not living at home; in these significant principles by which
over and above their usual needs" situations welfare centers are used they are governed:
Medical care takes up a large to care for the child, 1) An agreed-upon percentage
'portion of the funds with empha- of the increased annual income is
is on raring foi othei membeis of HE SECOND general category eamthe rsern icome is
the child's rfamily, f'of aid and probably the most er-.Tarked fo p roi e to sht
y (r dre. This provision can be set
~aside if the organization or the
village is interested solely in total
village development, neglecting
particular attention to children.
2) An additional percentage will
S be set aside for financing further
'e ls ot3) The villagers agree to per-
Be a rea . sport.petuate the original project and
for this reason, set aside a fund to
in a maintain the first project.
ROJECTS can vary from a new
village school to cleansing the
water supply to providing for a
free medical clinic. In each case
however, it is emphasized that the
kO I!village is doing the work itself and
not receiving a hand-out from
FAVORITE "some foreign government.
This is the method that Lipp-
mann implied: the United States
i must cultivate the friendship of
( 'the undeveloped countries of the
world, Strategic position and re-
sources cannot be totally disre-
" BL ACK garded, but they must not be made
the only criteria for giving aid,
H u m a n i t y must be applied
through these voluntary groups -
proving that the United States
can think in terms of individual
betterment as well as collective
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breadth of their vision might be
further enhanced by the inclusion
in their membership of alumni and
other citizens who have distin-
guishied themselves on the national
These developments seem to
imply a new role for the' American
Association of University Profes-
sors and its local chapters. Those
bodies will have to be as serious
in establishing standards for ap-
pointing professors and effectively
governing their professional ethics
as they have been in determining
the conditions under which teach-
ers' contracts are terminated.
As usual, professional freedom
requires effective measures to in-
sure professional responsibility.
OP The AAUP has too often sought
academic freedom without help-
rty ling to provide the regulations
which make it possible.
THE MICHIGAN DAILY MAGAZINE