f - fSixty-Ninth Year
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JRSDAY, JULY 16, 1959 NIGHT EDITOR: THOMAS HAYDEN
By THOMAS 'TURNER
As Foreign Aid
HIS IS NOT idle moralizing. Recently on a-
Pittsburgh streetcar, two card advertise-
nts were placed side by side. On one was the
age of a happy American housewife sug-
ting that stores which sell "Brand Names"
the places at which to shop. On the next
s a CARE ad suggesting that one dollar
uld send 22 pounds of food 'to Europe. The
Id in the center stood, or rather kneeled, in
rk contrast to the housewife.
9nd another event, President Eisenhower's
o of a new farm bill, also occurred last
ek, an1 this event may be more connected
the two advertisements than a quirk glance
OR THE BILL, in addition to carrying the
'usual Democratic high parity payments,
itained the old idea of acreage allotment-.
ying the farmer not to produce. Eisen-
wer's own soil bank program has the same
ect. In fact, Sen. Everett Dirksen (D-Il1.),
minority leader, introduced an Adminis-
tion bill to raise the soil bank program to
if a billion dollars per year by 1963.
The action on the farm problem is prompted
the fact that productive capacity is rapidly
stripping population growth. IA fact, says
Business Week, farm production has risen 23
per cent since 1905 while population has risen
only 15 per cent.
Two answers are suggested. The Administra-
tion, backed by one big farm group, wants low
supports, with, the idea that free market econ-
omics will eventually regulate production, in
the traditional laissez-faire theory.
Other groups favor more farmer marketing
agreements, controlling the prices that way.
All agree that the farmer cannot be forced to
accept too low prices for his produce. Neither
for that matter, can the nation.
UT THE IDEA of curbing production runs
counter to all American tradition. The so-
lution of letting production rise as rapidly as
market play permits is readily available, al-
though of course,' government intervention
would be needed. Completely free enterprise, it
has been shown, cannot ensure the economic
safety of either the farmer or the nation.
Something else must be tried, no matter what
the philosophical consequences.
The solution is simply to keep buying pro-
duce at whatever rate is needed (although as
low as possible), but charging the bill to for-
eign aid. This, of course, is a bookkeeping de-
vice which would artificially solve the problem,
but it is an answer, as good as any that have
so far been devised.
The food would be sent abroad, just as tanks'
and rifles are today. There are plenty of hun-'
gry people in the world; there will be no lack
THE ONLY HITCH in the plan is the pro-
tests of Allies who will see their food-
exporting business evaporate when the prod-
ucts of American agriculture are "dumped" on
the market. But the answer to this is simple.
Tie a proviso onto aid clauses that nations
receiving American surpluses continue within
a small percentage of present purchases. This
is not economic slavery to imperialism, by any
means, since this would be the only provision
specified in the aid plan. The idea is to keep
other smaller agricultural producers from go-
ing under and requiring aid themselves.
Food finds its way ,into people's hearts, a
great deal faster than guns.
SAN JUAN, P. R. - A year ago
this week I arrived in Warsaw,
a member of the first Experiment
in International Living group
sent to a Communist satellite
We had come by train through
East Germany, which lent us val-
In Magdebourg, a Vassar stu-
dent in our group had dropped
an empty ball-point cartridge
out the window onto the station
Immediately, the cartridge be-
came an object of suspicion. A
guard approached cautiously and
nudged it with his foot. Nothing
happened, of course.
BY THIS TIME, a number of
people in the station were watch-
ing. The guard turned to go, and
a cart came down the 'platform,
passing over the cartridge. ,
The fascinated coed had been
watching all along, and as she-
moved away from the window, a
German on the train observed,
"Life here is a circus."
There were other incidents in'
East Germany -- for example,
I nearly lost an unexposed roll
of film to a scowling guard who
thought I'd taken his picture -
but this pen-cartridge episode
seemed to symbolize for us the
suspicion and fear which pre-
When our train crossed the
border, it was impossible not to
notice the contrast between the
courteous, smiling Polish inspec-
tors and those we had left be-
OUR POLISH "brothers" and
"sisters" met us at the station in
Warsaw, and took us to their
homes. This cab ride gave me my
first look at Poland's capital, a
city only partially recovered from
the 90 per cent destruction of
My host, Warsaw University
junior Thomasz Krzeszowski, told
me his home was in one of the
city's nicest sections. This sec-
tion turned out to be several
blocks of four-story brick apart-
ment buildings, faced with plain
Later, I learned the area had
been a pocket of particularly
stubborn resistance in the suici-
dal Warsaw Insurrection of 1944,
and that the Germans had de-
stroyed every building there.
Krzeeszowski lived with his
grandmother, Stanislawa Pret-
kiel, in a cramped two-room flat.
There was a kitchen with a gas
stove but no refrigerator - Mrs.
Prektiel slept there.
There was a bathroom, with a
toilet, a little gas water "heater
and a bath-tub.
THE THIRD ROOM contained
a little table and chairs, where
we ate, a cot on Which I slept, a
piano he could not then afford to
have tuned, and his "bed" for the
interim-a fold-out chair called
(why, I never learned) an "Amer-
My host spoke excellent Eng-
lish - he had studied it for seven
years - but Mrs. Pretkiel under-
stood not a word of it. So she
spoke through Tomasz as an in-
terpreter, telling me of her ex-
She was born near Vilno, a
then-Polish city in Czarist Rus-
sia. She married a technical stu-
dent, and went to St. Petersburg
with him. While he was studying
there, the Bolshevik revolution
DURING World War II, Mrs.
Prektiel lived in Warsaw. When
the insurrection against the Ger-
man occupation took place, her
husband was an active partici-
pant, making bombs.
She and he were both shipped
off to Auschwitz concentration
camp in the south of Poland.
Soon afterward, Mrs. Prektiel
was sent to Ravensbruck, a camp
in Germany. She never saw her
After six months, when she was
near starvation, Mrs. Pretkiel
was liberated with the fall of
Berlin. (She rummaged through
her belongings looking for a pic-
ture taken of her at this time, but
couldn't find it for me.)
KRESZOWSKI'S father, mean-,
while, had been killed outright'
during the insurrection. His
mother has since remarried and
lives with his stepfather in teach-
er's union housing in another
section of Warsaw.
I'm repeating this family-his-
tory in detail not because it is-so
unusual, but rather, because it's
so typical - many of the other
Experimenters heard similar nar-
ratives from their "families."
They gave us insight into the
powerful anti-war, anti-German
feeling which is an important.
facet of modern-day Poland, one
her Soviet "liberators" and mas-
ters are well aware of.
ACCOMPLICES - Shirley Medrano as Lucy, Lydia's maid who
made simplicity pay handsomely, talks over the situation with
George Bedard as Fag, Jack Absolute's servant, in a scene from
last night's production.
In Sheridan's 'Rivals'
EVERAL CURIOUS structures are rising
under the great wings of the University.
ere, is the Dearborn Center. From the looks
it, 'the plans were probably stolen from the*
rd Motor Company's aesthetic gem, the"
On campus are the Mental Health Research
dg. and the Alpha Gamma Delta sorority
use, a combination on which no comment
ed be made..A sorority going up seems con-
xry to the laws of Newton and nature but
it's the way it is.
The multitudes which enter your brick-
eked temple on State St. each day attest to
ur greatness, Michigan, goddess, of a small
rtion of the Huron River.
... once, the heroes
TfO THE STRAINS of chamber
music floating down from the
balcony, the curtain opened last
night on the artificial world of
the 18th century drawing room..
Brilliant costuming, ingenious
sets, *and delightful characteriza-
tions brought moments of sparkle
to a 200-year-old era.
Almost without exception the
cast gave charmingly eccentric
performances with a naturalness
unusual in the presentaiton of
such a "classic."
Chief scene-stealer is Mrs.
Malaprop (Claribel Baird) whose
voluminous vocabulary is unfor-
tunately misplaced, misused, and
amusing. But alas, her "affluence,
over her niece" is almost co-exist-
SUSAN HELLER as the niece,
Lydia, languishes prettily and her
lover is properly charming and
bright-eyed. The problem between,
them is Lydia's quaint notion that
poverty is somehow more roman-
tic than a healthy estate. Poor
child, her mind has been pervert-
ed by reading too many 18th cen-,
Bob Acres proves that exagger-
ation is the better' part of wit.
Donald Ewing as the father is
alternately stern and slyly lecher-
ous in his attempts to get his son
marired off to a young lady of
While such a work as "The Ri-
vals" has by age alone passed
into the realm of accepted, if not
great art it is worth seeing not
for content but for performance.
The conventions of Sheridan's
comedy are tedious much of the
time as the audience reaction
seems to indicate.
* * * .
PERHAPS because they have
been re-used for the past two cen-
turies, the best jokes of the play
are all too familiar. The worst
jokes are received in a stony and
Best line of the production was,
of course, by Mrs. Malaprop.
Standing between two duelers she
,shouts, "Let there be no honor
Technical points often contrib-
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Th N 'edTo eAre
fy WALTER LIPPMANN
DURING THE RECESS at Geneva there has
been a change in the political weather. At
the adjournment on June 20, the official view
in Washington was that . negotiation about
Berlin was perilously near a breakdown in a
crisis of ultimatums and threats. But before
the conference was resumed, the general feel-
ing in the West was that negotiation was not
breaking down, that there may be no ulti-
matum and no crisis, that a provisional ar-
rangement about Berlin might be possible, and
that we are at the beginning of a series of
negotiations, now at Geneva, then. after that
at the summit, and after that at various levels
for at least two years to come.
This change of feeling in Washington, which
brings us nearer to what the British have felt
all along, is based upon a careful reading fo
what Mr. Gromyko said -in a statement issued
on June 28. According to Mr. Gromyko, this
statement merely clears up a misunderstand-
ing by Secretary Herter of what the Soviet
government meant to say before the confer-
ence adjourned. Whether or not this is the
case, whether the statement marks a con-
cession or is merely a clarification the state-
ment itself impressed Washington.
UNFORTUNATELY, this important state-
ment was not adequately reported, in the
American press at the time it was issued, and
it became generally available even to news-
papermen only after it appeared some days'
later in a mimeographed handout from the
The statement was, however, well known at
once to the State Department and to the For-,
eign Office in London. They had seen how ex-
plicitly Mr. Gromyko denied that he was deliv-
ering an ultimatum demanding the surrender
of Western rights in Berlin. They had noted
also that Mr. Gromyko had said he was pro-
posing the terms of a "provisional status of
West Berlin" while attempts - were made to
agree on the reunification of Gernany.
There is no doubt that this. is a crucial mod-
ification of the original Soviet demand of No-
vember 1958 for a permanent settlemgent, of the
status of Berlin. Pending the reunification of
the two Germanys and the restoration of Ber-
lin as the German capital, the West can ask
no less, but also it can ask no more, than that
West Berlin be given a "provisional status."
SINCE LAST November, when Mr. Khrush-
rheu wnenr the nr'ofn+ nhonr . r-f +h-
a permanent solution, hars never been pos-
sible. For the West will not surrender all of
Germany into the Soviet sphere of influence
and the Soviet Union will not surrender the
whole of Germany into the Western sphere
of influence. Both sides are opposed to a re-
united Germany which is neutralized and not
in either sphere of influence. Both sides pre-
fer, the partitian of Germany to 4ny alterna-
tive which is practical'politics.
BUT, LESS THAN an. agreement on a pro-
visional status would be highly inconveni-
ent and dangerous to both sides. For the Rus-
sians, the breakdown of negotiations would
confront them with painful decisions. For it
is inconceivable, unless they had suddenly
gone mad, that they would themselves,. or
through the East Germans, institute a block-
ade of West Berlin. The Western powers are
wholly committed against the possibility of
surrender to a blockade. They would have to
resist or to take reprisals, and it is not pos-
sible that this is not well. known to Mr.
Khrushchev. Enough people have told him this.
He has moreover, as a leader as a matter of
fact never played with fire. He has never
threatened or even hinted at a blockade of
Berlin: What hehas threatened to do.is to
make a peace treaty with East Germany giving
it the theoretical right to deal with us on Ger-
man. questions including the question of Ber-
lin. But it is certain that when and if he makes
a peace treaty with East Germany, he will take
care not to let East Germany do anything
provocative which he himself had not decided
to do. East Germany will still be a satellite.
Mr. Khrushchev will not give this satellite a
For these reasons, the Soviet Union has a
real interest in a provisional arrangement.
THE WEST, for its part, is faced with the
fact that West Berlin lies in a strategic
trap, and that. its security including security
of access depends not on any kind of local de-
fense but on the threat of a world war with
nuclear weapons. This is far from being per-
fect security. For the guarantee will not oper-
ate unless the aggression is big, is unmistak-
able, and is clearly intended. It would operate
against a general blockade. It could not oper-
ate against harassment, against bureaucratic
delays and an infinite variety of temporary but
costly and annoying traffic jams, due to "re-
nairs" of the hvidges, the railrnd and the
a period play. Elizabeth Birbari,
the costume designer, "has built
color and exuberance into the
play that is aided by a great deal
of action, sometimes too much
whirling and twisting abot,
which shows her wares to splen-
THE MUCH-TOUTED moves
able scenery is indeed a curiosity
that nust be seen to be appre-
ciated. It is in perfect accord with
the frankly artificial atmosphere
of the comedy.
'For students of the theater, the
Speech Department's 'attempt to
present drama as it might have
been in the age of the author is
highly instructive. But for 'the
theater patron .who wants. to be
amused or entertained, decadent
though such a goal may be, "The
Rivals" is perhaps a little dull and
THE NORTHLAND Playhouse
seems to have come up with
a real winner in their present of-
fering of "The Diary of Anne
After a somewhat slow start,
the play, starred in and direted
by Francis Lederer, picked up
steam throughout the first act
and moved on to the curtain on.
the same high plane.
Edna Ferber, in the program,
says that "Francis Lederer is the
greatest actor 'in the world to-
day." Although perhapsh otren-
tirely, deserving of such ezra
ordinary. plaudits, Lederer's por-
trayal of Mr. Frank was the
strong point of a strong produc-
tion, and seemed to be the. focal
pointharoundwhich the rest of
the show revolved.
THE REST of the cast was en-
tirely unknown to this writer, but
did very well indeed. As Anne
Frank, Pauline Hahn managed
to appear quite the bratty little'
girl in the first act and then the
growing teen-age "(European
style)- in the second ini an' effe-
tive, if somewhat disconnected
way. Don Rubin was by turns
ganglingly awkward and angry as'
the adolescent Peter Van'Daan.'
The other Van Daans, mother
and father, were appropriately
exuberant and infantile. Lotte'
Stavisky seemed pretty stylized
as Mrs. Frank until idway in
the second act, when she ,explod-
ed at the Van Daans in fine style.
THE SETS WERE realistically
grubby, although the cream-
colored plastic ceiling of the the-
atre offered an often incongruous
contrast. The noise of trucks
rumbling on the road outside the
theatre added effectively to ade-
quate sound effects.
Lederer's direction was percep-
tive and well-paced.
THE SILENT REMINDERS-On the left, a grave In the Red Army Cemetery in Poznan tells of the
bygone days when the Russians were the heroes, the villains the Nazi troopers, and Poland gave thanks
to the Kremlin for her liberation. On the right, a pile of brick and rubble in Warsaw, now overgrown
by weeds, speaks its silent tale of war and destruction that still hangs over the country.
FOURTEEN YEARS AFTER HIROSHIMA:
Japan Working Peacetime A tomic Energy
By KENNETH ISHII
TOKAI, Japan (P) - Two years
ago young Takeji Terunuma
was helping with the chores on
his father's farm here in this
rural village of thatch-roofed
Today at 22, Takeji still works
in Tokai, but at a vastly different
For here on the community's
outskirts, about 60 miles north-
east of Tokyo, builders cleared
away a pine grove and construct-
ed Japan's first atomic research
Takeji works in the radiation
control section. He develops tiny
strips of film worn by institute
scientists, puts the film in a pho-
tometer and reads the amount of
radiation to which the worker
has been exposed.
MANY Japanese, recalling the
agonies of Hiroshima and Naga-
saki, were indignant when the
Japan Atomic Energy Research
Institute was formed in 1956 as
a government-financed, private-
ly run organization.
But the government has gone
out of its way to insist that Ja-
pan's atomic energy research will
be used only for peaceful pur-
poses, not for military ends.
"I guess all this is an inevitable
a small $250,000 research reactor
with a 50-kilowatt energy output
that was bought from the United
States and assembled at the in-
stitute by American technicians.
It began operating in August
But a second research reactor
having a 10,000-kilowatt output,
also of American design, is near-
ing completion and is scheduled
to be fired late this summer. This
will cost $4,444,000.
And work has begun on a third
research reactor of the same en-
ergy output as the second. This
one, designed and built com-
pletely by Japanese, will be ready
sometime in 1961.
Koji Kakihara, scientist in
charge of the 50-kilowatt reactor,
"Japan is at least 10 years be-
hind the United States and Rus-
sia in nuclear research. We also
lag behind such countries as Brit-
ain, France and West Germany.
You might place Japan after
FOR A TIME the three re-
search reactors will be used only
for experimental purposes, to
train future scientists and to pro-
duce radioisotopes for use in
Japan's rapidly expanding medi-
cal, agricultural and engineering
Japan is buying from Britain a
$59,400,000 Calder Hall power
reactor in which the heat pro-
duced is converted into electri-
Tentative plans call for the
Calder Hall reactor -using
natural Uranium and having a
150,000-kilowatt output - to be
installed at Tokai. The power it
generates will be sold commer-
cially, representing the first step
towards the practical, commer-
cial use of atomic energy in Ja-
pan. Its problem of disposing of
Plutonium, 'fissionable by-product
of Uranium's chain reaction, has
been solved by a provision which,
returns the radioactive waste to
The major Western powers can
use Plutonium for the manufac-
ture of nuclear 'weapons, but
Japan has no use for the material
and lacks facilities for its dis-
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