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August 05, 1959 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1959-08-05

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Sixty-Ninth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
i. Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
th Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONs BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
torials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

"By Golly, I Didn't Think I Could Swing It"

THE WILD WEST:
Status Seeker's View
Of Air Conditioning

4

ESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1959

NIGHT EDITOR: THOMAS HAYDEN

Executive Privilege:
A Dangerous Growth

HE DOCTRINE of executive privilege was,
dramatically broadened in 1954 with the
ny-McCarthy hearings. Then, the Eisen-h
wyer Administration proclaimed that officials
the executive branch of the government can
use to produce government records or testi-
before a Congressional committee if they
leve that' the information sought is confi-
itial executive business. The broadening of
executive privilege has culminated in one
the gravest threats to freedom of the press
our time.
dministrations have always tried to avoid
king embarrassing admissions before con--
tees of Congress, but prior to the Army-
Carthy hearings 'it had been for the most
t a matter of dodging Congressional,tnves-
ators. There had been no serious claim of,
actual right to refuse to testify or produce
ords. The broadened executive privilege was
epte'd as a new statement on the constitu-
nal separation of powers between the' three
,nches of government, and at a time when
was popular to oppose McCarthy and sup-
.t the Eisenhower Administration there was
le serious thought given to where such a
icy could lead.
3ut by the end of 1958 the activities of more
n twenty agef ties of government were be-
ping curtained from public view in execu,
e secrecy.
THE FALL of 1958 the executive privilege
vas carried to the ultimate by the Eisen-
Ner Administration, when the Air Force re-
ed to make an inspector general's report
,ilable to the General Accounting Office -
Congressional watchdog on government
ste and inefficiency. This refusal came si-
Itaneously with the Budgeting and Ac-
nting Act, which stated specifically that the

GAO auditors were entitled to access to all de-
partments' books and records.
It was charged that Eisenhower was duty-
bound by the Constitution to see that the laws
be executed, but his response to this , harge has
been hazy and ambiguous. If the Air Force
can refuse to give the GAO records, then any
division of the Defense Department will also'
be able to claim the executive privilege against
the GAO at any time.
There have been many scandals in military
spending, even with the GAO conducting a
post audit, such as the hundreds of bungles
revealed by the Herbert subcommittee of the
House armed services committee. Neither Con-
gress por the American people could feel safe,
then, in letting the men at the Pentagon spend
half of the national budget and hide the rec-
ords that might be embarrassing to those in
power.
W HETHER OR NOT the President or his de-
partment heads can arbitrarily override a
specific law of Congress requiring the produc-
tion of records of "financial transaction and
methods. of business" in all agencies has cre-
ated a vital problem of government. It is cer-
tain to crop up periodically in the 86th Con-
gress as investigating committees tiy to carry
out their function.
It has become obvious that the President,
will not voluntarily take steps to correct. this
situation. He is apparently standing .behind
the 'members of his team responsible for this,
mushrooming evil .of the executive privilege
claim. But if nothing is done, the federal gov-
ernment could become far removed from the
people, thus less responsible. And the people
will increasingly lose contact with the activi-
ties that are being cloaked in secrecy.
-STEPHANIE ROUMELL

By JAMES BOW
ALT LAKE CITY - A canteen.
six-gun or horse are not longer
essential items of Western travel:
but for anyone planning to spend
a few summer weeks west of the
Rockies and south of Great Salt
Lake, there is one sine qua non.
That is an air conditioner.
Westerners boast that their heat
is dry, that when the thermometer
reaches 106 degrees in the shade,
f~why it's no worse -than 80 degrees
in the shade "back East." Of
course there is no shade in most
places and no humid air lies be-{
tween the sun and one's baking
a s 1skin.
So there's practical reason for
air conditioning, although Vance
Packard may disagree. The mod-
ern world of Status Seekers has
invaded this aspect of life in the
Great American West. -
The Texans started it when they
made Dallas the most air-condi-
tioned city south of Duluth. De-
troit took the second step by
putting airconditioners in auto-
mobiles.
t = Today, from Reno to Denver
and from Salt Lake City to San
Antonio, the blast of the coolers
fills nearly every home on the
range. And, as in the famous poem
about boys, air-conditioners come
. .. ,..! in many' sizes and shapes --for
every social status.
e--_
THERE IS the "Model A." This
=k r ris merely a fane blowing across a
a j , block of ice. Easy to install, but
- * .. . ... ..,,. * * .. * opossessing very little social status.
The "swamp cooler" is for the
CARIBBEAN CAROUSEL:
Dissenter Protests 4 gainst Munoz Government'

unenlightened middle class. This
device fills the room with much
humidity and much noise. The
larger window cooler is old-fash-
ioned, but still acceptable in small-
er towns.
The expensive refrigeration unit
is the vogue, both for homes and
offices. With one of these men
wear their suit coats and ladies
don mink.
One can break into the inner
circle with only a few hundred
dollars. This will buy a large
window cooler. Then it's neces-
sary only to move the machine
from room to room, fill it every
two hours with twenty quarts of
water and wipe the excess mois-
ture which runs .An graceful
streams over the carpets and hard-
wood floors.
One must be able to remain cool
in both temper and body, realizing
the pioneers never were blessed
with such luxury.
' DAIL
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
Gfficial publication of The Univer-
sity- of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no ed-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Bild-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1959
VOL. LXIX, NO. 31-S
General Notices
The Cerele Francals. Mr.- Martiet,
prof. of Linguistics at the Sorbonn,
and presently at the summer Linguis-
tics Institute. "Les variations de Is
Prononciation Francaise Contempr-
aine", Wyed., Aug. 5, 8 pan. Rm. 3050
(Lounge) Frieze Bldg.
Lectures
Forum Lecture, Linguistics Institute,
Thurs., Aug. 0, 7:30 p.m., Rackha'
Western Romance," Frederick B. Agard,
Assoc. Prof. of Linguistics, Cornell
Univ.
Concerts
Doctoral Recital: Charle Fisher, p-
anist. Thurs., Aug. 6 8:30 p.m., Rack-
ham Assembly Hall.
Student / Reeltal: Sister Mary Alma
Christa Williams, pianist, Aud. A, An-
gell Hall, instead of Rackham Assembly
Hall, as previously announced. Thurs.,
Aug. 6, 4:15 pm.
Plays
Rogletto, by Verdi; Aug. 5, 6, 7, 8, 10,
at Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre, 8 p.m.
Presented by the Dept. of Speech and
the School of Music. Box office open
from' 10 a.m. daily except Sun., tickets
at $1.75, $1.40, $1.00.
Academic Notices
Physics-Math Seminar, Wed., Aug. 5,
11. a.m.' Rm. 3017 Angell Hall. .Prof.
G. Y. Rainich.'"Waves and Prticles."
Doctoral Examination for Donald
Adam DaDeppo, Civil Enginereing; the-
sis: "An Analysis of Truss Displace-
menits," Wed., Aug. 5, 307 W. Engr.
Bldg., 3:00 p.m. Chairman B. G.
Johnston.
Doctoral Examination for PeterLBor-
wath, Germanic Languages and Liter-'
atures; thesis: "Literatur in Rahmen'
des oesterreichischen Kulturkampfs,
1780-1920," Wed., Aug. 5, 1080 Frieze
Bldg., 2:00 p.m. Chairman, O. 0. Grat.
Placement Notices
There will be a representative at the
Bureau of Appointments from Little
Rock University (Little Rock; Arkan-
stas) on Thurs.,Aug. 6 to interview for
the following positions:
Head of Psychology (Ph.D. pre.
(Continued on Page 3)

f4

4

a
Y

x'r

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Vote of ConfIdene

I
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
EUROPEAN REACTION to the news that
President Eisenhower will confer privately
wth the dictator of all the Russians presents a
striking vote of-confidence. -
Even Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Tru-
man were not trusted exactly this way, al-
though their standing in Europe was great.
To be sure, Prime Minister Macmillan -set'
the precedent with tpis visit to- Moscow this
year. But the British Prime Minister represents
secondary power in the Western entente. Even
if he had wished to make secr'et agreements,
which he did not, the facts of life are that he
did not have the power to make them stick..
The United States, on the other hand, repre-
sents so great a proportion of Allied strength
that, while she would not consider any attempt,
to coerce her friends, nevertheless her power
comes close to being definitive.
That has made iit necessary -not only for
her diplomats to avoid this evil, but even the
appearance of it!

INDEED, it is doubtful if President Eisenhower
could have safely entered into such an ar-
rangement while he wasrelying on John Foster
Dulles for th emajor initiative in American'
policy. The confidence- he enjoys today is pecul-
iarly 'the confidence accorded one man, known.
to- Europe for his leadership in war, for his
balanced attitude during the formulative days
of NATO and for devotion to peace.
The President's oft-repeated firmness about
West Berlin also stands him in good stead in
this delicate situation.
By inviting Khrushchev, the President also
is living up to his oft-repeated statement that
he will meet anybody any time in the cause
of peace.
The cause of peace has been threatened for
eight months by the Kremlin thrust toward
West Berlin. The Allies have long been con-
vinced that one way of avoiding the issue is to -
keep talking-and the talking at Geneva is
about to end. But Europe is encouraged because.
though Geneva ends, negotiations with the
Soviet Union continue.

CAPITAL COMMENTARY:
Task A head for Nixon

By THOMAS TURNER.
SAN JUAN, P.R.-"Things here
aren't as good as you hear, the
earnest young lawyer declared.
He painteda picture of dicta-
torial practice by Go. Luis Munoz
Marin, of vice on the part of Munoz
and corruption on the part of
Munoz' Popular Party... all add-
ing up to second class status for
Puerto Rico.
The young man was Sergio Pena
Clos, American-educated, a lead-
ing member of the Independence
Party.
The- Independentistas have been
picketing the Governors' Confer-
ence here. Sunday, things began
quietly but built up to a noisy
demonstration in which governors'
limousines were spat upon.
* * *
PUERTO RICO has "govern-
ment by one person," Pena
charged, with the legislators
merely "cellos de goma"-rubber
stamps.
Munoz has in the past been an
alcoholic, a user of narcotics and
an adulterer, according to Pena,
who says all this is common knowl-
edge.
Puerto Rico's Law 103,by which
bastards gained legal standing, was
passed to legitimize the governor's
daughters, he said. "Don't get me
wrong," Pena added parentheti-
cally. "I think it's a good law."
Munoz' enemies have tried to use
his vices to destroy him, Pena said.
But they only added to his popu-
larity with the poor.
Munoz, a man whose "mother
didn't like him," whose "father
despised him," has "doublecrossed
everybody" in the course of his
political career, according to Pena.
THE SON of patriot Luis Munoz
Rivera, young Munoz went off to
Georgetown University, then spent
some time in Greenwich Village.
When he returned, Pena said, he
campained not for his father's
Unionist Party, but for the Social-
ists (who were far from social-
istic).
In 1936, Pena continued, Munoz
thought the Liberal Party was sure
to win. So he made speeches tell-
ing people not to vote, that a vote
in a colony was a vote for colonial
status.
The Liberals didn't gain a work-
ing majority. Then Munoz founded
his Popular Party, Pena said, with
the "Communist slogan: Bread,
Land and Liberty."
He was still committed to in-
dependence, Pena pointed out. He
told of an incident in Caguas with
Munoz refusing to speak in sight
of an American flag.
During this same period, Pena
noted, many of today's key Popu-
bares were Nationalists, committed
to independence at any cost.
(Diehard Nationalists were re-
sponsible for the shooting in the
House of Representatives and the
attempt on President Harry Tru-
man's life.)
IN 1940, MUNOZ was elected
governor, now saying "independ-
ence is not an issue in this elec-
tion," Pena said. But the Populares
lacked one vote of controlling the
House until a Socialist went over
to them.
Immediately after switching, the
former Socialist was made Sneaker

man of slogans" who speaks the
language of the poor.
* * *
MUNOZ'S regime is committed
to maintaining colonialism, ac-
cording to Pena, and this colonial-
ism chafes the young lawyer.
"Why do you: suppose there are
no cigarettes made from Puerto
Rico's excelleht tobacco ?" he
asked.
American producers would force
insular competitors out of business,
he said in answer. In 1936, a main-
land soap manufacturer cut prices
50 per cent or more to undersell a
Puerto Rican firm.
At the University of Puerto Rico,
according to Pena, there is "not
such a thing as free opinion."
Professorsicannot say what they
think, he said. Even comment on
an 1863 revolt against Spain is
forbidden for political reasons.
Puerto Rican literature courses
have been eliminated, he con-
tinued.
These changes and others like
them, according to Pena, are part
of a campaign to neutralize the
University as a political force. In
large measure it'has succeeded.
* *
HE WENT ON to tell of a 1948
strike at UPR, which he led with
14 others. The strike, to dramatize
a plea for independence, caused the
school to shut down for six months.

"At least four-fifths" of tre po-
lice force - over 600 men "not
counting detectives"-were on the
campus, he said proudly. They used
tear-gas and truncheons against
the students.
"But they found no guns. We
only needed to talk."
Because of this strike, he de-
clared, there is not to this day a
campus-wide student government.
Pena shook his head again. "You
have to be chosen by God to keep
believing in independence for Puer-
to Rico," he said.
Independentistas have "lots of
trouble" in court, he illustrated.
Then he shrugged, as if to say
that wasn't the half of it.
"Mayors here think they work
only forthe Populares,"hhe said.
City halls are hung with partisan
propaganda he said, and' so are,
the charity hospitals.
Mayors tell the judges what to
do, he charged.
But the worst injustice, accord-
ing to Pena, is Puerto Rico's "co-
lonial" status. There is "taxation
of blood without represenltation,"
he declared, when Puerto Rico
sends soldiers to the American
army without sending senators
and congressmen to Washington.
*4* *
THE ONLY solution to these ills,
Pena maintains, is independence
for Puerto Rico. It would be diffi-
cult for the island to go it alone,
he conceded, but Perto Rico has
he conceded, but Puerto Rico has
and wouldn't be "one of these
banana republics," with frequent
revolutions.
But independence will never
come through a plebiscite, he said.
He compared the situation to 1776
or 1789 when "most Americans"
favored continued colonial status.
His party has been supported by
many voters, according to Pena. In

1948, the party drew 65,000 votes
in its first trip to the polls.
And the total rose to 125,000 in
1952.
In 1956, though, the Statehood
Party cut heavily into this total.
"I think we will disappear," he
admitted sadly, looking forward to
1960 and '64.
He blamed this partly on the
canny Munoz, who gave minority
parties automatic representation in
the legislature, adding more for
the ruling party too. This cut the
Independent leaders off from the
people, he said, for the radio and
papers never mention them and
they have little time for speeches.
When the party dies, pena specu-
lated, some of the survivors may
turn to violence.
He himself, he said, opposes
violence completely, and is even
against capital. punishment.
* * , *,
STATEHOOD? "I would giadly
take it," Pena declared. He ex-'
plained that statehood would elim-
inate most of the ills he had men-
tioned, and is an "honorable"
status.
But Congress will never grant it,
he said definitely.
When it was pointed out that the
fiftieth state of Hawaii has a large
Oriental population, he replied that
the commercial interests are all
headed by men "with names like
Murphy."
The federal government has
never offered statehood in a man-
ner comparable to Eisenhower's
offer of independence when they
want it, he said.
"Sooner 'or later the states will
give us our independence," Pena
said with the dogged optimism of
one "chosen" for a lost cause.
But he remained intrigued by the
notion that statehood is far from
impossible.-

.4

-I

, ,

v

By WILLIAM S. WHITE
VICE-PRESIDENT Richard M, Nixon's
-mission to Moscow. will hardly be more
significant for his Presidential ambitions than
another and far less dramatic mission he must
undertake right here in Washington.
The returning Nixon faces a creeping crisis
in the White House Cabinet over the size,
shape and tone of next year's Federal budget.
Already, the highest figures within the Eisen-
hower Administration are beginning wearily to
discuss this hardy perennial.
In Russia, the Vice-President served as mid-
dleman between President Eisenhower and
Nikita Khrushchev. In Washington, now his
task is this: to find and maintain a politically
strong position about nidway between "spend-
ers" like Arthur Flemming, the Secretary of
Health, Education and Welfare, and "saversn
like Secretary of the Treasury Robert Ander-
son.
The whole of the Cabinet, according to what
some of its members have just told this corres-
pondent, is either frankly pro-Nixon for 1960
or, at worst, certainly friendly toward his nom-
ination for the Presidency. The Vice-President,
nevertheless, is in a peculiarly delicate situa-
tion on the last budget. to be prepared by the
Eisenhower) Administration. No matter what.
sort of budget it turns out to be, Eisenhower
has nothing te gain or to lose. For he is bowing'
dut of public life. -
BUT NIXON has everything to. gain or to
lose, as the man who frankly presents him-
cnf- f- U.. n ~ . I J

All the same, the Vice-President has every
intention to avoid being identified with fiscal
policies having any strongly Old Guard Repub-
lican flavor. What the government does and
does not do in various welfare fields between
now and the 1960 election will be actually more
his concern than that of anybody else. For it
will hurt or help, him more than anybody else.
Whatever the final 1961 budget, he will be
stuck with it, as a part of the regime that
will have made It. Thus his basic necessity is
to control the shaping of that budget.
And within this central strategy his opera-
tions will be complicated. He must not seem
to propose any flat repudiation of Eisenhower's
passionate devotion to budget-balancing. He
must not, on the other hand, allow the new
budget, if he can help it, to indicate that its
sole reason for being is to save money, come
what may.
FOR NIXON'S prospective rival for the 1960
Presidential nomination, Governor Nelson
Rockefeller of New York, is not committed to
any Federal budget, either the present one or
the coming one. Rockefeller will be free to go
entirely his own way on all budget questions--
and free to nail Nixon on any shortcoming in
the new budget.
No one is more wryly aware of this than is
the Vice-President.
Thus, it may be predicted with full confi-
dence, he will now set about a very delicate
approach to mix Flemming attitudes with An-
derson attitudes and so to fix upon a budget

ELECTRONIC ADDITION:
Microscope Aids Zoology Department Research

By WILLIAM ELLIOTT
A NEW RCA electron microscope
has been installed in the zool-
ogy department,
The microscope, purchaseld
through a United States Public
Health Service grantto Profs.
Norman E. Kemp and Alfred M.
Elliott, provides a resolving power
100 times greater than the best
light microscope. Photographic
equipment, accessory to the use
of the electron microscope, will
be provided by the Faculty Re-
search Equipment Fund. This fund
is administered by the Executives
Committee of the Graduate School.
The microscope, installed on the
basement floor of the Natural Sci-
ence Building in May. 1959, is be-
ing used currently by Profs. Kemp
and Elliott in the investigation of
submicroscopic structures of cells.
Dr. Kemp is studying the differ-
ences of development in eggs and
the method of development of the
skin of vertebrates. Prof. Elliott is
working with the fine changes in
the microscopic structure that
may be induced in the protozoan,
Tetrahymena pyriformis, when ex-

have, as yet, installed electron
microscopes. Magnifications up to
100 thousand times normal size
are not uncommon with. these in-
struments. By photographic en-
largement it is possible to achieve
magnifications greater than 300,-
000 times normal size.
The first commercially available,
electron microscope was manufac-
tured by Siemens in Germany in
1939, and RCA came out with
their first model shortly there-

after. This new tool greatly facili-
tated the study of tiny organisms
such as viruses and bacteria, and
also came to be used widely in
metallurgical research.
In 1950, with the introduction
of new sectioning techniques, the
study of animal tissues became
possible. Several kinds of instru-
ments specially designed for thin
sectioning are now available com-
mercially. The ones used by Profs.
Kemp and Elliott were originally

designed at the Rockefeller Insti-
tute for Medical Research in New
York.
The electron microscope has
Opened new frontiers in the study
of anatomy. Medical schools and
institutes for biological research
throughout the country have pio-
neered in the use of this tool in
anatomy, but the opportunities for
further research will certainly at-
tract many biologists in the im-
mediate future.

....:;: :::: . .. 3 i'. . :.:i . . ...

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