See Page 2
Sixty-Eight Years of Editorial Freedom
HUMID, POSSIBLE SHOWERS
VOL. LXII, No. 31S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1959
POLES GREET NIXON -. Cheering Poles met Vice-President
Richard M. Nixon as he toured the country the past two days. His
two-week junket ended, Nixon now heads back to Washington.
N ixon Completes
WARSAW (P)-Winding up his handshaking. tour in the Com.
munist world, Vice-President Richard M. Nixon yesterday called for
an end to racial prejudice and an -Increase in the free ikternational
exchange of ideas.
Nixon flies back to Washington today after 15 days in the Soviet
Union and Poland.
He was the highest United States official to visit the Communist
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Thomas Tur-
ner, 1959-60 Daily Editor, lives in
Puerto Rico where the American
Governors' Conference is presently
By THOMAS TURNER
SAN JUAN - Gov. G. Mennen
Williams told his fellow governors
yesterday he is still unclear how
Michigan will solve its financial
Chairing a discussion group on
"Tax and Revenue Problems"
.which included governors of most
populous states, Gov. Williams
again indicated the defeat of a
personal income tax plan by
Michigan Republicans was a po-
A Republican caucus sand-
wiched, between regular sessions
yesterday gave the impression the
GOP is trying to put up a united
front for 1960.
GOP Talks Politics
Gov. William Stratton of Il-
linois, who called the caucus, said
it was primarily social but didn't
deny politics were discussed.
Still only three Republican gov-
ernors have : committed them-
selves for 1960, all in favor of
Vice-President Richard M. Nixon.
New York Governor Nelson A.
Rockefeller said again he has "no
plans to be a candidate."'
He said he instead would "try
to do a good job in NewYork."'
Dules Warns Governors
Allen Dulles, director of the
Central Intelligence Agency, told
newsmen that "the evidence is
overwhelming that the Soviets in-
tend to use nuclear blackmail
against the United States."
Threats to Britain and France
during the Suez crisis show the
pattern, according to Dulles.
Therefore the United States
must retain its retaliatory power,
Governors who previously heard
cases for Puerto Rican. independ-
ence received letters Tuesday from
"pro liberacion dominicana."
The letters call the Rafael Tru-
jillo dictatorship in the Domini-
can Republic a source of Carib-
bean tension and ask each gov-
ernor to inform his state of the
VIENNA, Austria (P)-The Com-
munist - sponsored seventh World
Youth Festival ended last night
with no decisive victory for either
East or West.
%Anti - Communists, including
many American- delegates, felt
they had made inroads on the Red
propaganda front, but the Com-
munists obviously felt otherwise.
The first such event ever held
outside the Iron Curtain, the 10-
day Festival devoted to peace and
friendship had seen almost con-
tinuous clashes between pro and
A majority of the United States
delegation denounced the festival
as a "tool for the advancement of
About 200 of the 350 Americans
here are planning to tour the So-
viet Union following, the festival.
Give Up Discussion
GENEVA (-) - The Big Four foreign ministers worked last night
to draw up a charter of failure for the 1959 Geneva foreign ministers
conference, one of the longest and least fruitful round of high-level
Secretary of State Christian A. Herter and his Western colleagues
met with Soviet Foreign. Minister Andrei A. Gromyko in disagree-
ment even on the language of their final communique.j
This was not a great source of diplomatic dismay, however.. The
general feeling here is that the forthcoming trips by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev have
Still Being Discussed,
Will Begin Sept. 15
WASHINGTON ()-Soviet Pre-
mier Nikita S. Khrushchev will see
North, South, East and West unde
plans shaping up for' his history-
making tour of the United States.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
is expected to fly to Europe the
last week in August, in his meet-
the-allies jaunt preparatory to a
visit to Russia this fall returning
world since World War II. His
trip is now to be followed by the
exchange of visits between Presi-
dent Dwight D. Eisenhower and
Soviet Premier 'Nikita S. Khrush-
By STEPHANIE ROUMELL
"Vice-President Richard M. Nix-
on has made political capital out-
of his recent trip to the Soviet
Union and to Poland," Prof., John
P. White of the political science
"Nixon has gotten himself into
the public eye," Prof. White con-
"He can now say that he has
been to Russia and conversed there
with that nation's leaders. Wheth-
er or not the beneficial political
effect were a primary intention of
the vice-president in taking the
trip cannot, of course, be said,"
Prof. White cautioned, "but all
politicians must be concerned with
the effect their movements have
on the public eye."
New York Gov. Nelson Rocke-
feller is at the disadvantage in the
run for the GOP nomination since
his concern is with domestic af-
fairs, Prof. White said.
Rockefeller is not in an official
position to hold himself up as an
expert on foreign affairs, he noted.
Prof. White said that Rocke-
feller's final decision will probably
be greatly influenced'by what the
Gallup polls show at convention
time-how Nixon holds up in the
face of Democrat opposition.
"But should the occasion offer
itself, Rockefeller is willing to be-
come President," Prof. White as-
srdWaiting for Chance
"In the meantime he can only
wait and see.
"Rockefeller won't run for exer-
cise," Prof. White maintained. "If
he gets into the Presidential race,
it will be because he thinks he has
a chance to take it."
Prof. Harold K. Jacobson of the
political science department, said
that the basic impetus of Nixon's
trip was the President's assign-
"Nixon went to Russia because
he had to go-the President sent
him," Prof. Jacobson commented,
"and while he played it for all its
political worth, the vice-president
has been in no way neglectful in
carrying jut this international
mission while reaping beneficial
effects in the public eye."
Prof. Jacobson cited the pri-
maries as possibly influencing
Rockefeller's decision as to the
Cheers continued, to echo in
Nixon's ears as he went through
Warsaw yesterday, but the tour
took on a somber note with a visit
ghetto, obliterated in World War
to the site- of Warsaw's Jewish
II by Nazi murderers.
The ghetto is about.one-third
rebuilt, although only a few thou-
sand Jews remain of Poland's pre--
war three million. Nixon walked
through the rubble, looked around
and told newsmen:
"We thinli here of the terrible
suffering of the people "of Warsaw
and Poland. This ruined building
is more than a memorial. It brings
home lessons that we forget too
Calls -for Tolerance
"Men of goodwill, whatever their
economic, political or social phi-
losophy should be united in fight-.
ing against prejudice because we
have here a grim reminder of what
happens when such forces are un-
"As we move into what we hope
will be a period of peace, we must
wage a battle against the forces
that would inspire and stimulate
such religious and racial hatreds."
He also laid a wreath on a mass
grave outside Warsaw in the Pal-
miry Forest, where 2,000 Poles
were slaughtered by the Nazis.
- The Vice-President was the first
foreign dignitary to visit the site,
the Poles said.
He had lunch with Polish offi-'
cials including Communist party
chief Wladyslaw Gomulka and
Premier Josef Cyrankiewicz.
Li t.le Rock
Sc hool Date
LITTLE ROCK (A'-The Lttle.
Rock school board, in an apparent
move to head off interference by'
Gov. Orval E. Faubus, last night
announced it would reopen the
city's four high schools one week'
The. schools, closed by Faubus.
against integration last Sept. 12,
had been scheduled to reopen
Sept. 8 with six Negro students
assigned to once-white schools.
The motion to open earlier was
made at a meeting last night by
Ted Lamb,- one of three, board
members who bitterly oppose Pau-
bus' school policies.
Lamb's motion carried unani-
mously after Supt. Terrull Powell
said \ schools could be ready' by
the Aug. 12 opening date.
"Most of the children planning
to return to Little Rock high
schools this fall have been out of.
the school system for a year,"
"Because of this, I believe there
is a good deal of merit in extend-
ing the term for a few weeks."
Faubus was reported out of the,
city and unavailable for comment
on the board's action.
But he has been highly critical
of the plan to assign Negroes to
white schools and rumors have
held he plans another special ses-
sion of the legislature to stop it.
The governor has suggested that
two. schools be integrated and two
left for segregationists but a board
attorney said this plan was of
A. hastily called August, 1958,
session gave Faubus the law under
which he closed Little Rock's four
high schools to keep seven Ne-
groes from attending one of them,
The school closing law was
struck down in federal court
earlier this year.
Sixty Negroes expressed a desire
to attend white schools when the
board registered students two
weeks ago. All but six were as-
signed to Central and three to Hall
The collapse of the talks was
offset by the Eisenhower-Khrush-
chev exchange of visits which will
keep up the East-West dialogue--
even though the original Soviet
threat to Berlin remains.
The 10-week conference closes
down today with a, public ses-
sion. Herter flies home Thursday.
Western informants said Gro-
myko tried to get a communique
listing.a catalogue of areas of
agreement and disagreement. But
the West insisted on a short, terse
The West's idea was to call at-
tention in the communique to the
fact that the ministers will be in
New York in mid-September for
the United Nations General As-
sembly meeting, where they would
have a chance to fix a date for
resuming the talks on Berlin.
Silent on Opinions
Western informants said both'
sides agree not to make public
their supposedly final positions on
Berlin set forth in papers July 28.
The informants indicated this
was based on the belief it would
be better not to have these posi-
'tions on. record in order to allow
room for maneuver in any future
Freneh and West German offi-
cials were publicly proclaiming a
kind of victory for the West be-
cause the Soviet Union has not
followed through with its threats
to drive the, West out of Berlin.
Dulls Red Offensive
The Americans and the British
agreed that the combination of
the conference and the visits has
taken the steam out of the Soviet
They do not expect the Rus-
sians will be able to gain momen-
tum for a new thrust on Berlin
for quite a while.
But officials of all four Western
delegations were cautious in what-
ever optimism they expressed.
They stressed the fact that the
Soviets have by no means with-
drawn their challenge to Berlin
and that they can put the screws
on the Communist-surrounded,
city whenever they feel the time
There was little excitement in
Geneva as the conference went
into its final phase.
More talk was heard about the
visit than about threats to Berlin.
RIGOLETTO-Gilda and Rigoletto, principals in Verdi's opera,
will be seen as the speech department offers its final presentation
of the summer season at 8:34 tonight in Lydia Mendelssohn
Verdi's'igo le tto'Ends
U Speech Productions
By KATHEEN MOORE
Arias from Verdi's "Rigoletto" will ring through Lydia Mendels-
sohn Theatre after the curtain rises at 8 p.m. today on the speeoh
department's final summer production. .
Opera production entails a number of technical and interpreta-
tional difficulties,,Prof. Jack E. Bender of the speech department
explained yesterday. He is stage director of the current, production,
while Prof. Josef Blatt of the ,$
Ike's Trip Studied
Diplomats said it is not yet de-
cided whether the President will
try to 'see the 'chiefs of Britain,
France and Germany just at Paris
or will stop off elsewhere too -
such as at London.
But as for Khrushchev's 13-day
visit to this country, expected to
start Sept. 15, United States au-
thorities hope to impress the
Kremlin No. 1 man with a wide
view of American life.
A prime aim in inviting Khrush-
chev here has been to dispel mis-
conceptions United States officials
feel Khrushchev holds about the
There are some things Khrush-
chev wants to see here. There are
others Washington would like to
show him. The exact arrange-
ments are still under negotiation.
An itinerary now under discus-
sion was reported yesterday to in-
elude these possible stopping points
Washington, for a three-day
official visit which would include
two state dinners given for him
and one Khrushchev would give
for President Eisenhower in re-
New York, where United Nations
officials said Khrushchev may wish
to address the General Assembly.
Interest in Farm
Chicago, and a farm in the Mid-
west (Khrushchev has let it be
known he would like to see an
San Francisco, a favorite of for-
An industrial area (which United
States officials want Khrushchev
to see), perhaps Pittsburgh or De-
Khrushchev's trip to this coun-
try will be the first by a Russian
government head, whether under
the Czarist regimes or the Com-
There were indications that in
many places he .would be.consid-
music school acts as music direc-
"Everything in the production
of an opera stems from the
music," Prof. Bender noted, but
"in composition, ,the music stems
frbm the drama."
"Opera is drama in terms of the
musical statement of an original
statement," he said, and the prob- 1
lem in production lies in the factj
that "alk those musical statements
must be interpreted by the actor."
By way of explanation, Prof.
Bender said an actor must do
more than just move on stage in1
opera - he must move "as the
Director and actor are "exceed-R
ingly limited" in opera, he con-,
tinued, because the dramatic im-
portance and meaning of the 1i-
bretto is determined to a large
extent by the score.
Another limiting factor in opera
stems from the audience's obvious
desire to hear the music and the
words, he added.
In drama, an actor who turns
his back on the audience to deliver
lines is accepted, Prof. Bender
pointed out, but such a stage1
policy in opera is impossible if the
audience is to hear the full quality
of the music.
Often, he emphasized, the actor
can't even turn to the side with-
out' losing his ability to project the
musical dialogue to the whole
One of the major problems Prof.'
Bender encountered in the pro-"
duction of "Rigoletto" is the pres-
entation of the title role, he said.
The effect of the "humpback,
physically-distorted individual" is
partially created with the addition
of padding to the costume, he
said, but the actor must stoop
slightly to achieve a realistic in-
terpretation of Rigoletto's physi-
Padded Costume Used
But stooping, he continued,
makes it much more difficult to
sing, so the current Rigoletto
uses the padded costume, slight
stoop and a dragging leg to create
realism without impairing his
singing ability too extensively.
The opera contains a "certain
amount of double casting," Prof.
RULED OUT 18 MONTHS AGO:
Eisenhower's A ttitudes C hange A bout USSR Trip
.GENEVA ()-Soon after visit-
ing America next month .Nikita-
Khrushchev may travel to Peiping
for a meeting with leaders of the
Communist world that is being
called by Red China's' MaoTze-£
This possibility was reported
last night by Allied diplomats.
One of the purposes of any such,
trip, according to the informants,t
would be for Khrushchev to, con-t
sult with his Red partners after.
visiting President Dwight D. Ei-t
senhower in Washington and be-
fore receiving him in Moscow. t
Western governments. are aware
that the Chinese Reds ,Are ar-
ranging a big jaxpboree to mark'
the 10th anniversary of the found-f
ing' of their state, around Oct. 1.
Top men of most of the Com-
munist lands, incliding Russia,
are expected to attend what may
turn into a sort of "Red summit"
Khrushchev could hardly fail to
discuss Red China's role in the Far
East during his meetings with the
Nor could he fail to press Pei-l
ping's claims to membership in the1
United Nations if he should seize
a chance of addressing the General
Assembly in mid-September.
Mao would want to know all the
details behind any such exercises.l
He presumably would have some"
ideas of his own to press and
Khrushchev would be in a-position
to do so on his behalf when Presi-
dent Eisenhower gets to the Soviet
A 26-year-old University gradu-
ate student, despondent over the
break-up of his six-week-old mar-
WASHINGTON (M' -- Eighteen
months ago President Dwight D.
Eisenhower expressly ruled out
the idea of .inviting Soviet Pre-
mier Nikita S. Khrushchev to the
How times have -changed shows
in the sequence of remarks Presi-
dent Eisenhower made in replying
to questions of reporters at his
In a Feb. 15, 1958, letter to
Nikolai Bulganin, then Premier of
Soviet Russia, President Eisen-
hower suggested that "leaders of
thought and influential citizens"
of the Soviet Union should visit
the United States.
This suggestion prompted a re-
porter to ask President Eisenhow-
er at his Feb. 26, 1958, news con-
ference, whether his letter consti-
tuted an invitation to Bulganin
anid Khhrhhev.the fCommunis~t
sults on America of a visit by Mr.
Khrushchev," President Eisen-
On Jan. 28, 1959, a reporter.
queried whether his meeting with
Soviet Deputy Premier Anastas I.
Mikoyan did not change his feel-
ings about a Khrushchev visit.
"You couldn't do this in the in-
formal way that Mr. Mikoyan did
. . , you couldn't do this with the
head of the government, it would
be something entirely different,"
President Eisenhower answered.
On Feb. 10, 1959, a reporter
asked him to comment on a
Khrushchev speech which con-
tained a suggestion that Presi-
dent Eisenhower visit Russia.
"I would have to wait for some
more official type of, and more,
let us say, persuasive kind of invi-
tation than that," was the Presi-
After the Berlin crisis broke
out President Eisenhower was
asked at almost every news con-
ference to comment on a summit
meeting in general and about a
meeting with Khrushchev in par-
What he said on March 25 al-
ready indicated the President
may have come to feel that he
that can be valid on both sides...
that he (Khrushchev) has got to
get into-- the picture pretty well,"
President Eisenhower answered.
He repeated this on May 5, a
few days before the foreign min-
isters met in Geneva, saying:
"All of us do know that with-
in the Soviet regime there is only
one man who can talk authorita-
On June 17 President Eisen-
hower reiterated his dislike of the
summit concept replacing what
he .called a conference of special-
ists. This, he said, is "a step back-'
ward in diplomacy. This is like
Alexander and Napoleon meeting"
on a raft in a river and 'settling
the fate of the world."
On July 8 President Eisenhower
made a distinction between what
he called a ceremonial visit and
a meeting with Khrushchev to
By The Associated Press
JACKSON, Miss. -- Mississip-.
pians voted in what appeared to
be record numbers for governor
and other( state officers, in yes-.
terday's Democratic primary.
Voting was heavy throughout
the state from the start of bal-
loting and political observers ex-
pected the total count to exceed
the record 436,000 votes cast in'
the first primary of 1955.
WASHINGTON -- The Senate
Housing Subcommittee yesterday
decided against trying to over-
ride President -Dwight D. 'Eisen-
hower's housing veto, and to try
instead to enact a whittled-down
The 5-4 vote, amounted to rec-
ognition that, the two-thirds mar-
gin needed to override could not
be achieved. President Eisenhow-.
er's record of never having a veto
overridden thus escaped even a
test this time.